Ninth Ecumenical Council
The Ninth Ecumenical Council actually consisted of a series of councils, held in Constantinople in 1341, 1347 and 1351, which exonerated St. Gregory Palamas's hesychastic theology and condemned the rationalistic philosophy of Barlaam of Calabria. Sometimes also referred to as the Fifth Council of Constantinople, the result of these councils is regarded as the Ninth Ecumenical Council by some Orthodox Christians but not others. Principal supporters of the view that this series of councils comprises the Ninth Ecumenical Council include Metropolitan HIEROTHEOS (Vlachos) of Nafpaktos, Fr. John S. Romanides, and Fr. George Metallinos.