Irenei (Steenberg) of Sacramento

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V. Revd. Prof. Archimandrite Irenaeus (or Irenei, secular name Matthew Craig Steenberg) is archimandrite of the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia. BA, M.St., D.Phil.


He ordained deacon 15th / 28th August 2007 in London by Bishop Elisey of Bogorodsk.

He tonsured monk 23rd February / 8th March 2010 with name Irenaeus.

He and ordained priest on 1st / 14th March 2010 in San Francisco, by Archbishop Kyrill of San Francisco and Western America.

Elevated to Archimandrite 13th / 26th August 2011.


Recent Books, Book Contributions & Scholarly Articles

  • ‘God’, in J. Bingham (ed.), The Routledge Companion to Early Christian Thought (New York: Routledge, 2009).

  • Of God and Man: Theology as Anthropology from Irenaeus to Athanasius (T&T Clark, 2009).

  • Irenaeus on Creation: The Cosmic Christ and the Saga of Redemption (Brill, 2008).

  • A Century on Prayer, Orthodox Word no. 268 (2009).
  • The Orthodox Study Bible: Septuagint Old Testament (California: Thomas Nelson Publishers, February 2008) — editor, translator, and chair of prophetical books translations.

  • ‘The Church’, in M. Cunningham - Corran and E. Theokritoff (eds.), Cambridge Companion to Orthodox Theology (Cambridge: The University Press, 2008).

  • ‘An exegesis of conformity: textual subversion of subversive texts’, in K. Cooper and J. Gregory (eds.), Discipline and Diversity (Studies in Church History, vol. 43; Woodbridge: Boydell and Brewer, 2007).

  • ‘Scripture, graphe, and the status of Hermas in Irenaeus’, St Vladimir’s Theological Quarterly 53.1 (2009) 29-66.

  • ‘Taking Stock of our Struggle’, Orthodox Word 44.263 (2008[9]).
  • ‘Impatience and Humanity’s Sinful State in Tertullian of Carthage’, Vigiliae Christianae 62 (2008) 107-132.

  • ‘Sinful nature as second nature in Tertullian of Carthage’, Studia Patristica (2010).

  • ‘Two-natured man: an anthropology of transfiguration’, Pro Ecclesia 14.4 (2005) 413-432.

  • ‘To test or preserve? The prohibition of Gen 2.16-17 in the thought of two second-century exegetes’ [Irenaeus and Theophilus], Gregorianum 86 (2005) 723-741.

  • ‘Children in Paradise: Adam and Eve as “infants” in Irenaeus of Lyons’, Journal of Early Christian Studies
  • ‘The role of Mary as co-recapitulator in St Irenaeus of Lyons’, Vigiliae Christianae 58.2 (2004) 117-137.

  • ‘The Mother of God as mediatrix in Orthodox and Roman Catholic thought’, Sobornost, incorporating Eastern Churches Review, 26.1 (2004) 6-26. 

  • ‘Gnomic will and a challenge to the true humanity of Christ in Maximus Confessor’, Studia Patristica 42 (2006) 237-242.

  • ‘Self and the Church: A review of E. Moore’s “Defining Orthodoxy: Is it Possible?”’, Theandros: An Online Journal of Orthodox Christian Theology and Philosophy <> 1/1 (September 2003).

  • ‘Rediscovering Old Testament Christianity’, Again 23.3 (2001) 4-11.

Introductory Studies

  • A World Full of Arians
  • Epinoia & Ennoia: The Cappadocian Fathers on essence/energy and the human knowledge of God
  • Modelling the Trinity after the man: Human nature and the Trinity in the Cappadocian Epistle 38
  • Athanasius of Alexandria: Sacrifice, Sanctification, Salvation
  • Dionysius the Areopagite: Self-Surpassing Knowledge
  • Gregory of Nyssa: Luminous Darkness
  • Gregory Palamas: An Historical Overview
  • Gregory Palamas: Knowledge, Prayer, and Vision
  • Hesychios the Priest: On Watchfulness and Holiness
  • John Klimakos: On Repentance that Leads to Joy
  • Maximos the Confessor: On the Free Will of Christ
  • Symeon the New Theologian: On the Divine Light
  • Origen: the Final Restoration ... a Question of Heresy?
  • Antony of Egypt: the Basics of His Spirituality
  • A Gospel Motivation for the Monastic Life
  • Ex Oriente Lux: John Cassian on Eastern Monasticism in the West

Devotional Writings

  • The Advent of Love: Reflections on the Nativity of Christ (2004)
  • 'He bowed the heavens and came down': The nativity of Christ (2003)
  • On the Nativity Fast - Preparation of the Soul
  • Not like other men: Reflections on the Sunday of the Publican and the Pharisee
  • 'All to no purpose have I left my true home': Reflections on the Sunday of the Prodigal Son
  • Sunday of the Last Judgement: Reflections on the fear of God
  • At the threshold of the Fast: Reflections on the Sunday of Forgiveness
  • 'Yea, the time has come': Holy Pascha and the mystery of the liturgical present (2004)
  • The personal mystery of Pascha (2003)
  • A brief word on celibacy
  • She in whom salvation was begun: The Mother of God and the incarnation
  • To see the cross universally: Images of the cross in the Old Testament
  • Prayer as the act from which all good comes