Metropolis of Gangra
The Metropolis of Gangra also Metropolis of Gaggra[note 1] was originally a bishopric see subjugated to the Metropolis of Ankyra, and later a metropolitan see of the Province of Paphlagonia, until the early 20th century. It was under the jurisdiction of the Patriarchate of Constantinople.
During the Byzantine period it was in charge of initially five, then four and finally three bishoprics. During the 7th century it ranked 15th among the metropolises of the Patriarchate of Constantinople. In the 13th century it was demoted to the 18th position. In the 14th century it briefly assumed the administration of the sees of Ankyra (twice), Sebasteia, Pompeiopolis and Gerane.
Hypatius of Gangra the Wonderworker, was Bishop here, participating in the First Ecumenical Council at Nicea, where he supported Saint Athanasius the Great against the Arian heresy.
Synod of Gangra
In the 4th century the town was the scene of an important ecclesiastical synod, the Synod of Gangra. Conjectures as to the date of this synod vary from 341 to 376. All that can be affirmed with certainty is that it was held about the middle of the 4th century. The synodal letter states that twenty-one bishops assembled to take action concerning Eustathius of Sebaste and his followers, who condemned marriage, disparaged the offices of the church, held conventicles of their own, wore a peculiar dress, denounced riches, and affected especial sanctity. The synod condemned the Eustathian practices, declaring however, with remarkable moderation, that it was not virginity that was condemned, but the dishonouring of marriage; not poverty, but the disparagement of honest and benevolent wealth; not asceticism, but spiritual pride; not individual piety, but dishonouring the house of God. The twenty canons of Gangra were declared ecumenical by the Council of Chalcedon, 451.