Difference between revisions of "Church of Serbia"

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[[Image:Serbia logo.gif|right|300px]]
The '''Church of Serbia''' is one of the [[autocephaly|autocephalous]] Orthodox churches, ranking sixth after [[Church of Constantinople|Constantinople]], [[Church of Alexandria|Alexandria]], [[Church of Antioch|Antioch]], [[Church of Jerusalem|Jerusalem]], [[Church of Russia|Russia]] in the diptychs of [[Church of Constantinople|Constantinople]]. In the diptychs of the [[Church of Russia]], it ranks seventh.{{fact}}  It exercises jurisdiction over Orthodox Christians in Serbia and surrounding Slavic and other lands as well as [[exarchate]]s and patriarchal representation churches around the world.  The patriarch of Serbia serves as first among equals in his church; the current patriarch is His Holiness [[Pavle (Stojcevic) of Serbia|Pavle (Stojcevic)]].
name= The Patriarchate of Serbia[[Image:Serbia logo 2.gif|center|Church of Serbia]]|
founder= [[Apostle Andrew]], St. [[Sava of Serbia]]|
independence= 1219 (lost in 1766), again in 1879 |
recognition= 1219 by [[Church of Constantinople|Constantinople]], again in 1879 |
primate=[[Pavle (Stojcevic) of Serbia|Patriarch Pavle]]|
hq=Belgrade, Serbia|
territory=Serbia, Bosnia-Hercegovina, Croatia, Hungary, Republic of Macedonia (disputed), Montenegro, Slovenia|
possessions= United States, Canada, Europe, Australia|
language=[[Church Slavonic]]; Serbian|
music=[[Serbian Chant]]; some [[Byzantine Chant]] used|
calendar=[[Julian Calendar|Julian]]|
website=[http://www.spc.yu Church of Serbia]
The Serbian Orthodox Church is an autocephalous, or ecclesiastically independent, member of the Orthodox communion, located primarily in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, and a  disputed presence in the Republic of Macedonia. Since many Serbs have emigrated to foreign countries, there are many Serbian Orthodox communities on all continents.
Soon after their arrrival to the Balkans, the Serbian tribes were successively [[baptism|baptised]] by Christian [[missionary|missionaries]] and became Orthodox Christians. The [[consecration]] of St. [[Sava of Serbia|Sava]] as autocephalous archbishop of Serbia in 1219 strengthened various Serbian principalities even more in their ecclesiastical allegiance to [[Church of Constantinople|Constantinople]] and the Christian East. Later, as the medieval kingdom of Serbia grew in size and prestige and as Stefan Dusan, king of Serbia from 1331, assumed the imperial title of tsar (1346 to 1355), the archbishopric of Pec was correspondingly raised to the rank of [[patriarchate]]. The period before the arrival of the Turks was the time of the greatest flourishing of the Serbian church. After the final Turkish conquest of the most influental Serbian principality in 1459, the greater portion of Serbian lands became a Turkish pasalik (province). After the death of Patriarch Arsenije II in 1463, a successor was not elected. The patriarchate was thus de facto abolished, and the Serbian church passed under the jurisdiction of the [[Ecumenical Patriarchate]]. The Serbian patriarchate was restored in 1557 by the Turkish sultan Suleiman the Magnificent. [[Makarije (Sokolovic) of Pec|Makarije]], brother of the famous Mehmed Pasha Sokolovic, was elected patriarch in Pec.
The restoration of the patriarchate was of great importance for the Serbs because it helped the spiritual unification of all Serbs in the Ottoman Empire. After consequent Serbian uprisals against the Turkish occupation in which the church had a leading role, the Turks abolished the patriarchate once again in 1766. The church returned once more to the jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constintinople. This period of so-called "[[Phanariots]]" was a period of great spiritual decline because the Greek [[bishop]]s had very little understanding of their Serbian flock. This was also the period when a great number of Christians converted to [[Islam]] to avoid the severe taxes imposed by the Turks in retaliation for uprisings and continued resistance. Many Serbs and their [[hierarch]]s migrated to southern Hungary, where the church was autonomous. The seat of the archbishops was moved from Pec to Karlovci. The Serbian Orthodox Church finally regained its independence and became autocephalous again in 1879, the year after the recognition by the Allied powers of Serbia as an independent state. After World War I, all the Serbs were united under one ecclesiastical authority, and the patriarchate was reestablished in 1920 with election of Patriarch [[Dimitrije (Pavlovic) of Serbia|Dimitrje]], the patriarch's full title being ''Archbishop of Pec, Metropolitan of Belgrade and Karlovci, and Patriarch of the Serbs''.
During the Second World War, the Serbian Orthodox Church passed through severe trials in which many bishops, [[priest]]s, and about 700,000 [[laity|lay]] Orthodox Christians were killed by Croatian and Muslim fascists (according to the Orthodox Diocese of Raska and Prizren). Hundreds of [[church]]es were completely destroyed or desecrated. After the Second World War the church experienced new trials under the communists, who prohibited teaching of religion in schools, confiscated the property of the church, and used various overt and covert means of persecution in order to diminish the influence the church had among the people. It was only after 1989 that the position of the church became tolerable, although church estates have not yet been returned to their lawful owners.
===In the Republic of Macedonia===
: ''Main articles: [[Macedonian Orthodox Church]], [[Autonomous Archdiocese of Ohrid]]''
In 1959, the portion of Yugoslavia known as the Republic of Macedonia was approved by the Serbian patriarchate to have its own autonomous archdiocese.  In 1967, however, with government and popular backing, the bishops of the archdiocese proclaimed themselves to be an [[autocephaly|autocephalous]] church, styled the [[Macedonian Orthodox Church]], to the protests of the patriarchate.  The autocephaly of this church has not been recognized by any of the other Orthodox churches, who have broken off communion with it (though its laity are usually received into communion).
In 2002, at the invitation of the patriarchate, one of the bishops of the breakaway group, [[Jovan (Vraniskovski) of Ohrid|Jovan (Vraniskovski)]] (then Metropolitan of Veles and the Vardar Valley), came into union with the Serbian patriarchate, which thus reestablished its [[Autonomous Archdiocese of Ohrid]], which is the canonically recognized Orthodox church in the Republic of Macedonia.  Tensions between the breakaway group and the patriarchate remain high, and Archbishop Jovan, who was made head of the autonomous archdiocese, was imprisoned for eighteen months by local authorities for allegedly criminal activities.  The breakaway church has government backing, and so the activities of the autonomous archdiocese are subject to persecution by the authorities.
== Structure of the patriarchate ==
The supreme authority of the Serbian Orthodox Church is the Holy Assembly of Bishops, composed of all its bishops, who meet twice a year. A permanent synod of six members carries out the administration of the day-to-day affairs of the church.  Over the years the Serbian church has had its primate located at several various locations.  There have been 54 (44 in Pec) patriarchs in Serbia, and other major metropolitans.
The Serbian Orthodox Church is divided into 40 [[diocese]]s, each headed by its own metropolitan, archbishop, or bishop:
===Serbia ===
* '''Archdiocese of Belgrade and Sremski Karlovci''', with see in Belgrade (including Monastery of Pećka Patrijaršija)
'''diocesan:''' Patriarch Dr [[Pavle (Stojcevic) of Serbia|Pavle]]
'''coadjutors:''' Atanasije vicar Bishop of Hvostno,  Antonije vicar Bishop of Moravice
* '''Diocese of Banat''', with see in Vršac
'''diocesan:''' Bishop [[Nikanor (Bogunovic) of Banat|Nikanor]]
* '''Diocese of Backa''', with see in Novi Sad
'''diocesan:''' Bishop  Dr Irinej
'''coadjutor:''' Dr Porfirije vicar Bishop of Jegra
* '''Diocese of Branicevo''', with see in Požarevac
'''diocesan:''' Bishop Dr [[Ignatije (Midic) of Pozarevac and Branicevo|Ignjatije]]
* '''Diocese of Vranje''', with see in Vranje
'''diocesan:''' Bishop Pahomije
* '''Diocese of Žica''', with see in monastery Žica near Kraljevo
'''diocesan:''' Bishop Hrizostom
* '''Diocese of Mileševa''', with see in Mileševa monastery
'''diocesan:''' Bishop Filaret
* '''Diocese of Niš''', with see in Niš
'''diocesan:''' Bishop Irinej
* '''Diocese of Ras and Prizren''', with see in Prizren
'''diocesan:''' Bishop Dr Artemije
'''coadjutor:''' Teodosije vicar Bishop of Lipljan
* '''Diocese of Srem''', with see in Sremski Karlovci
'''diocesan:''' Bishop Vasilije
* '''Diocese of Timok''', with see in Zajecar
'''diocesan:''' Bishop Dr Justin
* '''Diocese of Šabac ''', with see in Šabac
'''diocesan:''' Bishop Lavrentije
* '''Diocese of Šumadija''', with see in Kragujevac
'''diocesan:''' Bishop Jovan
* '''Diocese of Valjevo''', with see in Valjevo (established in May 2006)
'''diocesan:''' Bishop [[ Milutin (Knezevic) of Valjevo|Milutin]]
=== Montenegro ===
* '''Metropolitanate of Montenegro and the Littoral''', with see in Cetinje
'''diocesan:''' Metropoliten Dr [[Amfilohije (Radovic) of Momtenegro and Litoral|Amfilohije]]
'''coadjutor:''' Jovan vicar Bishop of Dioclea
* '''Diocese of Budimlje and Nikšic''', with see in Đurđevi Stupovi monastery near Berane
'''diocesan:''' Bishop Joanikije
=== Bosnia and Herzegovina ===
* '''Metropolitanate of Dabar-Bosnia''', with see in Sarajevo
'''diocesan:''' Metropoliten Dr Nikolaj
* '''Diocese of Banja Luka''', with see in Banja Luka
'''diocesan:''' Bishop [[Jefrem]]
* '''Diocese of Bihac and Petrovac''', with see in Bosanksi Petrovac
'''diocesan:''' Bishop Hrizostom
* '''Diocese of Zahumlje and Herzegovina''', with see in monastery Tvrdoš near Trebinje
'''diocesan:''' Bishop Grigorije
* '''Diocese of Zvornik and Tuzla''', with see in Bijeljina  (temporarly, oficially see is in Tuzla )
'''diocesan:''' Bishop Vasilije
=== Croatia ===
* '''Metropolitanate of Zagreb and Ljubljana''', with see in Zagreb; ''also encompasses Italy and all of Slovenia''
'''diocesan:''' Metropoliten Jovan
* '''Diocese of upper Karlovac''', with see in Karlovac
'''diocesan:''' Bishop Gerasim
* '''Diocese of Dalmatia''', with see in Šibenik
'''diocesan:''' Bishop Dr Fotije
* '''Diocese of Osjecko polje and Baranja''', with see in Dalj
'''diocesan:''' Bishop Lukijan
* '''Diocese of Slavonia''', with see in Daruvar
'''diocesan:''' Bishop [[Sava (Juric) of Slavonia|Sava]]
* '''Diocese of Timisoara''', with see in Timisoara
===Republic of Macedonia===
* '''Autonomous Archdiocese of Ohrid''', with see in Ohrid
'''diocesan:''' Archibishop Jovan '''coadjutor:''' Marko vicar Bishop of Dremevica and Administrator of Bitola
* '''Diocese of Polog-Kumanovo''', with see in Kumanovo
'''diocesan:''' Bishop Joakim
* '''Diocese of Britain and Scandinavia''', with see in Stockholm; ''encompasses parishes in Great Britain, Norway, Sweden and Denmark''
'''diocesan:''' Bishop Dositej
* '''Diocese of Buda (Budim)''', with see in Sentandreja; ''encompasses Orthodox Serbs in Hungary''
'''diocesan:''' Bishop Lukijan
* '''[[Serbian Orthodox Diocese of France and Western Europe|Diocese of West Europe]]''', with see in Paris; ''encompasses Orthodox Serbs in France, Belgium, Netherlands and Spain''
'''diocesan:''' Bishop [[Luka (Kovacevic) of France and Western Europe|Luka]]
* '''Diocese of Central Europe''', with see in Himmelstühr monastery; ''encompasses Serb Orthodox faithful in Germany, Austria and Switzerland''
'''diocesan:''' Bishop Konstantin
===The Americas===
* '''Metropolitanate of Midwestern America''', with see at St. Sava Monastery in Libertyville, Illinois
'''diocesan:''' Metropoliten Hristofor
* '''Diocese of East America''', with see at Holy Trinity Cathedral in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
'''diocesan:''' Bishop Dr Mitrofan
* '''Diocese of West America''', with see at St. Stephen Cathedral in Alhambra, California
'''diocesan:''' Bishop Dr [[Maxim (Vasilijevic) of Western America|Maxim]]
* '''Diocese of Canada''', with see at St. Nicholas Cathedral in Hamilton, Ontario
'''diocesan:''' Bishop Gorgije
* '''Metropolitanate of New Gracanica, Diocese of the United States and Canada''', with see at Most Holy Mother of God Monastery in Grayslake, Illinois ''(former Free Serbian Orthodox Church Diocese for the United States and Canada, which was not in full communion with the Serbian patriarch from 1963 to 1992)''
'''diocesan:''' Bishop [[Longin (Krco) of America and Canada|Longin]]
===Australia and Oceania===
* '''[[Serbian Orthodox Church in Australia and New Zealand|Diocese of Australia and New Zealand]]''', with see in the New Kalenic Monastery, Hall (near Canberra).
'''diocesan:''' Bishop [[Irinej (Dobrijevic) of Australia and New Zealand|Irinej]]
Dioceses are further divided into [[deanery|deaneries]], each consisting of several church congregations and [[parish]]es. Church congregation consists of one or more parishes.
==See also==
*[[List of Patriarchs of Serbia]]
== External links ==
*[http://www.spc.yu Church of Serbia] official website in Serbian and English
*[http://www.cnewa.org/ecc-bodypg-us.aspx?eccpageID=18&IndexView=toc Eastern Christian Churches: The Orthodox Church of Serbia] by Ronald Roberson, a Roman Catholic priest and scholar
===Dioceses=== <!-- These should go onto the separate OrthodoxWiki pages and be removed from this page when those are created. —magda --->
*[http://www.poa-info.org The Orthodox Archidiocese of Ochrid]
*[http://www.mitropolija.cg.yu/index.html Metropolitanate of Montenegro and the Coastlands]
*[http://www.mitropolija-zagrebacka.org Metropolitanate of Zagreb and Ljubljana]
*[http://www.eparhija-backa.org.yu Diocese of Backa]
*[http://www.spcbl.org Diocese of Banja Luka]
*[http://www.eparhijabihackopetrovacka.org Diocese of Bihac and Petrovac]
*[http://www.e-budimljansko-niksicka.cg.yu Diocese of Budimlje and Niksic]
*[http://www.istocnik.com/index.shtml Diocese of Canada]
*[http://www.serbische-diozese.org Diocese of Central Europe]
*[http://www.eparhija-dalmatinska.hr Diocese of Dalmatia]
*[http://www.easterndiocese.org Diocese of Eastern America]
*[http://www.eparhija-niska.org.yu Diocese of Nis]
*[http://www.eparhija-sumadijska.org.yu Diocese of Sumadija]
*[http://www.eparhija-timocka.org Diocese of Timok]
*[http://www.westsrbdio.org Diocese of Western America]
*[http://www.egliseorthodoxeserbe.org Diocese of Western Europe]
*[http://www.covekoljublje.org/Default.shtml PHILANTHROPY]
*[http://www.bfspc.bg.ac.yu Theological Faculty of the Serbian Orthodox Church]
[[es:Iglesia Ortodoxa de Serbia]]
[[ro:Biserica Ortodoxă Sârbă]]

Revision as of 11:30, June 10, 2008