Job of Moscow
St Job was born into the family of pious tradesmen in Staritsa near Tver in the 1530s. His baptismal name was John. As a teenager, John knew most of the biblical texts by heart and strove to become a monk. His father, however, insisted on his marriage. Once, John asked his father's permission to see his confessor in the Uspensky Monastery in their native town of Staritsa (Tver Oblast). Upon his arrival, John immediately took monastic vows and assumed the name of Job. He spent fifteen years in the cloister and finally became its abbot in 1566 with the help of Ivan the Terrible, who had made Staritsa his residence in times of the Oprichnina (secret police).
In 1571, Job was transferred to Moscow and appointed abbot of the Simonov Monastery. In 1575, he became the abbot of the Novospassky Monastery. In 1581, Job was appointed bishop of Kolomna.
Known as a person of mediocre mental abilities, he, nevertheless, managed to draw attention of Boris Godunov by his talent for reading the longest of prayers by heart in a very expressive manner. During the reign of Feodor I (whose government was controlled by Boris Godunov), Job was appointed archbishop of Rostov and Metropolitan of Moscow and All Russia in 1587.
Realizing the necessity of strengthening the ecclesiastic authority in Russia, Godunov managed to persuade the Patriarch of Constantinople Jeremias II to establish a patriarchate in Russia. On January 26, 1589, Job was elected the first Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia. He exercised all his influence and played a major part in Boris Godunov's ascending to the Russian throne.
Job did not approve, however, Godunov's proposal to open a university in Moscow with foreign professors because he believed their influence and non-Orthodox faith would cause "heterodoxy" and endanger the authority of the Russian Church. Under Job's supervision, the Russians corrected books for divine service and prepared them for publishing.
He assisted in glorification of some of the Russian saints, ordering the celebration of the memory of Basil Fool for Christ in 1588, as well as that of Joseph Volotsky and others. Job also favored the construction of new cathedrals and monasteries and Christian missionary activities in the recently conquered Astrakhan Khanate and Siberia. After the mysterious death of tsarevich Dmitry Ivanovich in 1591, Jove accepted the noncriminal version of his demise, supporting Boris Godunov every step of the way.
After the invasion of False Dmitriy I and sudden death of Boris Godunov on June 1, 1605, there was an uprising in Moscow.
Job was known as a harsh critic of False Dmitriy I, and he tried to persuade the people of Moscow to remain loyal to the deceased tsar. The armed supporters of the impostor burst into the Cathedral of the Dormition, and a boyar named P.F. Basmanov declared Job a traitor. Job was sent into exile to his monastery in Staritsa, where he went completely blind and finally died a very sick man in 1607.
In 1652, Job's relics were transferred to the Cathedral of the Dormition of the Moscow Kremlin, where they remain to this day. Patriarch Job was glorified as a saint by the Russian Orthodox Church in 1989.
- Translation of the relics of St Job the Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia - OCA web site.
- Repose of St Job the Patriarch of Moscow, and All Russia - OCA web site.
Job of Moscow
|Archbishop of Rostov,Metropolitan of Moscow and all Russia
|Patriarch of Moscow and all Russia