Holy Synod in Resistance

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The Orthodox Church of Greece - Holy Synod in Resistance, also derisively referred to as the Cyprianites, were a resisting, Old Calendar synod established on April 5/18, 1985, by Metropolitan Cyprian of Oropos and Fili, and Metropolitan Giovanni of Sardinia.

It was theologically distinctive from the rest of the Old Calendarist Churches in that they did not officially view those Churches which accepted the new (“Revised Julian”) calendar as completely outside of the Orthodox Church and sacramentally devoid of grace, but as compromised or “ailing” portions of the Church awaiting final canonical judgment.


In 1979, a schism occurred in the Synod of the Church of the Genuine Orthodox Christians of Greece (GOC), or the "Florinites." Metropolitan Callistos of Corinth and Metropolitan Anthony of Megara had become dissatisfied with the administration of Archbishop Auxentius, who had irregularly received priests from New Calendar jurisdictions with questionable reputations. Callistos and Anthony ordained eight other bishops, declared Auxentius to be deposed, and registered their synod as the Church of the Genuine Orthodox Christians of Greece (GOC, so-called "Kallistiakoi", or Callistites).

In 1980, the synod entered into communion with the Synod of the Old Calendar Orthodox Church of Romania. However, in 1983 the synod disintegrated. Metropolitan Callistos quit the Synod because of a disagreement on the question of grace in New Calendarist sacraments, Bishop Maximos of Magnesia and two others returned to the Synod of the True Orthodox Church of Greece under Archbishop Auxentios. The rest, Matthew of Oinois, Kalliopios of Pentapolis, and Kallinikos of Achaia, returned to the synod in 1985 under the presidency of Metropolitan Gerontios of Peiraeus, after the first removal of Archbishop Auxentios.

Two members of the disintegrated synod, Bishops Cyprian of Fili and Giovanni of Sicily, organized the Holy Synod in Resistance.


Unlike the other Old Calendarist Greek jurisdictions, the Holy Synod in Resistance had a markedly distinct ecclesiology. While opposed to ecumenism and the New Calendar, the synod maintained that the 1974 declaration was an error and that the Church of Greece and other New Calendar jurisdictions have grace, despite the anathema against the New Calendar issued in the Sigillion of 1583. To support this view, the synod points to the views expressed by the father of Greek Old-Calendarism, Metropolitan Chrysostomos of Florina.


From 1994 to early 2006, the synod was in full communion with the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia (ROCOR), though relations cooled as negotiations took place between ROCOR and the Church of Russia. In February 2006, the synod severed communion with the ROCOR. The synod continues to maintain communion with the Old Calendar Orthodox Church of Romania (Synod of Metropolitan Vlasie). In 1993, the Synod ordained, and maintains communion with, Bishop Photii of the Old Calendar Orthodox Church of Bulgaria.

On 17 November 2007 the Synod published the "Memorandum Regarding Principles of Coöperation Between the Greek and Russian Anti-Ecumenists", which defined its relationship with the self-proclaimed "Provisional Supreme Ecclesiastical Authority of the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad" [1] under Bishop Agafangel, who had departed from the Russian Orthodox Church Outside of Russia over its union with the Moscow Patriarchate.


The synod had five dioceses, including the Metropolis of Oropos and Fili, the Archdiocese of Etna (California), the Diocese of Sydney and New South Wales, the Diocese of Nora (Italy), and the Diocese of Luni (Italy). There were also missions in Austria, Sweden, Italy, Czech Republic, Georgia, South Ossetia, Kenya, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Uganda, the United Kingdom and South Africa.

Serving and praying in the synod's parishes, missions, and monasteries were 74 priests (including 17 hieromonks and 57 married priests), 15 deacons, 43 monks and 60 nuns.

There was also one publication house, the Center for Traditionalist Orthodox Studies.


On March 5, 2014, after several years of dialogue, the Synod in Resistance united itself to the Church of the Genuine Orthodox Christians of Greece and formally ceased to exist.[1]

External links