Difference between revisions of "Tikhon of Moscow"
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[[Category:Patriarchs of Moscow]]
[[Category:Patriarchs of Moscow]]
Revision as of 14:51, May 29, 2008
Our father among the saints Tikhon of Moscow (Russian: Святитель Тихон, Патриарх Московский и всея Руси) (1865–1925), Enlightener of North America, was Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia (1917–1925). "He established his cathedral in New York City, and presided over a vast Archdiocese, encouraging and authorizing many publications in the English language. Among these, he encouraged the translation of the Eastern liturgy into English by Isabel Florence Hapgood, and he wrote an extensive catechism based on the Nicene Creed and the Our Father. His feast day is celebrated on April 7 by New Calendar churches, on March 25 by Old Calendar churches; his glorification is celebrated on September 26, and he is also commemorated on the feast of the New Martyrs and Confessors of Russia, celebrated on the Sunday nearest to January 25, which was the date of the martyrdom of Metropolitan Vladimir of Kiev, the first Bishop of the new martyrs.
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St. Tikhon (né Vasily Ivanovich Belavin; Russian: Василий Иванович Белавин) was born on January 19, 1865. His father was Ioann Belavin, a rural priest of the Toropetz district of the Pskov diocese. "From his early years he displayed a particular religious disposition, love for the Church as well as rare meekness and humility. ... From 1878 to 1883, Vasily studied at the Pskov Theological Seminary. ... His fellow students liked and respected him for his piety, brilliant progress in studies, and constant readiness to help comrades, who often turned to him for explanations of lessons, especially for help in drawing up and correcting numerous compositions. Vasily was called 'bishop' and 'patriarch' by his classmates." 
"Following graduation from the Pskov Seminary and St Petersburg Theological Academy, he becomes an instructor first at Pskov Seminary (1888-91), then Kholm Seminary (1891-97), where he quickly became Rector. Just prior to his transfer to Kholm he was tonsured a monk with the name Tikhon and ordained." 
Life and work after ordination
One of the first Orthodox bishops to do major work in North America, St. Tikhon went on to establish the "Diocese of the Aleutians and North America" after converting many people on the continent. Deemed an honorary citizen of the United States, he consecrated Orthodox Churches in America during the early 20th Century. The saint was also the primary founder of St. Tikhon's Orthodox Monastery (South Canaan, Pennsylvania), naming it for his heavenly patron, St. Tikhon of Zadonsk.
After returning to Russia in 1907, he continued to win the affection of thousands with his humble piety and loving affection. During World War I, he charitably aided displaced citizens, who flocked to him. He was also honored in August of 1917 by being elected Patriarch of the Russian Orthodox Church. St. Tikhon had to overcome much disunity within the Church.
When the ungodly Bolshevik regime took control of the country, Church property was confiscated and the Russian Orthodox Church had to endure much repression. St. Tikhon openly condemned the killings of Czar's family in 1918 and protested against violent attacks by the Bolsheviks on the Church. At this time, he called Russian Orthodox Christians to unite and strengthen their practices. To avoid further persecution, he issued a message that clergy were not to make any political statements.
From 1922 to 1923, Patriarch Tikhon was imprisoned in Donskoy Monastery after he openly opposed the government's decree of being able to confiscate Church property. Thousands of Russian believers were shot. Upon being released, he assured the regime of his loyalty in an apparent attempt to relieve the harsh pressures on the Church. Despite his declaration of loyalty, he continued to enjoy the trust of the Orthodox community in Russia.
As persecution continued, he began to feel overwhelmed, and his strength and health declined. On Sunday April 5, 1925 he served his last Liturgy. He died giving the Sign of the Cross, saying, "Glory to Thee, O Lord, glory to Thee." He only crossed himself two times, dying before he could complete the third. After his death, he was considered a martyr for the faith.
Quotes by Saint Tikhon
"Devote all your energy to preaching the word of God and the truth of Christ, especially today, when unbelief and atheism are audaciously attacking the Church of Christ. May the God of peace and love be with all of you!"
"May God teach every one of us to strive for His truth, and for the good of the Holy Church, rather than something for our own sake."
Troparion (Tone 1)
- Let us praise Tikhon, the patriarch of all Russia,
- And enlightener of North America
- An ardent follower of the Apostolic traditions,
- And good pastor of the Church of Christ.
- Who was elected by divine providence,
- And laid down his life for his sheep.
- Let us sing to him with faith and hope,
- And ask for his hierarchical intercessions:
- Keep the church in Russia in tranquility,
- And the church in North America in peace.
- Gather her scattered children into one flock,
- Bring to repentance those who have renounced the True Faith,
- Preserve our lands from civil strife,
- And entreat God's peace for all people!
Kontakion (Tone 3)
- Today the assembly of New Martyrs
- Stands together with us in the Church
- And together we raise a festive song
- Celebrating the uncovering of the relics of our Hierarch Father Tikhon
- Who defeated the enemy and preserved the Faith
- While protecting the flock entrusted to him.
- For he ever prays for us all
- That we may never be deprived of the Love of God.
- Liturgy of St. Tikhon of Moscow, an adaptation of the Communion service from the 1928 Anglican Book of Common Prayer and The Anglican Missal in the American Edition.
- Liturgy of St. Tikhon (text)
- Western Rite
Tikhon of Moscow
|Bishop of Lublin
|Bishop of the Aleutian Islands and Alaska
|Patriarch of Moscow and all Russia
Serguis I (Stragorodsky)