The term Oriental Orthodox refers to the churches of Eastern Christian traditions that keep the faith of only the first three Ecumenical Councils of the undivided Church - the councils of Nicea I, Constantinople I and Ephesus. The Oriental Orthodox churches rejected the dogmatic definitions of the Council of Chalcedon.
Thus, despite potentially confusing nomenclature, Oriental Orthodox churches are distinct from the churches that collectively refer to themselves as Eastern Orthodoxy.
The Oriental Orthodox churches came to a parting of the ways with the remainder of Christianity in the 5th century. The separation resulted in part from the Oriental Orthodox churches' refusal to accept the Christological dogmas promulgated by the Council of Chalcedon, which held that Jesus Christ has two natures — one divine and one human, although these were inseparable and only act as one hypostasis. To the hierarchs who would lead the Oriental Orthodox, this was tantamount to accepting Nestorianism. In response, they advocated a formula that stressed unity of the Incarnation over all other considerations. The Oriental Orthodox churches are therefore often called "Monophysite" churches, although they reject this label, which is associated with Eutychian Monophysitism, preferring the term "non-Chalcedonian" or "Miaphysite" churches. Oriental Orthodox Christians anathematize the Monophysite teachings of Eutyches. They are sometimes also known as "anti-Chalcedonians."
In the 20th century, a number of dialogues have occurred between the Oriental Orthodox and the Eastern/Byzantine Orthodox which suggest that both communions now share a common christology with differing terminology. As yet, full communion has not been restored. There have also been some agreed christological statements issued in conjuction with the Roman Catholic Church.
Oriental Orthodox Communion
The Oriental Orthodox Communion is a group of churches within Oriental Orthodoxy which are in full communion with each other. The communion includes:
- The Oriental Orthodox Communion
- The Armenian Orthodox Church (Armenian Apostolic Church)
- The Syrian Orthodox Church of Antioch ("Jacobites")
- The Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria
- The Ethiopian Orthodox Church (Tewahedo Church)
- The Eritrean Orthodox Church (Tewahedo Church)
- The Malankara Orthodox Church of India (Indian Orthodox, Orthodox Syrian Church of the East)
Assyrian Church of the East
The Assyrian Church of the East (Nestorian Church) is sometimes considered an Oriental Orthodox Church, although they left the One Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church in reaction to the Council of Ephesus 20 years earlier and revere as saints men anathematized by the previously mentioned Churches. In addition, they accept a Nestorian or Nestorian-like christology that is categorically rejected by the Oriental Orthodox Communion.