Timeline of Orthodoxy in America
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Orthodoxy in America
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American Orthodox Bibliography
Byzantines on OCA autocephaly
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AOI - EOCS - IOCC - OCEC
OCF - OCL - OCMC - OCPM - OCLife
OISM - OTSA - SCOBA - SOCHA
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Society of Clerks Secular of St. Basil
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The History of Orthodoxy in America is complex and resists any easy categorizations or explanations.
Early Visits and Missions (530-1900)
- 530 St. Brendan the Navigator lands in Newfoundland, Canada, establishing a short-lived community of Irish monks.
- 1738 Conversion of Col. Philip Ludwell III of Virginia at Russian church in London.
- 1741 Divine Liturgy celebrated on a Russian ship off the coast of Alaska.
- 1767 Community of Orthodox Greeks establishes itself in New Smyrna, Spanish Florida.
- 1787 The US Constitution is drafted in Philadelphia, embodying the ideal of secular government with deliberate separation of "church and state" (First Amendment).
- 1794 Missionaries, including Herman of Alaska, arrive at Kodiak Island, bringing Orthodoxy to Russian Alaska.
- 1796 Martyrdom of Juvenaly of Alaska.
- 1799 Ioasaph (Bolotov) consecrated in Irkutsk as first bishop for Alaska, but dies in a shipwreck during his return.
- 1803 Louisiana Purchase expands American territory beyond Mississippi River.
- 1804 The double-headed eagle became a motif widely used in Tlingit art, after the Russian-Tlingit Battle of Sitka in 1804, when Aleksandr Baranov, the first governor of colonial Russian Alaska and manager of the Russian-America Company, presented the Kiks.adi Sitka Tlingit leaders with a large medallion on which was found the Russian imperial symbol.
- 1816 Martyrdom of Peter the Aleut near San Francisco.
- 1817 Russian colony of Fort Ross established 60 miles from San Francisco.
- 1819 Various Spanish territories ceded to United States, including Florida.
- 1824 Fr. John Veniaminov comes to Unalaska, Alaska.
- 1825 First native priest, Jacob Netsvetov.
- 1834 Fr. John Veniaminov moves to Sitka, Alaska; liturgy and catechism translated into Aleut.
- 1830 Saints Peter and Paul Russian Orthodox Church is founded on Saint Paul Island (Alaska), in the Bering Sea.
- 1836 Imperial ukaz regarding Alaskan education issued from Czar Nicholas I that students were to become faithful members of the Orthodox Church, loyal subjects of the Czar, and loyal citizens; Fr. John Veniaminov returns to Russia.
- 1837 Death of Herman of Alaska on Spruce Island.
- 1840 Consecration of Fr. John Veniaminov as bishop with the name Innocent.
- 1841 Return of Innocent of Alaska to Sitka; sale of Fort Ross property to an American citizen; pastoral school established in Sitka.
- 1843 First mission school for the Eskimos was established at Nushagak by Russian-Greek Orthodox Church.
- 1844 Formation of seminary in Sitka.
- 1845 Former Republic of Texas joins United States.
- 1846 Pacific Northwest received by United States via treaty with United Kingdom.
- 1848 Consecration of St. Michael Cathedral in Sitka; Pacific Southwest won from Mexico by United States.
- 1850 Alaskan episcopal see and seminary moved to Yakutsk, Russia.
- 1858 Peter (Lysakov) consecrated as auxiliary bishop for Alaska with Innocent's primary see moved to Yakutsk.
- 1864 Holy Trinity Church, first Orthodox parish established on United States soil in New Orleans, Louisiana, by Greeks.
- 1865 First Divine Liturgy celebrated in New York City, by Fr. Agapius Honcharenko.
- 1867 Alaska purchased by United States from Russia; Bp. Paul (Popov) succeeds Bp. Peter.
- 1868 First Russian parish established in US territory in San Francisco, California; Innocent of Alaska becomes Metropolitan of Moscow.
- 1870 Diocese of the Aleutian Islands and Alaska formed by the Church of Russia with Bp. John (Mitropolsky) as ruling hierarch; Nicholas Bjerring, a Roman Catholic layman, converts to Orthodoxy and becomes priest of a Russian chapel in New York City.
- 1871-72 Visit of Russian Grand Duke Alexis to the United States.
- 1872 See of the Aleutians diocese moved to San Francisco, placing it outside the defined boundaries of the diocese (i.e., Alaska).
- 1876 Bp. John (Mitropolsky) recalled to Russia.
- 1879 Bp. Nestor (Zass) succeeds John (Metropolsky).
- 1882 Bp. Nestor (Zass) drowns in Bering Sea.
- 1883 Fr. Nicholas Bjerring, priest of the Russian chapel in New York City, converts to Presbyterianism.
- 1886-1895 In the face of their shamans' inability to treat Old World diseases including smallpox, many Tlingit people (an indigenous people of the Pacific Northwest Coast of North America), converted to Orthodox Christianity.[note 1]
- 1888 Bp. Vladimir (Sokolovsky) becomes Bishop of the Aleutians and Alaska.
- 1890-1917 Greek Immigration to USA: widespread unemployment and economic problems led to migrations to the US of 450,000 Greeks, one-fifth of the total population.
- 1891 Fr. Alexis Toth, a Uniate priest, petitions to be received along with his parish in Minneapolis into the Russian church; Bp. Nicholas (Adoratsky) assigned as Bishop of Alaska but is transferred before taking up his post; Nicholas (Ziorov) becomes ruling bishop of the Alaskan diocese.
- 1892 Fr. Alexis Toth and his parish in Minneapolis received into Russian church; Carpatho-Russian Uniate parishes in Illinois, Connecticut, and several in Pennsylvania soon follow; first Serbian parish established in Jackson, California; Holy Trinity Greek Orthodox parish founded in New York City; Greek and Russian parishes founded in Chicago; first American-born person ordained, Fr. Sebastian Dabovich.
- 1895 Archim. Raphael (Hawaweeny) arrives in America; Fr. John Kochurov arrives in America and becomes priest of the Russian parish in Chicago; Fr. Anatole (Kamensky) arrives in Alaska; first Syrian parish in Brooklyn, New York, founded by Raphael of Brooklyn; first clergy conference, in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania.
- 1896 Bp. Nicholas (Ziorov) reports to the Holy Synod of Russia that "the commemoration of the Emperor and the Reigning House during the divine services brings forth dismay and apprehension among Orthodox in America of non-Russian background"; Alexander Hotovitsky appointed as rector in New York; Holy Trinity Greek Orthodox Church is chartered by a special act of the New York State Legislature, being the first Greek Church founded in New York.
- 1897 Bp. Nicholas (Ziorov) and Fr. Sebastian Dabovich petition Church of Serbia to oversee Serbian parishes in America, but are rebuffed due to an inability to support the infrastructure.
- 1898 Bp. Nicholas (Ziorov) returns to Russia; Tikhon (Belavin) becomes Bishop of the Aleutians and Alaska; American annexation of Hawaii.
Beyond Alaska (1900-1918)
- 1900 Name of Russian mission diocese changed from the Aleutian Islands and Alaska to the Aleutian Islands and North America, claiming an expansion of its territorial boundaries.
- 1901 First Orthodox church in Canada, in Vostok, Alberta.
- 1902 Building of St. Nicholas Cathedral in New York; first Romanian parish in North America founded in Regina, Saskatchewan.
- 1904 Innocent (Pustynsky) consecrated as Bishop of Alaska; Raphael (Hawaweeny) consecrated as Bishop of Brooklyn, becoming the first Orthodox bishop to be consecrated in America; first Romanian-American parish founded in Cleveland, Ohio.
- 1905 St. Tikhon's Orthodox Monastery (South Canaan, Pennsylvania) founded; Bp. Tikhon (Belavin) raised to rank of archbishop; seminary opened in Minneapolis; Russian see transferred to New York; Fr. Sebastian Dabovich elevated to archimandrite and given charge over Serbian parishes by Tikhon; Episcopal priest of nearly 30 years Dr. Ingram Irvine converted to Orthodoxy, assigned to "English work."
- 1906 Holy Synod of Russia confirms practice of commemorating the American president by name, and not the Russian Tsar, during divine services; blessing of St. Tikhon's Orthodox Monastery by hierarchs Tikhon, Raphael and Innocent; translation of Service Book by Isabel Hapgood.
- 1907 1st All-American Sobor held in Mayfield, PA, at which name of the Russian mission was declared to be The Russian Orthodox Greek-Catholic Church in North America under the Hierarchy of the Russian Church; Abp. Tikhon (Belavin) returns to Russia and is succeeded by Platon (Rozhdestvensky); Uniate Bp. Stephen Ortinsky sent to the US by Rome to stem the tide of Uniate returns to Orthodoxy; Papal decree Ea Semper issued, mandating all Uniate priests in American be celibate; first Sunday of Orthodoxy service in New York; first Bulgarian parish in Madison, Illinois; ordination in Constantinople of first Black American Orthodox priest, the Very Rev. Fr. Raphael Morgan, Priest-Apostolic to America and the West Indies.
- 1908 Constantinople gives temporary care of American Greek parishes to Greece; Fr. Theophan Noli celebrates first Divine Liturgy in the Albanian language; first Albanian parish founded in Boston.
- 1909 Bp. Innocent (Pustynsky) transferred to Russia, succeeded by Alexander (Nemolovsky) as Bishop of Alaska; death of Fr. Alexis Toth.
- 1911 Minneapolis seminary transferred to Tenafly, New Jersey.
- 1912 Formation of first Serbian Orthodox Church congregation in Canada, in Regina (Holy Trinity Serbian Orthodox Church).
- 1913 Serbian clergy vote to come under Church of Serbia but meet with no response.
- 1914 Abp. Platon (Rozhdestvensky) recalled to Russia and made bishop of Kishinev, after having received 72 communities (mainly ex-Uniate Carpatho-Russians) into Orthodoxy during his rule; Antiochian Metr. Germanos (Shehadi) of Zahle comes to US to raise funds for an agricultural school in Syria.
- 1915 Death of Raphael of Brooklyn; Abp. Evdokim (Meschersky) succeeds Platon; first monastery for women in Springfield, Vermont.
- 1916 Consecration of Philip (Stavitsky) of Alaska; Alexander (Nemolovsky) appointed Bishop of Canada with his see in Winnipeg; organization of Syrian Holy Orthodox Greek Catholic Mission in North America by Germanos (Shehadi) with founding of St. Mary's Cathedral in Brooklyn, New York; death of Rev. Agapius Honcharenko.
- 1917 Ex-Uniate priest Alexander Dzubay consecrated with the name Stephen as Bishop of Pittsburgh; Archim. Aftimios (Ofiesh) consecrated as Bishop of Brooklyn; Abp. Tikhon (Belavin) elected Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia at the All Russian Sobor of 1917-1918.
- 1918-24 Emigration of 70,000 Greeks to the United States.
Revolution and Rivalry (1918-1943)
- 1918 Bolshevik Revolution throws the Church of Russia into chaos, effectively stranding the fledgling Russian mission in America; Metr. Meletios (Metaxakis) of Athens arrives in America to organize Greek parishes; Constantinople rescinds temporary transfer of Greek parishes in US to Greece.
- 1919 Southern Church Council meets in Stavropol at which Higher Church Administration is formed in Southern Russia; 2nd All-American Sobor meets in Cleveland, electing Alexander (Nemolovsky) as its new diocesan bishop, and also electing bishops for the Albanian and Serbian communities, pending approval from Moscow (which never comes); Germanos (Shehadi) receives Ukrainians in Canada.
- 1920 Tikhon of Moscow issues Ukaz No. 362; first session of the Higher Church Administration outside borders of Russia.
- 1921 34 ROCOR bishops meet in synod in Karlovtsy, Serbia, including Metr. Platon (Rozhdestvensky, primate of the Russian Metropolia; death of Fr. Ingram Nathaniel Irvine; in New York City, George Alexander McGuire founded the non-canonical "African Orthodox Church" (AOC), envisaged as a home for blacks of the protestant Episcopal persuasion who wanted ecclesiastical independence.
- 1922 Church of Greece transfers control of its parishes to the Church of Constantinople; founding of Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America; Russian Metropolia convenes 3rd All-American Sobor in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
- 1924 4th All-American Sobor of the Metropolia votes to establish "temporary self-government," breaking administrative ties with Moscow; Victor (Abo-Assaley) consecrated as first Antiochian Archbishop of New York and All North America; Stephen (Dzubay) returns to Unia; Ukrainians in Canada join Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church.
- 1926 Metr. Platon (Rozhdestvensky) of the Metropolia breaks ties with ROCOR synod; founding of Serbian diocese.
- 1927 ROCOR synod sends epistle to American parishes suspending Platon and his clergy; founding of American Orthodox Catholic Church by the Russian Metropolia under Aftimios Ofiesh; founding of Federated Russian Orthodox Clubs (FROC) in Pittsburgh; consecration of Emmanuel (Abo-Hatab).
- 1928 Ukrainian diocese established; consecration of Sophronios (Beshara).
- 1929 Romanian Orthodox Episcopate established.
- 1930 Abp. Joasaph (Skorodumov) ("The Enlightener of Canada") becomes the founding bishop of the Canadian Diocese of ROCOR; Emmanuel (Abo-Hatab) leaves AOCC and returns to Metropolia, re-establishing Brooklyn diocese.
- 1931 Athenagoras (Spyrou) becomes primate of Greek Archdiocese.
- 1932 Consecration of Joseph (Zuk) and Ignatius (Nichols) (first American convert bishop).
- 1933 Platon (Rozhdestvensky) refuses to pledge loyalty to Moscow, which declares Metropolia to be in schism and establishes Exarchate of Moscow on American soil; marriage of Aftimios Ofiesh; death of Emmanuel (Abo-Hatab); Platon grants canonical release to Syrian parishes remaining under Metropolia to come under Antioch; Germanos (Shehadi) returns to Lebanon; consecration of Leonty (Turkevich); marriage and apostasy of Ignatius (Nichols) (first with Living Church and then independently).
- 1934 Death of Platon (Rozhdestvensky); Theophilus (Pashkovsky) of San Francisco elected primate of Metropolia at 5th All-American Sobor in Cleveland, Ohio; death of Sophronios (Beshara); death of Germanos (Shehadi) in Lebanon; Abp. Athenagoras (Spyrou) establishes the Orthodox Observer.
- 1935 "Temporary Regulations of the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad" signed by ROCOR synod in Karlovtsy, Serbia, including Theophilus (Pashkovsky) of the Metropolia, thus renewing relations; ROCOR divided into four regions, including North America with Theophilus as the regional primate.
- 1936 Antony (Bashir) consecrated for Antiochian Orthodox Archdiocese of New York; on the same day (April 19), three Metropolia bishops consecrate rival Samuel (David) for the Syrians, thus solidifying the developing schism in the Antiochian faithful in the US (the "Russi-Antaaki" split).
- 1937 6th All-American Sobor of Metropolia declares itself to report to ROCOR in matters of faith; Holy Cross Theological School founded in Pomfret, Connecticut; Ukrainian diocese established by Constantinople.
- 1938 St. Vladimir's Orthodox Theological Seminary (Crestwood, New York) and St. Tikhon's Orthodox Theological Seminary (South Canaan, Pennsylvania) founded; Metr. Samuel (David) of Toledo excommunicated by the Church of Antioch for disobedience to canonical order; Bulgarian diocese established; Carpatho-Russian diocese established by Constantinople with second wave of Uniat returns to Orthodoxy.
- 1939 Consecration of Alexander Turner by Ignatius (Nichols).
- 1941 Church of Antioch restores Samuel (David) of Toledo to communion and declares his diocese to be the Antiochian Orthodox Archdiocese of Toledo and Dependencies.
Emergence of American Orthodoxy (1943-1970)
- 1943 Founding of Federated Orthodox Greek Catholic Primary Jurisdictions in America, a proto-SCOBA body.
- 1946 7th All-American Sobor of Russian Metropolia breaks ties with ROCOR; Holy Cross Greek Orthodox School of Theology moved to Brookline, Massachusetts; the Ukrainian Orthodox Church of Canada (UOCC) opened St. Andrew’s College in Winnipeg.
- 1947 Death of Ignatius (Nichols).
- 1950 ROCOR moves headquarters to New York; Leonty (Turkevitch) becomes primate of Metropolia at 8th All-American Sobor in New York City; National Council of Churches, USA, is organized.
- 1951 Michael (Konstantinides) heads GOA; independent Romanian diocese established; arrival of Fr. Alexander Schmemann in the United States from Paris, taking up teaching duties at St. Vladimir's Orthodox Theological Seminary (Crestwood, New York).
- 1954 Recognition of Toledo archdiocese by Church of Antioch.
- 1955 Orthodoxy officially recognized as major faith by U.S. government; founding of Council of Eastern Orthodox Churches of Central Massachusetts; 9th All-American Sobor of Metropolia held in New York City.
- 1956 Dr. Constantine Cavarnos founds the Institute for Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies in Belmont, Massachusetts.
- 1957 Abp. Michael (Konstantinides) offered the first Orthodox prayer at a U. S. Presidential inauguration in January 20, 1957.
- 1958 Death of Samuel (David) of Toledo; reception of Society of Clerks Secular of St. Basil into Antiochian New York Archdiocese, forming Antiochian Western Rite Vicariate.
- 1959 10th All-American Sobor of the Metropolia was held in New York City; Abp. Iakovos (Coucouzis) is elected and enthroned as Primate of the Greek Archdiocese of North and South America.
- 1960 Founding of Standing Conference of the Canonical Orthodox Bishops in the Americas (SCOBA); Romanian Orthodox Episcopate received into the Metropolia.
- 1961 Consecration of Michael (Shaheen) of Toledo; first ever visit of a Greek Orthodox Patriarch to Canada, as Patr. Benedict of Jerusalem begins a North-American tour to raise funds for the restoration of the shrines in the Holy Land.
- 1962 Antiochian Toledo archdiocese recognized by the Church of Antioch as equal to the New York archdiocese.
- 1963 Autonomous Serbian diocese created; 11th All-American Sobor held in New York City; beginning of rapprochement between Metropolia and Moscow Patriarchate; arguing that the Metropolia's 1924 declaration of "temporary self-government" amounted to a canonical declaration of autocephaly, Toward an American Orthodox Church published by St. Vladimir's professor Alexander Bogolepov, galvanizing the Metropolia to seek autocephaly; Abp. Iakovos (Coucouzis) vigorously supported the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 that was introduced by President John F. Kennedy in his civil rights speech of June 11, 1963; the United States Supreme Court handed down a landmark ruling that ended government-sponsored prayer in American public schools (Abington School District v. Schempp).
- 1964 Bulgarian Diocese in Exile established under the ROCOR.
- 1965 SCOBA appeals to mother churches to allow concrete steps to be taken toward American Orthodox unity; at 12th All-American Sobor, Ireney (Bekish) chosen to succeed Leonty (Turkevich) as primate of Metropolia; North American Orthodox-Catholic Theological Consultation founded; Abp. Iakovos (Coucouzis) marched next to Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. in the Selma to Montgomery marches, captured on the cover of LIFE Magazine, March 26, 1965.
- 1966-80 About 160,000 more Greeks emigrated to the US, tapering off considerably from the 1980s onwards.
- 1966 Death of Metr. Antony (Bashir); election and consecration of Philip (Saliba) as Metropolitan of Syrian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of New York; founding of Hellenic College (Brookline, Massachusetts); death of John Maximovitch; death of Aftimios Ofiesh; Fr. Alexander Schmemann travels to Constantinople to intercede for Metropolia but is rebuffed; first founding of OISM.
- 1967 Consecration of Theodosius (Lazor) of Sitka; Church of Constantinople orders Greek Archdiocese to suspend communion with Metropolia; 13th All-American Sobor of Metropolia held in New York City.
- 1968 Meeting between Metropolia representatives and Moscow Patriarchate in Upsala, Sweden, discussing autocephaly for the Metropolia; Synod of Bishops of Metropolia decides to start official exploratory negotiations with MP.
- 1969 Consecration of Dmitri (Royster) (seen by many to be first convert bishop); official autocephaly meetings of Metropolia with Moscow Patriarchate take place in New York City, Tokyo and Geneva; Metr. Philaret (Voznesensky) of New York issues the first of a series of "Sorrowful Epistles" (1969,1971,1975) to the primates of the local Orthodox Churches, condemning forays into ecumenism.
Union and Division (1970-1994)
- 1970 Russian Metropolia reconciles with the Church of Russia and is granted autocephaly; 14th All-American Sobor/1st All-American Council accepts autocephaly Tomos and approves new name of Orthodox Church in America (OCA); Constantinople ceases all official contact with the OCA and declares it uncanonical; Russian Exarchate of North America is dissolved, but the majority of its parishes remain under the Church of Russia; glorification of Herman of Alaska in separate services by the ROCOR and the OCA.
- 1971 ROCOR denounces Moscow's grant of autocephaly to the Metropolia; OCA receives rebel ROCOR parish in Australia; Albanian Archdiocese received into the OCA at 2nd All-American Council held at St. Tikhon's Monastery, South Canaan, PA.
- 1972 OCA receives the Mexican National Catholic Church, creating its Exarchate of Mexico.
- 1973 The 3rd All-American Council of OCA held in Pittsburgh, PA.
- 1974 3rd All-Diaspora Council of ROCOR held in Jordanville, New York; OCA Metr. Ireney (Bekish) of New York goes into semi-retirement, while his duties are taken up by Abp. Sylvester (Haruns) of Montreal.
- 1975 "Russi-Antaaki" division in the Antiochian church in North America overcome by Metr. Philip (Saliba) of New York and Metr. Michael (Shaheen) of Toledo by union of two Syrian archdioceses into one Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of North America, led by Metr. Philip; 4th All-American Council of OCA held in Cleveland, Ohio.
- 1976 Reception into OCA of ROCOR's Bulgarian Diocese in Exile and its hierarch, Bishop Kyrill (Yonchev).
- 1977 OCA holds its 5th All-American Council in Montreal, electing Theodosius (Lazor) as metropolitan, replacing the retiring Ireney (Bekish); glorification in Russia of Innocent of Alaska.
- 1978 Founding of Antiochian Village by Metr. Philip (Saliba).
- 1980 The 6th All-American Council of OCA held in Detroit, Michigan.
- 1981 The Patriarch Athenagoras Orthodox Institute (PAOI) is founded in Berkeley, California; OCA primatial see transferred from New York to Washington.
- 1982 Calendar schism in OCA Diocese of E. Pennsylvania, ROCOR receiving multiple parishes in the area.
- 1983 7th All-American Council of OCA was held Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
- 1985 Founding of Orthodox Christian Mission Center (OCMC) as Greek Archdiocesan Mission Center; martyrdom of Father John (Karastamatis) of Santa Cruz.
- 1986 8th All-American Council of OCA held in Washington, D.C.
- 1987 Majority of parishes of the Evangelical Orthodox Church received into Antiochian Archdiocese by Metr. Philip (Saliba), becoming the Antiochian Evangelical Orthodox Mission (AEOM).
- 1988 Healing of schism between two Serbian dioceses.
- 1989 Glorification in Russia of Tikhon of Moscow; Elder Ephraim begins founding Athonite-style monasteries in North America; 9th All-American Council of OCA held in Saint Louis, Missouri.
- 1990 Contact between Constantinople and OCA resumes.
- 1992 Founding of International Orthodox Christian Charities (IOCC); 10th All-American Council of OCA held in Miami, Florida; about 60 theologians from the Eastern Orthodox Church and Evangelical groups met at Wheaton college to discuss differences and similarities between their Christian groups, as speakers from both sides sketched their views of Scripture, tradition, and authority in church life.
Ligonier and Beyond (1994-present)
- 1994 Bicentennial of Orthodox Christianity in North America (1794-1994); Ligonier Meeting held; glorification of Alexis of Wilkes-Barre by OCA; OCMC becomes SCOBA agency and changes to its current name; glorification in Russia of John Kochurov and Alexander Hotovitsky; glorification by ROCOR of John Maximovitch; Women's Orthodox Ministries and Education Network (WOMEN) incorporated.
- 1995 Death of Bp. Gerasimos (Papadopoulos) of Abydos; 11th All-American Council of OCA held in Chicago, Illinois.
- 1996 Retirement of Greek Abp. Iakovos (Coucouzis) of America, being replaced by Spyridon (Papageorge); Ukrainian Orthodox Church of America joins Ukrainian Orthodox Church in the USA, coming under Constantinople.
- 1997 Visit by Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew I (Archontonis) of Constantinople to US.
- 1998 Ben Lomond crisis in (formerly EOC) Antiochian parish of Ss. Peter and Paul (Ben Lomond, California); SCOBA's Social & Moral Issues Commission (SMIC) established; the Holy Synod of the Ecumenical Patriarchate formally accepted the Monastery of St. Irene Chrysovalantou in Astoria NY as a Sacred Patriarchal and Stavropegial Institution, as well as its founders Metr. Paisios (Loulourgas) of Tyana and Bp. Vikentios (Malamatenios) of Apameia (formerly of the Church of the Genuine Orthodox Christians of Greece).
- 1999 Retirement of Spyridon (Papageorge), Greek Archbishop of America, being replaced by Demetrios (Trakatellis); reception of dissident group from Ben Lomond crisis by the Jerusalem Patriarchate, including re-ordination of some of the excommunicated and/or deposed clergy; 12th All-American Council of OCA held in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
- 2000 Glorification of Raphael of Brooklyn at St. Tikhon's Orthodox Monastery (South Canaan, Pennsylvania) by the OCA jointly with Antiochian hierarchs; reception of multiple former parishes of the Holy Order of MANS/Christ the Saviour Brotherhood into the patriarchal Bulgarian diocese.
- 2001 Second meeting of most bishops associated with SCOBA; the 2001 data from Statistics Canada gives a total of 433,815 Orthodox in Canada.
- 2002 Retirement of Theodosius (Lazor) and election of Herman (Swaiko) as Metropolitan of the OCA at 13th All-American Council held in Orlando, Florida.
- 2003 Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of North America is granted "self-rule" (similar but not identical to autonomy) by Antioch, establishing 9 new dioceses in North America and promoting its titular bishops to diocesan ones; after years of inactivity, refounding of OISM.
- 2004 Consecration in Damascus of 3 new diocesan bishops for the Antiochian Archdiocese, Thomas (Joseph) of Charleston and Oakland, Mark (Maymon) of Toledo, and Alexander (Mufarrij) of Ottawa.
- 2005 Death of Abp. Iakovos (Coucouzis); consecration of Alejo (Pacheco y Vera) of Mexico City , auxiliary bishop of the OCA Exarchate of Mexico; OCA's New York diocese subsumed into its Diocese of Washington, creating Diocese of Washington and New York at 14th All-American Council held in Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
- 2006 Fourth All-Diaspora Council of the ROCOR votes to restore full communion with Moscow Patriarchate; four priests and one deacon who departed the Antiochian Archdiocese during the Ben Lomond crisis return to Antioch; major financial scandal made public in the OCA; third meeting of most SCOBA bishops agrees to work together on canonical and pastoral questions.
- 2007 OISM holds first meeting at a ROCOR seminary, Holy Trinity Orthodox Seminary; restoration of full communion between ROCOR and Moscow Patriarchate with incorporation of ROCOR as semi-autonomous entity of the patriarchate.
- 2008 Jerusalem jurisdiction transferred to Greek Archdiocese, forming Vicariate for Palestinian/Jordanian Communities in the USA; Metr. Herman (Swaiko) retired by OCA amidst financial scandal; Jonah (Paffhausen) elected primate of OCA; Fifteenth All-American Council held in Pittsburgh, PA.
- 2009 Church of Georgia names Metr. Dimitri (Shiolashvili) of Batumi and Lazeti as bishop for North America; visit of Abp. Demetios (Trakatellis) to ROCOR headquarters, the first visit of a Greek archbishop in more than 40 years; OCMC opens training center; Fourth Pre-Conciliar Pan-Orthodox Conference in Chambesy, Switzerland mandates "Episcopal Assemblies" for various regions of the world, including North America; OCA reestablishes dioceses for Washington and New York and New Jersey; visit to US of Ecumenical Patr. Batholomew I (Archontonis).
- 2010 Consecration of Bp. Michael (Dahulich) of New York; formation of Episcopal Assembly of North and Central America, with 55 Bishops in attendance; ROCOR marks its 90th anniversary; the Ministry of Education of the Hellenic Republic formally recognized St. Tikhon's Orthodox Theological Seminary (South Canaan, Pennsylvania) as an accredited institution of Higher Education, equal in standing to the schools of theology in the universities of Greece and the EU’s member states; Toronto Orthodox Theological Academy (Toronto, Ontario) and Saint Paul Catholic Pontifical University in Ottawa sign cooperation agreement as twin institutions within the Province of Ontario.[note 2]
- 2011 Second gathering of the Episcopal Assembly of North and Central America, convened May 25-27 in Chicago, with 45 Bishops in attendance; Sixteenth All-American Council of the OCA was held in Bellevue, Washington; For the first time in nearly 70 years, the primates and hierarchs of the OCA and ROCOR concelebrate the Divine Liturgy.
- 2012 Jonah (Paffhausen) primate of OCA requests retirement; Tikhon (Mollard) elected primate of OCA at the 17th All-American Council held in Parma, Ohio; Third Annual Meeting of the Episcopal Assembly of North and Central America, from September 10-12, in Chicago, with 43 Bishops in attendance.
- Timeline of Orthodoxy in Australia
- Timeline of Orthodoxy in Britain
- Timeline of Orthodoxy in China
- Timeline of Orthodoxy in Greece
- Timeline of Orthodoxy in New Zealand
- Timeline of Orthodoxy in Japan
- Timeline of Orthodox Church and Roman Catholic relations
- Russian Orthodox missionaries had translated their liturgy into the Tlingit language. It has been argued that they saw Eastern Orthodox Christianity as a way of resisting assimilation to the "American way of life," which was associated with Presbyterianism.
- Kan, Sergei. Memory Eternal: Tlingit Culture and Russian Orthodox Christianity Through Two Centuries. Seattle and London: University of Washington Press, 1999. pp.xix-xxii.
- Saint Paul University in Ottawa is the home of the the "Metropolitan Andrey Sheptytsky Institute of Eastern Christian Studies", named after the primate of the Ukrainian Catholic Church, Andrey Sheptytsky (1865-1944); it specializes in Eastern Christian Studies with special but not exclusive emphasis on the tradition of the Church of Kyiv.
- Two Views of Double-Headed Eagles. Northwest Coast Archaeology. Posted on March 1, 2010. Retrieved: 2013-10-06.
- SS. Peter and Paul Church. Orthodox Church in America (OCA) - Parishes. Retrieved: 2013-10-06.
- Alaska Native History - Timeline - Alaskool. Alaskool (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage). Retreived: 2013-10-06.
- Boyd, Robert Thomas. The Coming of the Spirit of Pestilence: Introduced Infectious Diseases and Population Decline among Northwest Coast Indians, 1774-1874. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1999. p. 241.
- Timeline of Archbishop Michael. Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America.
- Loconte, Joe. "Peering over the Orthodox-evangelical crevasse." Christianity Today. 9 Nov. 1992: 63.
- Subdeacon Kevin Wigglesworth. Statistics of Orthodox Christianity in Canada. The Canadian Journal of Orthodox Christianity. Volume V, No 1, Winter 2010. p.33.
- Pravoslavie.ru. Toronto Orthodox Theological Academy & Saint Paul University sign cooperation agreement. 16/12/2010.
- OrthodoxHistory.org, website of the Society for Orthodox Christian History in the Americas (SOCHA)