Timeline of Orthodoxy in New Zealand
|This article forms part of the series|
|Orthodoxy in NZ - Timeline |
Gk Orthodox Archd. of ANZ
|Greek - Met Amphilochios|
Antiochian - Apr Jack Witbrock
ROCOR - Apr Vladimir Boikov
Serbian - Apr Velibor Bojičić
Romanian - Bp Mihail
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This is a timeline of the Orthodox presence in New Zealand.
Immigrants from the Middle East (to 1916)
- 1850s: Massacres of Orthodox Christians by the Ottoman Turks in Lebanon, Mount Lebanon, Syria, and other parts of the Middle East see a great displacement of Orthodox from these regions.
- 1860s: Numbers of Arabic speaking Orthodox arrive in Australia and some move from there to New Zealand.
- 1880s: Discovery of gold, especially around Dunedin, sees significant arrivals of Orthodox from Eastern Europe and the Middle East in New Zealand. Dunedin becomes financial capital of New Zealand.
- 1890s: Russian, Syrian, and Greeks, set up joint community worship groups where all involved are welcome.
- 1898: Greek speaking Greek Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch and All the East deposed for prohibiting services in the common language.
- 1899: Patriarch of Constantinople refuses to recognise newly elected Arabic speaking Greek Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch and All the East, and agitates against all Arabic speakers. This fractures the Orthodox communities around the world.
- Local communities in Australia consider Patriarch of Jerusalem neutral in this dispute and ask him to send out priests for Australasia. Priests sent, one each to Sydney and Melbourne.
- 1902: Church of Greece seizes responsibility for Greek Orthodox parishes in Australasia from the Church of Jerusalem.
- 1908: Ecumenical Patriarchate arbitrates, prohibits any language other than church Greek in these churches, and assigns jurisdiction of Greek Orthodox parishes in Australasia to the Church of Greece.
- 1910: Hmk Nicholas (Manovitch) (said to be Russian under Antioch), the first Orthodox priest to reside in New Zealand, arrives.
- First Orthodox church in New Zealand, dedicated to St Michael, purpose built in Dunedin.
- 1911 Jan 11: Free of debt, St. Michael Dunedin is consecrated by Archimandrite Nicholas (Manovitch) presumably under Patriarchal faculty.
- 1913: V Rev Fr Nicholas Shehadie appointed Patriarchal Exarch for Australia and New Zealand by Patriarch Gregorious Haddad of Antioch.
- Archimandrite Nicholas (Manovitch) leaves New Zealand for Sydney, Australia. No priest left in New Zealand.
- 1916: Exarch Nicholas Shehadie visits New Zealand for 2-3 months. Conducts services throughout New Zealand. After his departure, again there is no Orthodox priest in New Zealand.
Immigrants from Russia and Turkey (1917-1947)
- 1917: Bolshevik revolution in Russia sees large numbers of Russians and allied peoples displaced and fleeing genocidal massacres there and in satellite countries over the next 10 years. Many flee to western Europe, and then the Americas; others, via Asian Russia, flee to China, Japan, Southeast Asia and Australasia.
- 1919: Exarchate of Australia and New Zealand (Antiochian) is confirmed as permanent by Patriarch of Antioch.
- 1920s: Millions of people displaced due to genocidal massacres in modern Turkey following the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire. Large numbers of Orthodox flee to the Americas and Australasia.
- 1924 Mar 7: Greek Orthodox Metropolis of Australia and New Zealand established by Ecumenical Patriarchate.
- 1928: Metropolitan Christoforos (Knitis) deposed, exiled to Samos.
- 1931 Sep 18: Timotheos (Evangelinidis) elected Metropolitan of Australia and New Zealand (Greek) by Ecumenical Patriarchate.
- 1932 Jul 26: Metropolitan Timotheos (Evangelinidis) arrives in Australia.
- 1937: Archimandrite Antonious (Mobayed) (Antiochian) arrives in New Zealand and stays for several months. Asks local Anglican clergy, who agree, to care for local Orthodox during his absences. Fr Antonious last visits New Zealand in 1939.
- 1939 to 1945: Second World War seals all borders.
- 1947 Apr 22: Archimandrite Theophylactos (Papathanasopoulos) elected Metropolitan of Australia and New Zealand (Greek) by Ecumenical Patriarchate.
Immigrants from the Middle East and Greece (1948-1974)
- 1948 to 1955: Following the Second World War large numbers of Orthodox are again displaced from their former homelands. Arabic speaking Orthodox move out of Syria, Lebanon, Palestine, Jordan, Iraq, and Egypt to the new world, especially where their compatriots had already established settlements generations before. Greek speaking Orthodox move out of mainland Greece, and especially the Aegean Islands, and from Egypt, to previously populated new world countries. Many move to New Zealand.
- 1948 Nov: Bishop Theodore (Rafalsky) (ROCOR) arrives in Australia.
- 1950s: Russian Orthodox churches established in Auckland, Wellington and Christchurch by Mitred Archpriest Alexey Godyaew who travels extensively pastoring the parishes until his retirement.
- 1958 Aug 2: Metropolitan Theophylactos (Papathanasopoulos) killed in car accident in Melbourne.
- 1959 Apr 27: Metropolitan Ezekiel (Tsoukalas) newly elected Greek Metropolitan of Australia and New Zealand arrives in Australia.
- Sep 1: Greek Orthodox Metropolis of Australia and New Zealand becomes the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of Australia and New Zealand. Metropolitan Ezekiel elevated to Archbishop.
- 1963: Serbian Orthodox Church establishes first parish, Saint Sava in Wellington, with priest Dusan Kurizda.
- 1969: Metropolitan Iakovos of Philadelphia, Exarch of the Ecumenical Patriarchate, arrives in Australia to consider future of the Greek churches of Australia and of New Zealand.
- 1970 Jan: Patriarchate of Constantinople creates Greek Orthodox Metropolis of New Zealand separating it from the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of Australia. Dionysios (Psiahas) elected Metropolitan of New Zealand and Exarch of India, Korea and Japan.
- 1971: An Anglican priest, Rev Jack Witbrock, converts to Orthodoxy.
- 1972 Sep: Bishop Gibran ordains Jack Witbrock to the diaconate and priesthood in Saint Nicholas Church, Melbourne. Appoints Fr Jack as Rector of Saint Michael Church, Dunedin. Fr Jack visits Dunedin, NZ a month later.
- 1973 Antiochian Mission in Christchurch begins, regularly visited by Fr Jack.
- 1974 Antiochian Mission in Auckland begins, regularly visited by Fr Jack until 1978.
- 1974 Dec 30: First local Serbian Orthodox hierarch of Australia and New Zealand, Bishop Nikolai (Mrdja), enthroned in Australia.
Immigrants from Lebanon and Eastern Europe (1975-1999)
- 1975-1985: Lebanese Civil War sees displacement of large numbers of Arabic speaking Orthodox to the new world countries, especially where communities had been previously established. Significant numbers arrive in Auckland, Wellington, and Dunedin.
- 1976: Romanian Orthodox Church establishes a parish in Wellington, the Dormition of the Mother of God, with priest George Speranta.
- 1980: Mitred Archpriest Alexey Godyaew retires.
- 1980: Hieromonk Ambrose (Mooney) returns from monastic formation in Serbia and is seconded by the Serbian Church to the Russian Church. He assumes the parish duties of Archpriest Alexey Godyaew in NZ's three Russian parishes.
- 1984: Fr Jack is transferred to Christchurch.
- 1986: Hieromonk Ambrose (Mooney) establishes parish of St Michael the Archangel in Palmerston North to serve Russians, Serbs and converts.
- 1987: Allan Eades ordained deacon and then priest by Bishop Gibran in Auckland, who changes his name to Ilyan, the Arabic equivalent. Fr Ilyan Eades is appointed Rector of the Antiochian Church in Auckland, moving there from Te Awamutu in the Waikato Region.
- 1991: Soviet Union disintegrates. Russian borders opened, allowing emigration.
- Mar 19: Mitred Archpriest Alexey Godyaew reposes. Funeral conducted by Greek, Romanian and Serbian clergy.
- 1991-2001: Large numbers of citizens of formerly Communist countries emigrate to countries where communities had been established in prior generations. Significant numbers move to New Zealand, especially to Auckland, Wellington, and Christchurch, the majority being Russians, Ukrainians and Serbs sponsored by the Slavic Benevolent Society founded by Hieromonk Ambrose (Mooney). The three Russian parishes each grow from a few dozen members to 1-2 thousand each, with 5000 in Auckland. Romanian-speaking community in New Zealand greatly strengthened by new arrivals.
- 1992 Oct: Fr Ilyan Eades transferred to be the rector of St Michael Church, Dunedin. He also establishes and pastors Invercargill mission.
- 1996 Nov: The first Pastoral visit by His All-Holiness Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew I to New Zealand
- 1996: Exarchate of India removed from Greek Orthodox Metropolis of New Zealand and allocated to the newly-established (Greek) Orthodox Metropolitanate of Hong Kong and Southeast Asia.
- 1998 Nov: Hutt Valley Mission of Saint John (Antiochian) commences with first visit by Fr Jack Witbrock
- 1999 Jan 16: Repose of Bishop Gibran Ramlawey.
- Palm Sunday: Dr Ian Nield and his family received into Orthodoxy
- Oct: Election and consecration of Archimandrite Paul Saliba as Metropolitan Archbishop of Australia and New Zealand (Antiochian).
Local Born Clergy Flourish (2000-present)
- 2000 Jul: Metropolitan Archbishop Paul makes first archpastoral visit to New Zealand. Fr Jack Witbrock and Fr Ilyan Eades elevated to archpriest. Dr Nield invited to join Archdiocesan board.
- Sep: First Antiochian eastern-rite Divine Liturgy in Wellington is held at the Anglican Church of Saint Barnabas, Roseneath, and organised by Dr Nield.
- Oct 22: Ihsan Bosauder of Auckland ordained as Deacon George Bosauder by Met Abp Paul at Saint Nicholas Church Bankstown, NSW, Australia. Returned to Auckland on 30 October
- Nov 12: Dcn George commenced Sunday services at Howick, Auckland.
- 2001 April: First Clergy Conference of Australia and New Zealand (Antiochian) held in Sydney Australia.
- Nov 11: Dcn George ordained to the priesthood by Met Abp Paul at Saint Ignatius Church Auckland.
- 2002 May: Second Clergy Conference of Australia and New Zealand (Antiochian) held in Sydney Australia.
- 2003 Jan: First NZ Clergy Conference (Antiochian) chaired by Abp Paul at Frederic Wallis House, Lower Hutt. On Saturday, Dr Ian Nield ordained deacon and Fr Dcn Michael Elder ordained priest. On Sunday Fr Dcn Ian Nield ordained priest and Fr Victor Didenco, previously canonically released from the Moldovan Orthodox Church, received into Antiochian Archdiocese and appointed head of mission in Christchurch.
- February: Priest Arkady Trashkov appointed to Saint Nicholas Russian parish in Christchurch.
- April: Third Clergy Conference of Australia and New Zealand (Antiochian) held in Melbourne Australia.
- July: New Zealand Deanery of the Antiochian Orthodox Archdiocese of Australia and New Zealand created. Archpriest Jack Witbrock appointed Dean.
- Metropolitan Dionysios (Psiahas) of New Zealand elected Metropolitan of Proussa. Joseph (Harkiolakis) elected Metropolitan of New Zealand, Exarch of Korea and Japan (Greek).
- Nov: Met Joseph asks Met Abp Paul to release Fr Ilyan to Greek Metropolis of New Zealand. Fr Ilyan says he is happy with Antioch; Met Abp Paul declines to release him.
- 2004 May: Fourth Clergy Conference of Australia and New Zealand (Antiochian) held in Wollongong, Australia.
- Orthodox Metropolis of Korea (EP) created, taking with it the exarchate of Japan. Church of Japan supported by Church of Russia objects to creation of parallel jurisdiction within its territory. Sotirios (Trambas), former auxiliary bishop to the Metropolitan of New Zealand, elected first metropolitan of Korea.
- 2005 Mar 25: Second NZ Clergy Conference (Antiochian). Max Athanasius Perkins ordained to the diaconate on the next day to serve the Antiochian Mission in Christchurch.
- May: Fifth Clergy Conference of Australia and New Zealand (Antiochian) held in Wollongong, Australia.
- June: Archpriest Vladimir Boikov appointed Rector of Auckland's Russian Orthodox parish and Dean of Russian parishes in New Zealand.
- Aug: Metropolitan Joseph (Harkiolakis) resigns as Greek Orthodox Metropolitan of New Zealand and moves to Athens.
- Oct: Bishop Amphilochios (Tsoukos) elected Metropolitan of New Zealand.
- Nov: Monastery of St Andrew founded.
- Dec: Archpriest Ilyan Eades again declines an offer to join the Greek Orthodox Metropolis of New Zealand, with full-time salary to be paid by Greek government.
- Dec 4: John Hubbard ordained to the diaconate to serve at St George Church (Antiochian) in Auckland.
- 2006 May: Sixth Clergy Conference of Australia and New Zealand (Antiochian) held in Wollongong, Australia. New Zealand Deanery meeting in Wollongong presided over by Met. Abp Paul has wide-ranging discussions for the future of the Orthodox Church in New Zealand. Further discussions held in plenary session of Conference.
- 2008 Feb: Deacon Eugene Koulanov ordained to the Priesthood to serve as second priest in Christ the Saviour Russian parish in Auckland.
- Antiochian Orthodox Archdiocese of Australia and New Zealand, Deanery of New Zealand
- Chryssavgis, Fr M., & Chryssavgis, Fr J., Persons and Events in Orthodoxy: Historical Moments in the development of Orthodox Christianity (with a chapter on Australian Orthodoxy), Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of Australia, 1985.
- Institutional Profile of St Andrew's Greek Orthodox Theological College.
- History of the Russian Orthodox Church in Australia - 2.4MB file
- Major events in the history of the Greek Orthodox Church in Australia.
- History of the Holy Orthodox Church: Orthodoxy in Australia