|Oriental Orthodox (Non-Chalcedonian) perspective, which may differ from an Eastern Orthodox (Chalcedonian) understanding.|
Father Matta El Meskeen (Maskeen or Meskine; translated as Matthew the Poor), born Youssef Eskander (November 1, 1919 - June 8, 2006), was a Coptic Orthodox monk and spiritual father of 130 monks in the Monastery of St. Macarius the Great at Scetis in Wadi Natrun, Egypt. He is considered by many to be a renowned Orthodox theologian, and was an author of voluminous texts on numerous topics, including biblical exegesis, ecclesiastical rites, and other spiritual and theological matters (181 books, besides hundreds of journal articles).
Father Matta is celebrated by many Copts as a reformer and a prominent figure in recent Coptic history. Following the repose of Pope Kyrillos VI in 1971, Father Matta and two others (Bishops Samuel and Shenouda) were considered as candidates for the Patriarchal throne. Bishop Shenouda was chosen to be the Coptic Pope of Alexandria.
Father Matta and Pope Shenouda share some common history. Both participated in the Sunday school movement and Matta was Shenouda's confessor in the 1950s. Pope Shenouda acknowledges his debt to his teacher, Father Matta El-Meskeen, whom he calls 'my father monk' in the introduction to his book Intelaq Al-Rouh (The Release of the Spirit).,
But more recently, some misunderstandings between both leaders and their followers,,, have surfaced, e.g., recent discussions on the concept of theosis,, and also the position Father Matta held on the sixteenth chapter of St. Mark's gospel. See: Web site by some of Fr. Matta's proponents and Pope Shenouda III's reply concerning the theological and dogmatic opinions of Fr. Matta: Part 1,Part 2 (Arabic RealAudio; recorded in 1991 - zipped mirror).
Father Matta was suspended twice, first by Pope Yousab II in 1955, and then again by Pope Kyrillos VI for nine years from 1960 to 1969 for administrative/"political" (e.g., his book about the 'Church and the State') rather than for any truly theological or core dogmatic issues. Some say the 1960s suspension was because of Father Matta's objection to the Coptic Church signing of the Catholic Declaration of the Innocence of the Jews from the Blood of Christ.
Father Matta El Meskeen was born in Benha, elKaliobia, Egypt, in 1919. (One source says he was born in Damanhour, Egypt.) In 1944, he graduated in Pharmacy from the University of Cairo. In 1948, after leading a successful life and establishing a wealthy lifestyle for himself--Eskander at the time was the owner of two pharmacies, two villas, and two cars--he renounced his material possessions, and entered the Monastery of St. Samuel the Confessor in Qualmun (roughly near Maghagha, Upper Egypt).
After living for a few years in the Monastery of St. Samuel the Confessor, Matta decided to move out into Wadi El Rayan in the late 1950s. There, he lived as a recluse in the spirit of the ancient Desert Fathers for twelve years. By 1960, seven other monks joined him. The community expanded to twelve by 1964. These twelve monks were sent by Pope Kyrillos VI to Wadi El Natroun in 1969 to develop the monastery of St. Macarius the Great. At that time only six elderly, frail fathers lived near the road between Cairo and Alexandria. Matta and his twelve companions cared for them while reconstructing the monastery. The administrative, agricultural, institutional, and printing/publishing developments at the renewed Monastery of St. Macarius the Great were staggering. But the spiritual revolution was much greater. By 1981 Matta had over eighty monks in the monastery., The monastery also finances services and projects for the poor, Muslims and Christians alike.
- Whenever physical hunger turned cruel against me, I found my gratification in prayer. Whenever the biting cold of winter was unkind to me, I found my warmth in prayer. Whenever people were harsh to me (and their harshness was severe indeed) I found my comfort in prayer. In short, prayer became my food and my drink, my outfit and my armor, whether by night or by day.
- It is no joy for the church to have many active members of varied services who lack the spiritual proficiency for renewing souls and regenerating them in a genuine spiritual rebirth to win them for the Kingdom of Heaven. The true joy of the Church lies in leaders who possess spiritual insight, who walk ahead of their flocks so that the flocks can follow a sure path. It is not possible to obtain spiritual insight by action or study, spiritual insight is attained by silence, retreat and long prayers in their various stages.
- I felt I was late to come to the knowledge of Christ; studying the Bible appeared such a daunting task. In desperation, I asked the Lord to give me either a long life to have enough time to study the Bible well, or enough wisdom to grasp its hidden meanings. In His everlasting generosity, God gave me both.
- When asked why he never defended himself against the many accusations regarding some of his writings, Father Matta El-Meskeen replied, "Did you read the Exposition of the Gospel of John and benefit from it? ... My son I won't spend my time replying to anyone, but, my son, I will die and they will die and the Church will remain, as well as what we offered to her, and the next generations will judge us." (The Gospel of the day of his departure (June 8, 2006) according to the Coptic Lectionary was John 15:17-25.)
- "Abouna Matta Al-Meskeen (1919-2006)." The Monastery of St. Macarius the Great at Scetis (Wadi Natrun - Egypt). 29 Jun. 2006. <http://www.stmacariusmonastery.org/f_matta_E_06.htm>
- "Abouna Matta El Meskeen." Wikipedia. 19 Jun. 2006. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abouna_Matta_El_Meskeen>
- Hanna, William A. "Between Pope (87) Matthew the Poor, Anba Abraam, and the departed Fr Matta El-Meskeen." Online posting. 11 Jun. 2006. Zeitun-eg.org electronic mailing list. 19 Jun. 2006. <http://groups.yahoo.com/group/arbible/message/30997>
- Hulsman, Cornelis. "Reviving an Ancient Faith: Two strong-willed reformers bring Coptic Orthodoxy back to life." Christianity Today 3 Dec. 2001: 38. 19 Jun. 2006. <http://www.christianitytoday.com/ct/2001/015/2.38.html>
- Medina, Sara. "Egypt's Copts in Crisis." TIME Magazine Archive Article 28 Sep. 1981. 27 Jun. 2006. <http://time-proxy.yaga.com/time/archive/printout/0,23657,953135,00.html> (comment on article)
- Salama, Victor. "Father Matta al-Miskeen (1919-2006): A life well-lived." Watani 11 Jun. 2006: 13. 19 Jun. 2006. <http://www.wataninet.com/article_en.asp?ArticleID=7884>
- "Spiritual Quotes by Fr. Matta El-Meskeen (1919-2006)." Zeitun-eg.net. Online video clip. 19 Jun. 2006. <http://www.zeitun-eg.net/frmatta_el-meskeen.wmv> (Arabic video - 2 hours and half)
- The Monastery of St. Macarius
- Video interview of Fr Matta El-Meskeen
- http://www.fathermatta.com (English section)
- Photo of Fr Matta's tomb in the mountain near his monastery, Video (See also  (Arabic).)
- Photos of Wadi Al-Rayan, where Fr Matta al-Meskeen, the father of modern Coptic monasticism, lived in the 1950 and 1960s
- Fr. Matta El-Meskeen entry at CopticHistory.org (Arabic)
- TIME Magazine Archive Article -- SAINTS AMONG US -- Dec. 29, 1975 (F Matta El Meskin is listed as one of six 'living saints')
- TIME Magazine Archive Article -- The Desert Revival -- Apr. 19, 1976
- Hanna, William A. "For Christ Sake; The hate campaigns should stop." Online posting. 21 Jun. 2006. Zeitun-eg.org electronic mailing list. 21 Jun. 2006. <http://groups.yahoo.com/group/arbible/message/31352>
- Arabic article about Fr. Matta Al-Meskeen
- Another Arabic article about Fr. Matta Al-Meskeen
- Eulogy in Memory of Fr. Hegumenos Matta El-Meskeen By His Beatitude Metropolitan Mikhail, Metropolitan of Assiut and Head of the Monastery of St. Macarius
- Abouna Matta el Meskin--The Coptophile Column By Revd. Dr. John H. Watson (Watani)
- Nader Habib. Obituary: Life of the spirit - Father Matta El-Miskeen (1919-2006). Al-Ahram Weekly 15 - 21 June 2006, Issue No. 799
- Fr Matta El Meskeen. The Independent newspaper, UK - 27 June 2006
Articles by Fr. Matta El-Maskeen
- English Articles by Fr Matta El Maskeen from coptichymns.net
- Articles by Fr Matta El-Meskine Translated into English