The Seventy Apostles or Seventy-two Apostles[note 1] are those whom the Lord chose, in addition to the original Twelve Apostles, to go before Him into the cities He would visit (Luke 10:1), and lay down the groundwork and infrastructure for the Early Church. According to the Gospel of Luke, the only gospel in which they appear (Luke 10:1–24), Jesus appointed them and sent them out in pairs to preach the Gospel. The Twelve generally remained at Christ's side, serving as witnesses to His life; but the Seventy preceded Him in every place He visited.
The Synaxis of the Seventy Apostles is commemorated on January 4 and was established by the Orthodox Church to indicate the equal honor of each of the Seventy. Besides the celebration of the Synaxis of the Holy Apostles, the Church also celebrates the memory of each of them during the course of the year. The Church in particular venerates and praises the Seventy Apostles because they taught us to honor the Trinity One in Essence and Undivided.
The Holy Seventy Apostles
We do not know the names of all of the original Seventy, for as Saint John the Evangelist tells us, the time came when:
- "...many of His disciples went back, and walked with Him no more. Then said Jesus to the Twelve, Do you also want to go away?" (John 6:66-67)
As the Lord's Passion approached, the number of His disciples decreased further: hardly any of the Seventy remained, and one of the Twelve betrayed Him.
After the Resurrection, Matthias was numbered with the Twelve, while the ranks of the Seventy were gradually filled with men newly converted to piety by the Twelve Apostles and by Saint Paul, who was called by heaven to preside (with Saint Peter) over the apostolic choir.
Hippolytus of Rome (+235) had produced an early list of the Seventy Apostles, however it was regarded as dubious, and was put in the Appendix of his works in the voluminous collection of Early Church Fathers.[note 2]
Dorotheus of Tyre (+362) traditionally is the one credited with recounting the names of the Seventy Apostles. These names were also given in the Chronicon Paschale, a 7th-century Byzantine universal chronicle of the world. However there were errors in the list attributed to Saint Dorotheus, including the repetition of four names, the omission of other names, and the inclusion of some men who were Apostles at first, but later fell from the faith and the dignity of their office.
It was St. Dimitri of Rostov (+1709) who consulted the Holy Scripture, the traditions passed down by the Fathers, and the accounts of trustworthy historians in attempting to correct the mistakes and uncertainties in the list when compiling his collection of Lives of the Saints. A widely accepted canon in the Orthodox Church is thus given in "The Great Collection of the Lives of the Saints, Volume 5: January", compiled by St. Demetrius of Rostov:
|#||Apostles||See||Feast Day||Biblical Reference||Notes||Icon|
|James, Brother of the Lord||October 23||Matt. 13:55;
|The holy Apostle Paul refers to James in the Epistle to the Galatians, saying, I went up to Jerusalem to see Peter, but other of the apostles saw I none, save James the Lord's brother. Saint James was appointed Bishop of Jerusalem by the Lord Himself. The Jews hurled him from the pinnacle of the Temple for preaching Christ. He was injured, but not killed, when he struck the pavement below, so one of the Pharisees shattered his skull with a club, finishing him.|
|Mark the Evangelist
(also called John)
1 Pet. 5:13;
Col. 4:10; Philm. 24;
|Mark wrote his Gospel under the direction of Saint Peter and is mentioned by that Apostle in his First General Epistle. Peter writes, The church that is at Babylon saluteth you; and so doth Mark my son. Peter ordained Mark Bishop of Alexandria. The idolaters of that city bound him, dragged him over jagged rocks, and beat him; whereupon, the Lord appeared, summoned him to heavenly glory, and received his spirit.|
|Luke the Evangelist||October 18||Col 4:14;||Luke wrote his Gospel under the guidance of the holy Apostle Paul, who mentions him in the Epistle to the Colossians, saying, Luke, the beloved physician, and Demas, greet you. Saint Luke also wrote the Acts of the Apostles. After toiling greatly in Christ's service, Luke completed his labors in Thebes, a city of Boetia, where he was martyred.|
|Cleopas||October 30||Luke 24:18;||Younger Brother of Joseph the Betrothed. In his Gospel, Saint Luke writes that Cleopas was one of the two disciples to whom the Lord appeared on the road to Emmaus after His Resurrection. Luke was the other, although he does not mention his own name. Cleopas was subsequently slain by the Jews for preaching Christ, the murder taking place in the very house where the risen Lord was known by him in the breaking of bread.|
|Symeon||April 27||Matt. 13:55;||Kinsman of the Lord. Saint Symeon was the second Bishop of Jerusalem, James' successor. He was crucified for the crucified Christ.|
(also known as Joses)
|June 11||Acts 4:36, 9:27;
1 Cor 9:6;
|According to the fourth chapter of the Book of Acts, this saint was surnamed Barnabas by the Apostles. He is also mentioned in the second chapter of the Epistle to the Galatians, wherein Saint Paul writes, I went up to Jerusalem with Barnabas. Laboring in the ministry of the word, he was first (with Saint Paul) to preach Christ in Rome. He became Bishop of Milan and met his end on Cyprus, his homeland, being stoned by Greeks and Jews. Saint Barnabas was buried with a copy of Saint Matthew's Gospel which he had written with his own hand.|
(also known as Joses or Joseph; or Barsabas Justus)
|October 30||Acts 1:23;
|Joses was one of the two candidates chosen as possible replacements for the fallen Judas (the other was Matthias). Saint Paul refers to him in the Epistle to the Colossians as Jesus, which is called Justus. The teachers of the Church say that Joses was a son of Joseph the Betrothed, like James, Simon, and Judas (not Iscariot). He became Bishop of Eleutheropolis and died a martyr.|
(also called Addai; or Thaddeus of Edessa)
|August 21||Thaddaeus was first a disciple of Saint John the Forerunner, then of Christ. He is not to be confused with the holy Apostle Jude (Judas Thaddaeus, also known as Lebbaeus). Thaddaeus baptized Abgar, Prince of Edessa, and cleansed him of leprosy. After laboring much in proclaiming the gospel of Christ, he reposed in the Lord in the Phoenician city of Beirut.|
|Ananias||October 1||Acts 9:10,17; 22:12;||The holy Ananias baptized Saint Paul and was Bishop of Damascus. Lucian, Governor of Eleutheropolis, had him put to death by stoning outside that city.|
|Stephen the Protomartyr||December 27||Acts 6:5;||The holy, glorious, all-laudable Apostle and Archdeacon Stephen the Protomartyr was an early Christian convert from among the Hellenistic Jews, one of the original seven deacons ordained by the Apostles, and the first martyr of the Orthodox Church. Saint Stephen was stoned by the Jews for preaching the Lord Jesus Christ, Whom he beheld standing in the heavens.|
(also Philip the Evangelist)
|October 11||Acts 8:6, 26-40;||One of the Seven Deacons. Philip baptized Simon Magus (in Samaria) and Candace's eunuch. He became Bishop of Tralles in Asia Minor, enlightened many in the faith, and departed unto eternal life in great old age.|
|Prochorus||July 28||Acts 6:5;||One of the Seven Deacons. Prochorus was Saint John the Theologian's companion and fellow-laborer. He became the first Bishop of Nicomedia in Bithynia and suffered martyrdom while preaching Christ in Antioch.|
|Acts 6:5;||One of the Seven Deacons. Saint Nicanor, with two thousand other Christians, was slain for Christ on the same day as the holy protomartyr Stephen, as related in the Acts of the Apostles, which states, At that time there was a great persecution against the church which was at Jerusalem. (Acts 8:1)|
|Acts 6:5;||One of the Seven Deacons. Timon was Bishop of Bostra in Arabia. He suffered greatly at the hands of the Jews for preaching Christ. Cast into a fiery furnace, he emerged unharmed, then departed unto the Lord.|
|Parmenas||July 28||Acts 6:5;||One of the Seven Deacons. After preaching for many years in Asia Minor, he settled down in Macedonia. Hippolytus says that Parmenas was the Bishop of Soli. He is thought to have died a martyr in Philippi, Macedonia, in the year 98 AD, during the persecution of the Christians under the Roman Emperor Trajan. Parmenas was slain before the eyes of the other apostles while preaching the gospel.|
|Timothy||January 22||Acts 16:1;||Timothy, the Bishop of Ephesus, helped Saint Paul spread the gospel; he is addressed as the recipient of the Epistles to Timothy.|
|Titus||August 25||2 Cor. 2:13;||Titus, the Bishop of Gortyna in Crete, also labored with Saint Paul in proclaiming the gospel; he is addressed as the recipient of the Epistle of Paul to Titus. His relics, now consisting of only his skull, are venerated in the Church of St. Titus, Heraklion, Crete to which it was returned in 1966 after being removed to Venice during the Turkish occupation.|
|Philemon||November 22||Philm. 1||Philemon, the recipient of one of Saint Paul's letters, was Bishop of Gaza.|
|Onesimus||February 15||Col 4:9; Philm. 1:10-16;||The holy Onesimus, mentioned by Paul in his epistle to Philemon, was tortured by Tertillus, Prefect of Rome, and died in Puteoli.|
|Epaphras||Col. 1:7, 4:12-13; Philm. 1:23;||Epaphras was Bishop of Colossae and also of the churches of Laodicea and Hierapolis. He shared Paul's captivity in Rome, whence the great Apostle wrote the Colossians, Epaphras, who is one of you, a servant of Christ, saluteth you, always labouring fervently for you in prayers, that ye may stand perfect and complete in all the will of God. For I bear him record, that he hath a great zeal of you, and them that are in Laodicea, and them in Hierapolis.|
|Col 4:17; Philm. 1:2;||Archippus, like Onesimus and Epaphras, is mentioned in the Epistle to Philemon. While Saint Epaphras was being held at Rome in fetters, Archippus succeeded him as Bishop of Colossae. Archippus was tending the flock of Christ in that city when Saint Paul wrote him this reminder: Take heed to the ministry which thou hast received in the Lord, that thou fulfil it.|
|Silas||July 30||Acts15:22;||With Saint Paul, the holy Silas preached the word of God, was flogged, and imprisoned. The Acts of the Apostles relates that Paul chose Silas and departed, confirming the churches. Silas became Bishop of Corinth and greatly labored proclaiming the gospel. After working numerous miracles, he departed to the Lord.|
|Silvanus||July 30||1Peter 5:12;
2 Cor. 1:19-22;
|Silvanus transcribed Saint Peter's First General Epistle, as the chief Apostle states: By Silvanus, a faithful brother, I have written. In his Second Epistle to the Corinthians, Saint Paul testifies that Silvanus assisted him in teaching the word of God. The Son of God, Jesus Christ, he says, was preached among you by us, even by me and Silvanus. As Bishop of Thessalonica, Silvanus suffered much for the faith, then departed to Christ, the Ruler of the contest.|
|Crescens||July 30||2 Tim. 4:10;||Saint Crescens is mentioned by Paul in his Second Epistle to Timothy. "Crescens," he says, "I sent to preach in Galatia." After serving as bishop in Galatia, he proclaimed Christ in Gaul and appointed his disciple Zacharias Bishop of Vienne. Returning to Galatia, he was martyred during Trajan's reign.|
1 Cor. 1:14;
|According to the Acts of the Apostles, Crispus, the chief ruler of the synagogue, believed on the Lord with all his house. This Crispus is the same as the one referred to by Saint Paul in the First Epistle to the Corinthians. I baptized Crispus, writes the great Apostle. Crispus became Bishop of Aegina, an island near the Peloponnesus.|
|Epaenetus||July 30||Rom. 16:5;||Saint Epaenetus, Bishop of Carthage, is mentioned by Saint Paul in the Epistle to the Romans, in which he writes, Salute my well beloved Epaenetus, who is the first fruits of Achaia unto Christ.|
|Rom. 16:7;||Andronicus, eminent among the Apostles, believed in Christ before Paul and was Bishop of Pannonia.|
|Stachys||October 31||Rom. 16:9;||Saint Stachys is also mentioned in the Epistle to the Romans, in which Paul writes, Salute Stachys my beloved. Stachys was appointed first Bishop of Byzantium by the Apostle Andrew the First-called. His church was located in Argyropolis.|
(Lydda of Odyssopolis)
|October 31||Rom. 16:8;||Amplias preached Christ in Diospolis and became bishop of that city. He was put to death in Odessos by the pagans.|
|Urban||October 31||Rom. 16:9;||This saint is mentioned in the Epistle to the Romans, in which Paul writes, Salute Urbanus, our helper in Christ. Urbanus was bishop in Macedonia and died a martyr.|
|Narcissus||October 31||Rom. 16:11;||Saint Paul remembers Narcissus as well in the Epistle to the Romans. Greet them that be of the household of Narcissus, which are in the Lord, he says. Narcissus was Bishop of Athens.|
|Apelles||October 31||Rom. 16:10;||Paul remembers Apelles as well in the Epistle to the Romans, saying, Salute Apelles approved in Christ. Apelles was Bishop of Heracleia.|
|Rom. 16:10;||Saint Aristobulus is also mentioned in the Epistle to the Romans, where Paul writes, Salute them which are of Aristobulus' household. Aristobulus served as bishop in Britain where he labored greatly and suffered martyrdom.|
|Rom. 16:11||In the Epistle to the Romans, Saint Paul writes, Salute Herodian my kinsman. Herodian was Bishop of Patras.|
|Agabus||April 8||Acts 11:27-28;||Saint Agabus possessed the gift of prophecy. In the Acts of the Apostles it is written that there came down from Judea a certain prophet, named Agabus. And when he was come unto us, he took Paul's girdle, and bound his own hands and feet, and said, Thus saith the Holy Spirit, So shall the Jews at Jerusalem bind the man that owneth this girdle, and shall deliver him into the hands of the Gentiles.|
|Rufus||April 8||Mark 15:21;
|Saint Rufus was Bishop of Thebes in Greece. He is mentioned in the Epistle to the Romans by Saint Paul, who writes, Salute Rufus chosen in the Lord.|
|Asyncritus||April 8||Rom. 16:14;||Saint Asyncritus served as Bishop of Hyracania in Asia and is also mentioned in the Epistle to the Romans.|
|Phlegon||April 8||Rom. 16:14;||Saint Phlegon is mentioned in the Epistle to the Romans as well. He was Bishop of Marathon, a town in Thrace.|
|Rom. 16:14;||Saint Hermas, mentioned in the same epistle, was Bishop of Philippopolis. The Shepherd of Hermas is also traditionally ascribed to him.|
|Patrobas||November 5||Rom. 16:14;||Saint Patrobas, also referred to in the Epistle to the Romans, was Bishop of Naples and Puteoli.|
|Hermes||April 8||Rom. 16:14;||Paul mentions Hermes, who was a bishop in Dalmatia, with the four preceding saints in this passage from his letter to the Romans: "Salute Asyncritus, Phlegon, Hermas, Patrobas, and Hermes."|
|Linus||November 5||2 Tim. 4:21;||Linus was the Bishop of Rome, and was a disciple of St. Paul.|
|Gaius||November 5||Rom. 16:23;
1 Cor. 1:14;
|Saint Gaius was Timothy's successor as Bishop of Ephesus. The following passage referring to him is found in the Epistle to the Romans: Gaius mine host, and of the whole church, saluteth you.|
|Philologos||November 5||Rom. 16:15;||Philologus is mentioned in the same letter by Paul, who says, Salute Philologus. This saint was appointed Bishop of Sinope by the Apostle Andrew.|
(Lucius of Cyrene)
|September 10||Acts 13:1;||Lucius of Cyrene was, according to the Book of Acts, one of the founders of the Christian Church in Antioch, then part of Roman Syria.|
|Acts 17:5-9;||Born in Tarsus, he was appointed Bishop of Tarsus by the Apostle Paul. With the Apostle Sosipater he traveled to the island of Corfu where they built a church in honor of the Apostle Stephen the Protomartyr and converted many pagans to the Christian faith.|
|Rom. 16:21;||Born in Achaea, he was Bishop in Iconium (prior to the Apostle Tertius) by his relative the Apostle Paul. With the Apostle Jason he traveled to the island of Corfu where they built a church in honor of the Apostle Stephen the Protomartyr and converted many pagans to the Christian faith.|
|Olympas||November 10||Rom. 16:15;||Olympas was present at the holy Apostle Peter's crucifixion and was subsequently executed with the Apostle Herodion by Nero, as Symeon Metaphrastes writes in his account for June 29, the day on which Saints Peter and Paul are commemorated.|
|Rom. 16:22;||Saint Tertius transcribed the Epistle to the Romans for Saint Paul, adding this note: I Tertius, who wrote this epistle, salute you in the Lord. Tertius was Sosipater's successor as Bishop of Iconium, where he received the crown of martyrdom.|
|Erastus||November 10||Acts 19:22;
2 Tim. 4:20;
|Erastus served as a deacon and steward of the Church at Jerusalem and later of Paneas in Palestine.|
|Quartus||November 10||Rom16:23;||Saint Quartus was Bishop of Beirut and is mentioned with Erastus by Saint Paul in the Epistle to the Romans: Erastus the chamberlain of the city saluteth you, and Quartus a brother.|
(also Euodios of Antioch)
|September 7||Phil. 4:2;||Saint Evodus was Bishop of Antioch after the Apostle Peter. Saint Ignatius the God-bearer mentions him in his Epistle to the Antiochians, saying, "Remember the blessed Evodus, your father, who was confirmed as your first pastor by the apostles."|
|2 Tim. 1:16;||Saint Paul refers to Onesiphorus in his Second Epistle to Timothy: The Lord give mercy unto the house of Onesiphorus; for he oft refreshed me, and was not ashamed of my chains. Onesiphorus was Bishop of Colophon and Cyrene.|
|Phil. 4:3;||Not to be confused with Clement of Rome.|
|1 Cor. 1:1; Acts 18:17;||Saint Sosthenes was leader of the synagogue of Corinth after Saint Crispus. In the Acts of the Apostles it says that the Greeks took Sosthenes, chief ruler of the synagogue, and beat him before the judgment seat. Sosthenes was converted by Saint Paul, who opens his First Epistle to the Corinthians with these words: Paul, called to be an apostle of Jesus Christ through the will of God, and Sosthenes our brother, to the church of God which is at Corinth. Later, Sosthenes became Bishop of Colophon.|
1 Cor. 1:12;
|It is written in the Acts of the Apostles that a certain Jew named Apollos, born at Alexandria, an eloquent man, and mighty in the Scriptures, came to Ephesus. This man was instructed in the way of the Lord; and being fervent in the spirit, he spake and taught diligently the things of the Lord. Paul mentions Apollos in the First Epistle to the Corinthians. I have planted, Apollos watered, but God gave the increase, he says.|
|Tychicus||December 8||Acts 20:4;
|Saint Tychicus' name appears in the Acts of the Apostles, and in Saint Paul's letters to the Colossians and the Ephesians. In the Epistle to the Ephesians the great Apostle writes: That ye also may know mine affairs, and how I do, Tychicus, a beloved brother and faithful minister in the Lord, shall make known to you all things: whom I have sent unto you for the same purpose, that ye might know our affairs, and that he might comfort your hearts. Saint Paul also says in the Second Epistle to Timothy, Tychicus have I sent to Ephesus. Tychicus was Sosthenes' successor as Bishop of Colophon.|
|Phil. 2:25-30, 4:18;||Saint Epaphroditus, Bishop of Hadriacus, is mentioned in the Epistle to the Philippians by Saint Paul, who writes, I supposed it necessary to send to you Epaphroditus, my brother, and companion in labour, but your apostle, and he that ministered to my wants.|
|Carpus||May 26||2 Tim. 4:13;||In his Second Epistle to Timothy, Saint Paul requests, The phelonion that I left at Troas with Carpus, when thou comest, bring with thee, and the books. Carpus was Bishop of Berroia in Macedonia.|
|Quadratus||September 21||Quadratus preached the word of the Lord in Athens and Magnesia, and was bishop of both cities. The Athenians put him to death during the reign of Hadrian.|
(commonly considered identical to Mark the Evangelist)
|September 27||Acts 12:25;
|This Apostle, whose shadow healed the sick, was Bishop of Byblos in Phoenicia.|
|Zenas||September 27||Titus 3:13;||Zenas, a teacher of the Law of Moses, was Bishop of Diospolis. In his Epistle to Titus, Saint Paul writes, Bring Zenas the lawyer diligently.|
|Saint Aristarchus, Bishop of Apamea in Syria, is mentioned in the Acts of the Apostles and in Saint Paul's letters to the Colossians and to Philemon.|
|Pudens||April 15||2 Tim. 4:21;||In his Second Epistle to Timothy, Saint Paul conveys greetings from Pudens. A pious Roman senator, Pudens lodged the holy apostles Peter and Paul (with many other Christians) in his home. Puden's house became known as "The Shepherd's Church." It is said that Saint Peter presided over divine services there.|
|Trophimus||April 15||2 Tim. 4:20;||Saint Trophimus is mentioned in the Acts of the Apostles and in the Second Epistle to Timothy, in which Saint Paul states that he left Trophimus at Miletum sick. Pudens, Aristarchus, and Trophimus followed Paul and witnessed his sufferings. Then, following the great Apostle's execution, they too were beheaded by Nero in Rome.|
(cousin to Barnabas)
|October 30||Col. 4:10;||Saint Mark, Bishop of Apolliana, was Barnabas' nephew. He and Aristarchus are mentioned by Saint Paul in the following passage from the Epistle to the Colossians: Aristarchus my fellow-prisoner saluteth you, and Marcus, sister's son to Barnabas.|
|Artemas||October 30||Titus 3:12||In the Epistle to Titus, Saint Paul writes, I shall send Artemas unto thee. Artemas was Bishop of Lystra.|
|Aquila||July 14||Acts 18:2;
1 Cor. 16:19;
2 Tim. 4:19;
|Saint Aquila is mentioned in the Acts of the Apostles and by Paul. He was Bishop of Heraclea, preached the word of God in Asia Minor and Achaia, and was killed by unbelievers.|
|Fortunatus||June 15||1 Cor. 16:17;||Fortunatus is mentioned by Saint Paul in his First Epistle to the Corinthians. After laboring greatly in preaching the word of God, he reposed in the Lord.|
|Achaicus||June 15||1 Cor. 16:17;||Saint Paul refers to Achaicus and Fortunatus in the same passage, saying, I am glad of the coming of Fortunatus and Achaicus: for that which was lacking on your part they have supplied. For they have refreshed my spirit, and yours.|
Two additional apostles are sometimes numbered with the Seventy, bringing the total to seventy-two, the number mentioned in the variant reading of the Gospel, according to which the Lord appeared unto the other seventy-two.
|Dionysius the Areopagite||October 3||Acts 17:34;||Saint Dionysius appears in the Acts of the Apostles, was Bishop of Athens, and later proclaimed Christ in Gaul where he was beheaded. Eusebius, Bishop of Caesarea of Palestine, explains that "Dionysius the Areopagite, converted by Paul's preaching in Athens (according to Luke's testimony in the Acts of the Apostles), became a member of the apostolic choir."|
|Simeon Niger||Acts 13:1;||This saint is also mentioned in the Acts of the Apostles by Luke, who writes, Now there were in the church that was at Antioch, certain prophets and teachers; as Barnabas, and Simeon, that was called Niger. We are assured by Saint Epiphanias that this Simeon was an apostle. The great hierarch of Cyprus writes, "Mark, Luke, Justus, Barnabas, Apelles, Rufus, and Niger are all among the seventy-two apostles."|
Hymns to the Seventy
In the ninth century St Joseph the Hymnographer composed the Canon for the Synaxis of the Seventy Apostles of Christ.
Troparion (Tone 3)
Holy apostles of the Seventy,
entreat the merciful God
to grant our souls forgiveness of transgressions.
Kontakion (Tone 2)
O faithful, let us praise with hymns
the choir of the seventy disciples of Christ.
They have taught us all to worship the undivided Trinity,
for they are divine lamps of the Faith.
- Judaism and Early Christianity
- Timeline of Church History (Apostolic Era (33-100))
- Hieromonk Leonty Durkit (Transl.). The Lives of the Seventy Apostles. Orthodox Brotherhood of the Virgin Mary. Elkhorn, West Virginia, 1997. 108pp.
- ↑ The reading for Luke 10:1 in the NU-text reads "seventy-two others." (The NU-text (as differentiated from the Majority text) is the Critical Text published in the 27th edition of the Nestle-Aland Greek New Testament (NA27), and in the United Bible Societies 4th edition (UBS4), hence the acronym "NU-Text").
In The Ochtoechos, Saint John of Damascus confirms that there were seventy-two lesser apostles; he chants, "The all-praised ten and twain, leading the seventy-two, their rivals in zeal, were manifested as perfect."
- ↑ Unfortunately because he was the first antipope, and that he wrote in Greek rather than in Latin, his works were shunned, neglected and lost to the West, until their discovery at a monastery on Mt. Athos in 1854.
- ↑ Later tradition varies in that he is reported to have been bishop at a number of places including Smyrna in Asia Minor (as Saint Polycarp's predecessor as Bishop of Smyrna), and Caesarea.
- ↑ HIPPOLYTUS OF ROME, APPENDIX TO HIS WORKS. "THE SAME HIPPOLYTUS ON THE SEVENTY APOSTLES". Early Church Fathers. 38 Vols.
- ↑ Hippolytus of Rome. The Same Hippolytus on The Seventy Apostles.
- ↑ Dorotheus of Tyre. THE CHOOSING OF THE SEVENTY HOLY APOSTLES.
- ↑ Dimitri of Rostov. The Synaxis of the Holy Seventy Apostles. From The Great Collection of the Lives of the Saints, Volume 5: January. Chrysostom Press.
Sources and External Links
Church Sources for lists of The Seventy
- Dorotheus of Tyre. THE CHOOSING OF THE SEVENTY HOLY APOSTLES.
- Hippolytus of Rome. The Same Hippolytus on The Seventy Apostles.
- Dimitri of Rostov. The Synaxis of the Holy Seventy Apostles. From The Great Collection of the Lives of the Saints, Volume 5: January. Chrysostom Press.
- Great Synaxaristes: (Greek)
Σύναξις τῶν Ἁγίων Ἑβδομήκοντα Ἀποστόλων. 4 Ιανουαρίου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
- Synaxis of the Seventy Apostles. OCA - Feasts and Saints.
- Augustus Johann Neander (1789-1850). Choice of the Seventy. (Luke, x.) — Import of the Number “Seventy”. In: Life of Jesus Christ in Its Historical Connexion and Historical Developement (Book V. The Public Ministry of Christ According to Its Chronological Connexion; Chapter XII. Christ's Return from Capernaum to Jerusalem through Samaria; § 203. Choice of the Seventy).
- APOSTLES (PART 4) - The "Seventy" Disciples - Seven Deacons & The Evangelists. HubPages.
- APOSTLES (PART 5) - The "Seventy" Disciples - The Apostleship and Ecclesiastes. HubPages.
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