During the years after the Bolshevik Revolution many of the Orthodox bishops joined with the exile [[Russian Orthodox Church Outside of Russia]], that was initially headquartered in Karlovci, Yugoslavia, but later in Munich, Germany and then New York in the United States. At the end of World War II, and with the arrival of Soviet forces, particularly in Manchuria, the Moscow Patriarchate gained jurisdiction over the Russian bishops in China and Harbin.
In 1949, after establishment of the People’s Republic of China that was under the control of the Chinese Communist Party, treaties between the Soviet and Chinese governments led to transfer of jurisdiction of the Russian churches to the Chinese. While many of the Russian expatriates were arrested by the communists for return to the Soviet Union, many returned voluntarily. Other families and clergy escaped to the non-communist world, many under the leadership of Bishop [[John of Shanghai]].
In 1956, in fulfillment of agreements between the Soviet Union and Communist China, the Moscow Patriarchate granted autonomy to the Church of China formally ending the Russian Mission in China. At that time the Church of China had two Chinese bishops, a number of priests, and an estimated 20,000 faithful. Having remained under the jurisdiction of the Moscow Patriarchate, Abp. Victor of Beijing, the last Russian bishop in China and leader of the last Spiritual Mission departed for the Soviet Union in 1956, closing the three hundred year old Russian Orthodox Mission in China.
==Heads of mission==
===Period of diplomatic representatives===
*First mission (1716-1728). Archimandrite Ilarion (Lezhaisky) Reposed in Beijing in 1717. *Second mission (1729-1735). Archimandrite Antony (Platkovsky). *Third mission (1736-1745). Archimandrite Illarion (Trusov). Reposed in Beijing in 1741. *Fourth mission (1745-1755). Archimandrite Gervasy (Lintsevsky). *Fifth mission (1755-1771). Archimandrite Amvrosy (Yumatov). Reposed in Beijing in 1771. *Sixth mission (1771-1781). Archimandrite Nikolai (Tsvet). *Seventh mission (1781-1794). Archimandrite Ioakim (Shishkovsky). *Eighth mission (1794-1807). Archimandrite Sofrony (Gribovsky). *Ninth mission (1807-1821). Archimandrite Iiakinf (Bichurin). Reposed in 1853. *Tenth mission (1821-1830). Archimandrite Peter (Kamensky). Reposed in 1845. *Eleventh mission (1830-1840). Hieromonk (later Archimandrite) Veniamin (Morachevich). *Twelfth mission (1840-1849). Archimandrite Policarp (Tugarinov). *Thirteenth mission (1850-1858). Archimandrite Pallady (Kafarov). Also led the fifteenth mission.
===Period of limited missionary activities===
*Fourteenth mission (1858-1864). Archimandrite Gury (Karpov). In 1866, consecrated vicar Bishop of Cheboksary, Kazan Eparchy; In 1867, Bishop of Tauria and Simferopol; 1881, Archbishop; Reposed in 1882. *Fifteenth mission (1865-1878). Archimandrite Pallady (Kafarov). Reposed in 1878 in Marseilles during return to Russia due to illness. *Sixteenth mission (1879-1883). Archimandrite Flavian (Gorodetsky). In 1885, consecrated vicar bishop in the Don Diocese; In 1892, elevated to archbishop when ruler of the Diocese of Kholmsky and Warsaw; In 1903, elected Metropolitan of Kiev and Galicia; Reposed in 1915. *Seventeenth mission (1884-1896). Archimandrite Amfilohy (Lutovinov).
===Period of active mission===
*Eighteenth mission (1896-1931). Archimandrite Innocent (Figurovsky). In 1902 - elevated to the rank of Bishop of Pereyaslav, vicar of the Vladimir Eparchy; later elevated to Metropolitan of Beijing and China; Reposed in Beijing in 1931. *Nineteenth mission (1931-1933). Archbishop Simon (Vinogradov); In 1919, consecrated Bishop of Shanghai; Reposed in Beijing in 1933. *Twentieth mission (1933-1956). Bishop [[Victor (Svyatin) of Krasnodar and Kuban |Victor (Svyatin)]]. In 1932 consecrated Bishop of Shanghai; In 1938 he was elevated to the rank of archbishop and to Metropolitan in 1961. Reposed [[September 18]], 1966.