Irenei (Steenberg) of Sacramento

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V. Revd. Prof. Archimandrite Irenaeus (or Irenei, secular name Matthew Craig Steenberg) is an archimandrite of the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia. BA, M.St., D.Phil.


Matthew Craig Steenberg was born in 1978. He was ordained a deacon on August 15/August 28(os), 2007 in London by Bishop Elisey of Bogorodsk. He served as deacon for the Diocese of Sourozh.

He tonsured a monk on February 23/March 8(os), 2010 with the name Irenaeus.

Dcn. Irenaeus was ordained a priest on March 1/March 14(os), 2010 in San Francisco, by Archbishop Kyrill of San Francisco and Western America.

He was elevated to Archimandrite on August 13/August 26(os), 2011.


Recent Books, Book Contributions & Scholarly Articles

  • ‘God’, in J. Bingham (ed.), The Routledge Companion to Early Christian Thought (New York: Routledge, 2009).

  • Of God and Man: Theology as Anthropology from Irenaeus to Athanasius (T&T Clark, 2009).

  • Irenaeus on Creation: The Cosmic Christ and the Saga of Redemption (Brill, 2008).

  • A Century on Prayer, Orthodox Word no. 268 (2009).
  • The Orthodox Study Bible: Septuagint Old Testament (California: Thomas Nelson Publishers, February 2008) — editor, translator, and chair of prophetical books translations.

  • ‘The Church’, in M. Cunningham - Corran and E. Theokritoff (eds.), Cambridge Companion to Orthodox Theology (Cambridge: The University Press, 2008).

  • ‘An exegesis of conformity: textual subversion of subversive texts’, in K. Cooper and J. Gregory (eds.), Discipline and Diversity (Studies in Church History, vol. 43; Woodbridge: Boydell and Brewer, 2007).

  • ‘Scripture, graphe, and the status of Hermas in Irenaeus’, St Vladimir’s Theological Quarterly 53.1 (2009) 29-66.

  • ‘Taking Stock of our Struggle’, Orthodox Word 44.263 (2008[9]).
  • ‘Impatience and Humanity’s Sinful State in Tertullian of Carthage’, Vigiliae Christianae 62 (2008) 107-132.

  • ‘Sinful nature as second nature in Tertullian of Carthage’, Studia Patristica (2010).

  • ‘Two-natured man: an anthropology of transfiguration’, Pro Ecclesia 14.4 (2005) 413-432.

  • ‘To test or preserve? The prohibition of Gen 2.16-17 in the thought of two second-century exegetes’ [Irenaeus and Theophilus], Gregorianum 86 (2005) 723-741.

  • ‘Children in Paradise: Adam and Eve as “infants” in Irenaeus of Lyons’, Journal of Early Christian Studies
  • ‘The role of Mary as co-recapitulator in St Irenaeus of Lyons’, Vigiliae Christianae 58.2 (2004) 117-137.

  • ‘The Mother of God as mediatrix in Orthodox and Roman Catholic thought’, Sobornost, incorporating Eastern Churches Review, 26.1 (2004) 6-26. 

  • ‘Gnomic will and a challenge to the true humanity of Christ in Maximus Confessor’, Studia Patristica 42 (2006) 237-242.

  • ‘Self and the Church: A review of E. Moore’s “Defining Orthodoxy: Is it Possible?”’, Theandros: An Online Journal of Orthodox Christian Theology and Philosophy <> 1/1 (September 2003).

  • ‘Rediscovering Old Testament Christianity’, Again 23.3 (2001) 4-11.

Introductory Studies

  • A World Full of Arians
  • Epinoia & Ennoia: The Cappadocian Fathers on essence/energy and the human knowledge of God
  • Modelling the Trinity after the man: Human nature and the Trinity in the Cappadocian Epistle 38
  • Athanasius of Alexandria: Sacrifice, Sanctification, Salvation
  • Dionysius the Areopagite: Self-Surpassing Knowledge
  • Gregory of Nyssa: Luminous Darkness
  • Gregory Palamas: An Historical Overview
  • Gregory Palamas: Knowledge, Prayer, and Vision
  • Hesychios the Priest: On Watchfulness and Holiness
  • John Klimakos: On Repentance that Leads to Joy
  • Maximos the Confessor: On the Free Will of Christ
  • Symeon the New Theologian: On the Divine Light
  • Origen: the Final Restoration ... a Question of Heresy?
  • Antony of Egypt: the Basics of His Spirituality
  • A Gospel Motivation for the Monastic Life
  • Ex Oriente Lux: John Cassian on Eastern Monasticism in the West

Devotional Writings

  • The Advent of Love: Reflections on the Nativity of Christ (2004)
  • 'He bowed the heavens and came down': The nativity of Christ (2003)
  • On the Nativity Fast - Preparation of the Soul
  • Not like other men: Reflections on the Sunday of the Publican and the Pharisee
  • 'All to no purpose have I left my true home': Reflections on the Sunday of the Prodigal Son
  • Sunday of the Last Judgement: Reflections on the fear of God
  • At the threshold of the Fast: Reflections on the Sunday of Forgiveness
  • 'Yea, the time has come': Holy Pascha and the mystery of the liturgical present (2004)
  • The personal mystery of Pascha (2003)
  • A brief word on celibacy
  • She in whom salvation was begun: The Mother of God and the incarnation
  • To see the cross universally: Images of the cross in the Old Testament
  • Prayer as the act from which all good comes