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In 1951, [[Archimandrite]] [[Petros (Astyfides)]] arrived in New York at the invitation of [[Arsenios Saltas]], whom he understood to be the Greek Old Calendarist [[bishop]] of America. Soon learning that this was not the case, Archimandrite Petros resolved to return to Greece. However, a number of Greek Old Calendarist families in Queens persuaded him to begin services for them, and by 1954 [[Saint Markella's Cathedral]] was established.
Archimandrite Petros began to gather various independent parishes until a diocese was formed. During this time, he was under the [[Metropolia]] and then the [[ROCOR]]. Two ROCOR bishops, [http://www.russianorthodoxchurch.ws/synod/engdocuments/enart_archbpseraphimmemory15yrs.html| Seraphim (Svezhevsky) of Caracas] and [http://www.rocorstudies.org/
infocus/ 2011/ 11/ 02/ infocus_232/| Leonty (Filippovich) of Chile], [[consecration of a bishop|consecrated]] him to the episcopacy in November 1962 as Bishop of Astoria. This consecration was initially considered irregular, as it was done in secret. However, in 1969 the ROCOR Synod ruled to recognize this act as well as the restoration of the episcopacy of the Genuine Greek Orthodox Church of Greece performed earlier by ROCOR hierarchs. At this time, Bishop Petros of Astoria joined with the Synod in Greece officially.
== Dispute over Grace ==