Updated link for National Academy of Fine Arts and Architecture (note 1)
He had an outstanding secular training. Having exceptional drawing abilities, he graduated the Kiev Academy of Fine Arts.<ref group="note">[http://
naomaedu. ru/ National Academy of Fine Arts and Architecture].</ref> He decided however against pursuing art in favor of a career where he could help people who suffer, and chose to be a physician.
In 1903 at the age of 26, he graduated from Great Prince St. Vladimir Medical School at the [[w:Kiev University|University of Kiev]], and for a long time worked as a local district physician. An extraordinary medical student, he excelled at anatomy. His superior knowledge of anatomy served him throughout his surgical career.