Difference between revisions of "Church of Greece"

From OrthodoxWiki
Jump to: navigation, search
(Readjusted headers (these aren't subsections of the History section), rm editorial remarks (these clarifications can be included in the individual articles))
m (Contemporary elders)
Line 63: Line 63:
*Papa-Dimitri Gagastathi
*Papa-Dimitri Gagastathi
=== Modern writers ===
==Modern writers==
*[[Hierotheos (Vlachos) of Nafpaktos]]
*[[Hierotheos (Vlachos) of Nafpaktos]]
*[[Apostolos Makrakis]]
*[[Apostolos Makrakis]]
Line 87: Line 87:
*[[Leo Allatius]]  
*[[Leo Allatius]]  
== References and notes ==
== References and notes ==

Revision as of 15:17, December 10, 2008

Church of Greece
Church of Greece
Founder(s) Apostles
Autocephaly/Autonomy declared 1833
Autocephaly/Autonomy recognized 1850 by Constantinople
Current primate Ieronymos II
Headquarters Athens, Greece
Primary territory Greece
Possessions abroad
Liturgical language(s) Greek
Musical tradition Byzantine Chant / Choral
Calendar Revised Julian
Population estimate 10,000,000 [1]
Official website Church of Greece

The Church of Greece, also called the Greek Orthodox Church, is one of the fourteen autocephalous churches of the Orthodox Christian communion, whose territory consists of the whole of Greece except for those parts which belong to the Patriarchate of Constantinople, such as the Dodecanese and Crete. Though bishops of the "new lands" (those that were liberated from 1912 and afterward) are members of the Holy Synod of the Church of Greece, they commemorate the Patriarch of Constantinople in the divine services.

The current primate of the Church of Greece is His Beatitude Ieronymos II (Liapis), Archbishop of Athens and All Greece.


The Greek Orthodox Church traces its history back to the time of St. Paul who was the first to preach Christianity in Greece. He visited Athens, Philippi, Thessaloniki, Veroia, Corinth and Crete. Christianity eventually spread through Greece from these cities. In these early days, the Church of Greece comprised a diocese, with Corinth as the centre, known then as Achaia and considered a city of great importance.

The Church of Cyprus recognised its autonomy from the Church of Greece during the Council of Ephesus in 431. This was confirmed by the Emperor in 488.

When Constantine the Great divided the Roman Empire, Greece and Macedonia constituted the diocese of Eastern Illyricum, which was self-governing. By 733 AD, under Emperor Leo the Third, Greece was acknowledged as part of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople but prior to this, it was subordinated to the Bishops of Rome.

During the Byzantine Empire and the subsequent Turkish occupation of Greece, the Christian church in Greece was under the administration of the ecumenical patriarch of Constantinople. After the Greek War of Independence (1821-32), the provisional president of Greece Ioannis Kapodistrias(1776-1831), began negotiations with the patriarch for the independence of the Greek church. The final decision was made when Otto I (1815-1867), the new king of Greece, feared the Turkish government might still be able to influence the politics of Greece through the patriarchate of Constantinople and as such the Greek church was declared autocephalous in 1833. The independence was formalised by Constantinople in 1850, with some limitations.

In 1864, the Ionian islands were added to the Church of Greece and in 1881 the diocese of Thessaly and parts of Epirus were also added. Also in this year, the first Greek Orthodox church was founded in America. Under an agreement made in 1908 between the Ecumenical Patriarchate and the Holy Synod of Athens, jurisdiction of the churches in America was given to the Church of Greece. In 1927, the statutes regarding the Church were modified resulting in the government controlling the church and attending the Holy Synod meetings. So during the 20s and 30s, the turbulent political events in Greece divided the Greeks of America and this resulted in Archbishop Athenaogoras of Corfu to be appointed to head the Greek Church in America.

Today the Church of Greece is governed by a Holy Synod, presided over by the Metropolitan Archbishop of Athens and assisted by four bishops chosen in regular succession. The Patriarch of Constantinople is still regarded as the spiritual head of the church and all of the Holy Chrisma used in Greece is consecrated by him. Organised as a state church, similar to the pattern adopted in the Russian church under Peter the Great of Russia, the ultimate authority is vested in the Synod of Bishops under the presidency of the archbishop of Athens and all Greece. A second synod, with the same presidency, consists of 12 bishops, each serving for one year only. The first synod deals with general ecclesiastical questions, whereas the second synod deals with administrative details. The church is divided into 81 small dioceses; some of these, are nominally under the jurisdiction of Constantinople. The majority of the church's priests in Greece do not have a university education, with very little formal training beyond two years at higher seminaries after high school. An up-to-date listing, in order of seniority of ordination, of the Holy Synod can be accessed at the Church of Greece's official website.

Greek language

The Greek language has been known as the "Sacred Language" of the church from the time of the Apostles and enjoyed its prominence mainly in the early history of Christianity. In scriptural study and to a great extend it is one of the original languages of the Scriptures (the New Testament).

... adsolent Latini homines Graece cantare oblectati sono verborum nescientes tamen quid dicant. [The Latins are accustomed to singing in Greek, delighted by the sounds of the words, but not knowing what they are saying.] [1]


Contemporary elders

Modern writers

References and notes

  1. The "Ambrosiaster" (saec. IV) on 1 Cor 14:14; CSEL 81, 2, p. 153, 6


See also

External links

Official Sites of the Church of Greece

Other Sites

Church-State relations in Greece

Various News Articles

Non-Orthodox Reviews

Autocephalous and Autonomous Churches of Orthodoxy
Autocephalous Churches
Four Ancient Patriarchates: Constantinople · Alexandria · Antioch · Jerusalem
Russia · Serbia · Romania · Bulgaria · Georgia · Cyprus · Greece · Poland · Albania · Czech Lands and Slovakia · OCA* · Ukraine*
Autonomous Churches
Sinai · Finland · Estonia* · Japan* · China* · Ukraine*
The * designates a church whose autocephaly or autonomy is not universally recognized.