Peter of Moscow
Saint Peter Metropolitan of Moscow and all Russia (Пётр in Russian) was the Russian metropolitan who moved his see from Kiev to Vladimir and then to Moscow. Later he was proclaimed a patron saint of Moscow. His commemoration by the Church is December 21 and August 24.
Peter was born in Halych-Volynia of pious parents, Theodore and Eupraxia. At the age of twelve, Peter entered a monastery. He successfully studied the book sciences of those times and eagerly fulfilled his monastic obedience. Because of his virtuous and ascetic life, the igumen of the monastery had St Peter ordained as a hieromonk. After years of ascetic labors at the monastery, the hieromonk Peter, with the blessing of the igumen, left the monastery in search of a solitary place.
He founded a monastery on the Rata River (Western Bug's tributary) and began to pursue asceticism in silence. Afterwards, at the place of his ascetic exploits, a monastery was formed, called the Novodvorsk. A church dedicated to the Savior was built for the monks who came to him. Chosen as igumen, St Peter guided his spiritual children, never became angry with a guilty monk. In 1308 king George of Galicia nominated, and the Patriarch of Constantinople, appointed Peter to the vacant see of Kiev and all Rus.
Mikhail Yaroslavich, Grand Prince of Vladimir and Tver, wanted to advance his own candidate for this position. Peter's nomination caused prolonged animosity between Mikhail and Peter to the point that the latter had to ask for protection from the Muscovite princes.
Peter's alliance with Moscow helped assert his own authority and contributed to the rise of the House of Moscow. Peter transferred his metropolitan duties from depopulated Kiev to Vladimir and then to Moscow, where he received property estates. The move strengthened the political position of Moscow and established it as the spiritual capital of defragmentated Russia.
After Peter's move to Moscow, the Cathedral of the Dormition and several other stone churches were built by Ivan Kalita in the Moscow Kremlin. The foundation of the Vysokopetrovsky Monastery in Moscow is ascribed to St. Peter. He also authored a few sermons and epistles.
After his canonization by Metropolitan Alexis, his veneration was propagated all over Moscovy. Accordingly, many churches were dedicated to Peter the Metropolitan in Moscow and other cities of Russia. The Russian Chronicles mention him frequently, and no significant state undertaking was initiated without prayers at the grave of St Peter. The relics of St Peter were transferred in 1472 and 1479. In memory of these events, feastdays were established for October 5 and August 24.
Common day for hierarchs of Moscow
Commemorated on October 5, a celebration of a special day to honor Saints Peter, Alexis, Jonah the Metropolitans and Wonderworkers of All Russia was established by Patriarch Job on October 5, 1596.
St Hermogenes was added only in the year 1913.
In 2005 the Church of Russia added St Innocent (March 31 and October 6), St Macarius (December 30), St Job (April 5 and June 19), St Tikhon (April 7 and October 9), St Philaret (November 19), St Peter (September 27), and St Macarius (February 16).
By celebrating these hierarchs on a common day, the Church offers each of them equal honor, as heavenly protectors of the city of Moscow and prayerful intercessors for Russia.
Peter of Moscow
|Metropolitan of Moscow (Kiev, Vladimir) and all Russia