|The factual accuracy of this article is disputed.|
See further information on its talk page.
|This article forms part|
of the series on the
|Rule of St. Benedict |
|Liturgy of St. Gregory |
Liturgy of St. Tikhon
Liturgy of St. Germanus
|Antiochian Western Rite Vicariate |
Society of St. Basil
Orthodox Church of France
Holy Name Abbey (Old Calendarist)
|Edit this box|
Early Rites - Gallican, Celtic, British, Roman
The origins of the rite are with the ancient local usages of the Insular Churches, ie those of Great Britain and Ireland. The earliest rites of those regions belonged to the family of rites called Gallican Rite.
With the coming of St. Augustine of Canterbury to England in AD 597, a new rite was introduced into Britain: that of the Church of Rome. St. Augustine had been directed by Pope St. Gregory the Great (also called St. Gregory the Dialogist) to respect the Gallican customs that were already in place. Beginning with this period, and later with the rule of Charlemagne on the Continent, the Gallican and Roman rites were mixed. In England, the Second Council of Cloveshoe in 747 under St. Cuthbert of Lindisfarne included the canon that the rite of those "speaking the English tongue" would be the Roman rite. During the period of the Celtic and Saxon churches, there developed several related local variants or Uses of the Roman Rite, called Gallo-Roman to distinguish from the old Roman rite. The rites used in France, northern Spain, Portugal, the Low Countries, Germany, and Scandinavia were similar.
Rise of the Sarum Use
In 1066, the Normans invaded England. There were some abortive attempts at changing entirely to the related uses of northern France. However, monasteries particularly in the western parts of the island (especially Sherbourne Abbey and Glastonbury Abbey) proved intransigent. The Norman bishop of Sarum, Osmund, arranged the services for his new cathedral according to the practices that he saw around him—both Norman and Saxon/Celtic, inventing nothing.
- The office-books called "of Sarum" belong to the Gregorian family, and were drawn up in their present form by S. Osmund, Bishop and founder of the Cathedral church of Salisbury, (A.D. 1078-1099,) in order to consolidate the Anglo-Saxon Ritual, which had been disturbed by the Norman invasion, and immediately became the secular use in all churches in the southern dioceses.
The Sarum rite as known was probably arranged by Richard Le Poore, who moved the See from Old Sarum to New Salisbury in the 13th c. From this period, the Sarum enjoyed the sterling reputation as being the best liturgy anywhere in the West, and thus had influence on the liturgy of other local churches in the Isles and the Continent (notable among them being Rouen, Braga in Portugal and Nidaros/Trondheim in Norway). Other related local uses continued as well, such as York, Bangor, Hereford, and Durham.
The Sarum Use was one of the first to be published on the new printing presses in the early days of the Reformation. The complete service books for the whole rite survive. The rite was legislated as the sole use of the English Church by the Convocation of Canterbury in 1544 and after the reversion to the papacy, it was commanded for the whole realm of England during the reign of Queen Mary. It was also the primary source text for the first edition of The Book of Common Prayer (1549) of the Church of England . After Elizabeth I took the throne, the Recusant Roman Catholics continued using Sarum in their chapels until the restoration of the Roman hierarchy in the nineteenth century.
19th Century Revival
The rite was revived particularly by the orthodox party of the Anglo-Catholic or Tractarian movement in the 19th c. Church of England. In the mid-19th c., the services were translated into English by such as G. H. Palmer, and became either the preferred liturgy or preferred liturgical model for the non-Romanizing part of the Anglo-Catholic movement (also called Orthodox Anglo-Catholic or Prayer Book Catholic). The ceremonial and customs of the rite were the major influence in the development of the English Use, partly through the efforts of Percy Dearmer, author of The Parson's Handbook. The old English Catholic Clergy Brotherhood also maintained a tradition of Sarum Use through the period of Catholic persecution in England. Attempts to revive the Sarum rite amongst the Roman Catholics included proponents such as A. W. N. Pugin and Bishop Willson of Hobart. The Sarum rite was suggested, but rejected, for use in the new Westminster Cathedral in 1903. It has been used on several occasions in RCC churches and cathedrals in England and Scotland in recent years.
Modern Orthodox Usage
The ROCOR Western Rite has published the Saint Colman Prayer Book which includes "The Divine Liturgy (Sarum) Usus Cascadae" - the full Sarum Rite in English used in monasteries and missions in Australia, the Americas, and Europe. This Sarum use liturgy has also been translated into Spanish and French. The text is found in the Saint Colman Prayer Book.
Also contained in this book is the English Liturgy, "derived from Sarum, 1549, 1718 etc., adapted using the rules authorised by the Holy Synod of Russia" (from the title page of the 'English Liturgy', Saint Colman Prayer Book', Saint Petroc Monastery, Cascades 2003.) This prayer book was begun as a project by Metropolitan Hilarion of Sydney in 1996, and carried out inside the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia by Saint Petroc Monastery from 1997 until 2003.
The only other known canonical Orthodox use of Sarum has been that of Mount Royal monastery under Dom Augustine (Whitfield) which had also prepared an 'Old English liturgy' after Sarum Use in previous decades. Currently Fr. Augustine is cared for by a ROCOR Hieromonk under the direct oversight of the Primate of ROCOR, Metropolitan Hilarion.
- The Church of our Fathers, Daniel Rock, 1849.
- The Sarum Missal in English , F. E. Warren, 1911.
- The Use of Sarum, ed. W. H. Frere, 1898.
- The Sarum Missal edited from three Early Manuscripts, J. Wickham Legg, 1916.
- The Parson's Handbook Percy Dearmer, 1957.
- The Saint Colman Prayer Book, Saint Petroc Monastery, 2003.
- The Sarum Use by Rev'd. Canon Professor J. Robert Wright.
- Beyond the Frontiers: Guides for Uncharted Territory, David Chadd, paper delivered at Frontiers of Research in Medieval Music symposium, 1988.
- Catholic Encyclopedia: Sarum Rite
- Project Canterbury: the Sarum Missal
- The Roots of the Orthodox Liturgy in the West, from the website of Saint Petroc Monastery
- The Divine Liturgy of Sarum as used in the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad, from the website of Saint Petroc Monastery
- The Sarum Missal, Done into English. 2nd ed., Revised and Expanded. Transl. by Albert Harford Pearson. London, The Church Printing Co., 1884. Original from Oxford University.
- (Google. Digitized Jun 8, 2006; 18.5MB download - PDF format).
- The altar missal that forms the base document for the ROCOR Sarum.
- The Liturgy of the Church of Sarum, together with the kalendar of the same church. Translated from the Latin, with a preface and explanatory notes by Charles Walker, with an introduction by T.T. Carter. London J.T. Hayes, 1886.
- (The Internet Archive. Digitized May 31, 2006; 16.0MB download - PDF format).
- "The present translation has been made from the best existing editions of the Sarum Missal, chiefly as collated in the recent reprint issued from the Pitsligo Press; use having been made of such further light as is thrown upon the Sarum liturgy by the Gradual and Manual, and by the “Consuetudinary of the Church of Sarum,” which is preserved at the end of Mr. Chambers’s magnificent Sarum Psalter. The Calendar is given from the Breviary, eight or ten MS. copies of which, together with several printed ones, exist in the Harleian, Cottonian, and Old Royal Libraries in the British Museum." (pp. 6-7).
- Sarum Rite at Wikipedia.
- The Liturgy of the Church of Sarum, together with the kalendar of the same church. Translated from the Latin, with a preface and explanatory notes by Charles Walker, with an introduction by T.T. Carter. London J.T. Hayes, 1886. p.3
- Missale ad usum insignis et praeclarae Ecclesiae Sarum. Pars Prima: Temporale. Londini; Veneunt apud C.J. Stewart, 1861.
- The Psalter, or Seven Ordinary Hours of Prayer, according to the use of the illustrious and excellent Church of Sarum ; with explanatory notes and comments. London : J. Masters, 1852.