Matins (also spelled "Mattins", from the Latin, matutinae, "morning"), in Greek, Orthros (which also means "morning"), is the longest and most complex of the daily cycle services. Unless it is celebrated as a vigil in the evening, orthros (Greek for "early dawn" or "daybreak") is celebrated in the morning.
General Structure of Sunday Matins
While some sections of Matins follow the eight-tone cycle, others follow the eleven-part cycle of the Resurrectional Gospels.
- Sunday Matins, when served appart from a vigil opens with the priest's exclamation Blessed is our God ..., Heavenly King ..., and the Trisagion Prayers. (Note: Heavenly King ... is omitted between Pascha and Pentecost.)
- The chanter or reader reads the Royal Troparia (Lord, save your people and bless your inheritance ...).
- The deacon offers a brief litany.
- The six psalms (3, 37, 62, 87, 102, and 142 - Septuagint numbering) are read.
- The deacon intones the Litany of Peace.
- Theos kyrios (God is the Lord) and the apolytikia are chanted.
- The kathismata are chanted.
- The small litany
- The sessional hymns
- The reader chants the evlogetaria (Blessed are you, O Lord, teach me your statutes).
- The small litany is offered again by the deacon.
- The Hypakoe is read by the chanter to prepare for the message of the Gospel reading.
- The Anavathmoi (hymns of ascent) are chanted.
- The Prokeimenon are chanted.
- The order of the Gospel is followed: the deacon intones Let us pray to the Lord ..., the priest responds with a prayer, and the chanter sings three times, Let everything that breathes praise the Lord. One of eleven Gospels is read; these Gospels each address a different part of the Resurrection narrative, because it is Sunday, the feast of the Resurrection. Having beheld the Resurrection of Christ ... is read by the chanter.
- The 50th Psalm is chanted.
- Then the following hymns are usually sung:
- "Glory..." “Through the prayers of the Apostles...” "Both now.." “Through the prayers of the Theotokos...” “Have mercy on me, O God...” “Jesus having risen…”
- However, on Sundays of the Triodion (excluding Palm Sunday, or a Sunday on which Annunciation might fall), the following hymns are sung:
- "Glory..." “The doors of repentance...” "Both now..." “Guide me in the paths of salvation...” “Have mercy on me, O God...” “When I think of the multitude of evil things I have done...”
- The deacon prays, O God, save your people and bless your inheritance ...
- The canons are chanted: first and third odes (each ode beginning with an irmos and ending with a katavasia,; small litany; kontakion of the secondary and/or tertiary commemoration(s) of the day; sessional Hymns; small litany; fourth, fifth and sixth odes; small litany; kontakion, oikos, synaxarion (commemorating the saints of the day); the seventh and eighth odes. (According to the contemporary Greek parish practice, the katavasiae are not sung at the end of each ode, but rather those for odes 1 through 8 are all sung together at the end of the eighth ode, then the Matins Gospel is read (rather than before the canon as above)).
- The chanter sings the Magnificat while the deacon censes the church.
- The ninth ode, ending with its katavasia is chanted.
- The deacon again prays the small litany.
- Holy is the Lord our God
- The Exaposteilaria (hymns related to the day's Gospel, or the day's feast) are chanted.
- The Lauds or Ainoi are chanted, slowly (Let everything that breathes praise the Lord.), followed by the appointed stichera.
- The Great Doxology is chanted.
- The Litanies "Have mercy on us, O God..." and "Let us complete our morning prayer..." (although according to contemporary Greek Parish practice, these litanies are said secretly, by the priest and deacon, during the praises).
- The Dismissal. (According to contemporary Greek Parish practice, the Great Doxology leads straight into the beginning of the Liturgy).
There are seven types of Matins:
- Sunday Matins: the longest of the regular matins services. If this service is celebrated in its entirety it can last up to three hours. It usually contains a combination of canons taken from the Octoechos, Menaion, Triodion, and/or Pentecostarion. As a result, in parishes, abbreviations are often made. Often, this matins is part of a vigil (particularly in Slavic practice).
- Daily Matins: there is no Gospel.
- Feast-day Matins with Gospel.
- Lenten Matins: penitential material added (hymns and prayers).
Matins services related to the Paschal feast:
- Bridegroom Matins: served on Great and Holy Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday).
- Great and Holy Friday Matins: there are twelve Gospel lessons; Antiphons are used (originating in a different office). The troparion sung at the 15th antiphon: Today is hung upon the cross... (Simeron krematai).
- Great and Holy Saturday Matins. This contains some elements of the old cathedral office: procession with epitaphios, reading of three pericopes (OT, epistle, Gospel) at the end.
- Paschal Matins. This is celebrated from Pascha Sunday until Thomas Sunday. The six psalms and the praises are not part of this service.
- A handout given to seminarians participating in the 2004-2005 altar groups at the Holy Cross Greek Orthodox School of Theology
- Orthros for Sunday: Resurrectional Hymns in the original Greek, with a new English translation by Spencer T. Kezios, Protopresbyter, published by Narthex Press, 2nd edition, 1998.