Liturgy of St. James
The Divine Liturgy of St. James is the oldest Eucharistic service in continuous use. It is the ancient liturgy of the Church of Jerusalem and is attributed to the Apostle James the Just, the Brother of the Lord. It is often celebrated in Eastern Orthodox Churches on the feast of St. James (October 23).
History of the Liturgy
The general scholarly consensus is that this liturgy originated in Jerusalem during the late fourth or early fifth century. It quickly became the primary liturgy in Jerusalem and Antioch. Although it was later superceded in Jerusalem and Antioch by the Liturgy of St. Basil and the Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom, it had already spread to other areas of the Church. The oldest manuscript traditions are in Greek and Syriac, and there are also extant manuscripts in Armenian, Ethiopic, and Georgian.
One leading theory today is that of John Fenwick, who argues that the similarities between this liturgy and that of St. Basil demonstrate their respective developments from a common source, now lost, but which is best preserved in the Egyptian recension of the Liturgy of St Basil. Fenwick suggests that the Liturgy of St. James was composed by St. Cyril of Jerusalem c. 370.
Today it is the principal liturgy of the Syriac Orthodox Church, the Syrian Catholic Church, the Indian Orthodox Church, the Syro-Malankara Catholic Church, and the Mar Thoma Church.
Liturgy of the Catechumens
Liturgy of the Faithful
- The Divine Liturgy of St James (The Monks of New Skete, 1996). ISBN 0935129375.
- John R. K. Fenwick, The Anaphoras of St Basil and St James: An Investigation into Their Common Origin (Orientalia Christiana Analecta, 1992). ISBN 8872102952.
- John D. Witvliet, "Tha Anaphora of St. James," in Paul F. Bradshaw, ed., Essays on Early Eastern Eucharistic Prayers (Pueblo, 1997). ISBN 081466153X.
- "Divine Liturgy of James the Apostle and Brother of God": brief introduction and e-text as translated by Archimandrite Ephrem Lash.
- Liturgy of St. James in Ante-Nicene Fathers
- Catholic Encyclopedia: Article in The Catholic Encyclopedia on the "Liturgy of Jerusalem"