Difference between revisions of "Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of North America"

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[[Image:Antiochian local synod.jpg|right|thumb|350px|'''The Local Synod of the Antiochian Archdiocese'''<br>L to R:  Bp. [[Mark (Maymon) of Toledo|Mark]], Bp. [[Basil (Essey) of Wichita|Basil]], Bp. [[Antoun (Khouri) of Miami|Antoun]], Metr. [[Philip (Saliba) of New York|Philip]], Bp. [[Joseph (Al-Zehlaoui) of Los Angeles|Joseph]], Bp. [[Thomas (Joseph) of Charleston and Oakland|Thomas]], Bp. [[Alexander (Mufarrij) of Ottawa|Alexander]]]]
The '''Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of North America''' is the sole jurisdiction of the [[Church of Antioch]] in the USA and Canada with exclusive jurisdiction over the Antiochian Orthodox faithful in those countries.  Its current primate is the Most Reverend [[Philip (Saliba) of New York|Philip (Saliba)]], Archbishop of New York and Metropolitan of all North America.
name= The Self-Ruled Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of North America|
jurisdiction=[[Church of Antioch|Antioch]]|
type=Self-ruled Archdiocese|
bishop=[[Philip (Saliba) of New York|Metr. Philip]]|
see=New York|
hq=Englewood, New Jersey|
territory=United States and Canada|
language=English, Arabic, Spanish|
music=[[Byzantine Chant]], [[Russian Chant]]|
calendar=[[Revised Julian Calendar|Revised Julian]]|
population=51,000 to 380,000|
website=[http://www.antiochian.org/ Antiochian Archdiocese]
== History of the Archdiocese ==
[[Image:Raphael of Brooklyn.jpg|left|thumb|150px|St. [[Raphael of Brooklyn]]]]
''Main Article: [[History of Antiochian Orthodoxy in America]]''
The first Orthodox bishop consecrated in North America, [[Raphael of Brooklyn|St. Raphael Hawaweeny]], was consecrated by the [[Church of Russia|Russian Orthodox Church]] in America to care for the Orthodox Arab faithful in the USA and Canada.  The Antiochian Archdiocese in North America traces its genesis to his ministry.  His initial arrival in America was not to serve in the episcopacy, however, but he came as an [[archimandrite]] in 1895 at the request of members of the Syrian Orthodox Benevolent Society, an ostensibly philanthropic group whose primary purpose was to maintain ties between Orthodox Arabs living in America.  He thus came to the US and was canonically received under the [[omophorion]] of Bishop [[Nicholas (Ziorov) of the Aleutians]], the [[Church of Russia]]'s exarch in America at the time.
Upon arriving in New York, Fr. Raphael established a parish in lower Manhattan, then the center of the Syrian immigrant community.  By 1900, however some 3,000 of these immigrants had moved across the East River, shifting the center of their life to Brooklyn. Thus, in 1902, the parish purchased a larger church building in that borough on Pacific Street. The church was named for St. [[Nicholas the Wonderworker]], renovated for Orthodox worship, and then consecrated on [[October 27]], 1902, by St. [[Tikhon of Moscow]].  St. Nicholas Cathedral was later relocated to State Street in Brooklyn and is today considered the mother cathedral of the Archdiocese.
At the request of St. Tikhon, Fr. Raphael was chosen as his [[auxiliary bishop]], consecrated at St. Nicholas Cathedral as Bishop of Brooklyn and given more authority for his care of Arabic Orthodox Christians in America.  Not long after, he founded ''Al-Kalimat'' (''The Word'') magazine, published service books in Arabic which were used in America, the Middle East, and throughout the Arabic Orthodox diaspora.  St. Raphael fell asleep in the [[Lord]] at the age of 54 on [[February 27]], 1915, after short, but fruitful, years of service.
[[Image:St Elias Ottawa.jpg|left|thumb|250px|St. Elias Antiochian Orthodox Cathedral, Ottawa, Canada]]
However, after the Bolshevik Revolution threw the Russian Orthodox Church and its faithful abroad into chaos, the Orthodox Arab faithful in North America, simultaneously shaken by the death of their beloved bishop St. Raphael, chose to come under the direct care of the [[Church of Antioch|Patriarchate of Antioch]]. Due to internal conflicts, however, the Antiochian Orthodox faithful in North America were divided between two [[archdiocese]]s, those of New York and Toledo, generally representing those who were loyal to the [[Church of Antioch]] and the [[Church of Russia]], respectively.  This division of the Arabic faithful resulted significantly from the division in loyalty to the bishops who aligned themselves at the time with the [[Orthodox Church in America|Russian Metropolia]], those who were involved with the formation of the now-defunct [[American Orthodox Catholic Church]], and those who chose to have canonical recourse directly to the [[Holy Synod]] of Antioch.
With the signing of the Articles of Reunification by Metropolitan [[Philip (Saliba) of New York|Philip (Saliba)]] and Metropolitan [[Michael (Shaheen) of Toledo|Michael (Shaheen)]] in 1975, the two Antiochian Orthodox archdioceses were united as one Archdiocese of North America (now with its headquarters in Englewood, New Jersey).  Metropolitan Philip became the primate of the newly reunified archdiocese, and Metropolitan Michael became an auxiliary archbishop.  Since then the Archdiocese has experienced rapid and significant growth through the [[conversion]] of a number of Evangelical Protestants&mdash;both individually and as congregations, especially with the reception of the majority of the [[Evangelical Orthodox Church]] in the 1980s&mdash;and also through ongoing evangelization and the immigration of Orthodox Arabs from the Middle East.
== The Archdiocese today ==
Its current primate is Metropolitan [[Philip (Saliba) of New York|Philip (Saliba)]], who has six other diocesan [[bishop]]s assisting him in caring for the nine [[diocese]]s of the growing Archdiocese, which is the third largest Orthodox Christian [[jurisdiction]] in North America, having 236 communities (38 of which are missions).  Estimates of the number of faithful range from 51,320 to 84,000[http://hirr.hartsem.edu/research/quick_question17.html] to 380,000[http://www.electronicchurch.org/2002/NCC_members.htm] depending on the report and the counting method being used.  The number of new Antiochian parishes in the decade between 1990 and 2000 rose by approximately 33%, and the primary membership growth in the Archdiocese has been from American converts.[http://hirr.hartsem.edu/research/tab2.pdf] From 2003 to 2005, an increase of 1,229 communicants was reported at the conventions, an increase of 2.5%.
The Archdiocese also includes the [[Western Rite Vicariate]], a group of about 16 [[parish]]es and 7 missions which worship according to the [[Western Rite]].
[[Image:Antiochian bishops.jpg|left|thumb|250px|'''New bishops with the patriarch'''<br>Left to Right:  Bp. [[Mark (Maymon) of Toledo|Mark]], Patr. [[Ignatius IV (Hazim) of Antioch|Ignatius IV]], Bp. [[Thomas (Joseph) of Charleston and Oakland|Thomas]], Bp. [[Alexander (Mufarrij) of Ottawa|Alexander]]]]
On [[October 9]], 2003, the [[Holy Synod]] of the [[Church of Antioch]] granted the Archdiocese's request to be granted self-rule (as distinct from [[autonomy]], and though the words have the same literal meaning in English, they are distinct in Arabic) to allow it to better govern itself, improve and increase its outreach efforts, internally organize itself into several dioceses, and continue progress toward Orthodox administrative unity in the Americas.  Three new [[bishop]]s were consecrated in December of 2004 to assist in the governance of the reorganized Archdiocese.
The Archdiocese also includes one [[monasticism|monastic]] community, [[St. Paul Skete (Grand Junction, Tennessee)]], a community for women.  It does not run any of its own seminaries, but sends its seminarians to theological schools run by other [[jurisdiction]]s or overseas.  The Archdiocese does run various non-seminary educational programs, however, including the [[St. Stephen's Course in Orthodox Theology]].
The Antiochian Archdiocese is also a member of [[SCOBA]] and was formerly a member of the [[National Council of Churches]] (NCC), but on [[July 28]], 2005, its Archdiocesan Convention voted unanimously to withdraw fully from that organization, thus making it the first of the major Orthodox jurisdictions in the US to do so.
Additionally, the 2005 convention voted another first for a major American Orthodox jurisdiction:  to alter the assessment-based model of archdiocesan revenue to a [[tithing|tithe]] (10%) of each parish's income (excepting building funds), to be phased in at 8% in 2007 and then followed by 1% increases in 2008 and 2009, respectively.  Of the Archdiocese's 236 communities, 31 are already tithing.
===Membership figures===
According to the November 2005 issue of the ''Word'' magazine (p. 5)[http://www.antiochian.org/assets/word/NOV.%202005%20WORD.pdf], the following membership figures were reported at the 2005 Archdiocesan Convention:
{| border="1" class="toccolours" cellpadding="4" cellspacing="0" style="clear:right; margin: 0 0 1em 1em; font-size:95%; text-align:left; border-collapse: collapse;"
| colspan="4" style="text-align:center; font-size:150%;" | Archdiocese membership figures (2005)
|- style="vertical-align: top;"
| '''Diocese'''
| '''Parishes'''
| '''Baptized souls'''
|- style="vertical-align: top;"
| [[Diocese of New York (Antiochian)|Archdiocesan District]]
| 13
| 4407
|- style="vertical-align: top;"
| [[Diocese of Ottawa (Antiochian)|Ottawa]]
| 19
| 6029
|- style="vertical-align: top;"
| [[Diocese of Oakland and the East (Antiochian)|Oakland (PA)]]
| 26
| 5757
|- style="vertical-align: top;"
| [[Diocese of Wichita and Mid-America (Antiochian)|Wichita]]
| 40
| 6434
|- style="vertical-align: top;"
| [[Diocese of Toledo and the Midwest (Antiochian)|Toledo]]
| 41
| 10231
|- style="vertical-align: top;"
| [[Diocese of Eagle River and the Northwest (Antiochian)|Eagle River]]
| 18
| 1994
|- style="vertical-align: top;"
| [[Diocese of Worcester and New England (Antiochian)|Worcester]]
| 11
| 4452
|- style="vertical-align: top;"
| [[Diocese of Miami and the Southeast (Antiochian)|Miami]]
| 34
| 3841
|- style="vertical-align: top;"
| [[Diocese of Los Angeles and the West (Antiochian)|Los Angeles]]
| 34
| 8175
|- style="vertical-align: top;"
| '''Total'''
| '''236'''
| '''51320'''
'''Notes:''' The figures for the [[Diocese of Wichita and Mid-America (Antiochian)|Diocese of Wichita and Mid-America]] were omitted from the ''Word'' magazine but computed backward from the totals for this article.  Additionally, according to the website of the Diocese of Los Angeles and the West, the number of parishes and missions it comprises is 54.[http://www.antiochianladiocese.org/deaneries.htm]
== The Episcopacy ==
===Diocesan bishops===
*Most Reverend [[Philip (Saliba) of New York|Philip (Saliba)]], Archbishop of New York and the Archdiocesan District, Metropolitan of All North America, ''[[Locum Tenens]]'' of the Diocese of Worcester and New England
*Right Reverend [[Antoun (Khouri) of Miami|Antoun (Khouri)]], Bishop of Miami and the Southeast
*Right Reverend [[Basil (Essey) of Wichita|Basil (Essey)]], Bishop of Wichita and Mid-America
*Right Reverend [[Joseph (Al-Zehlaoui) of Los Angeles|Joseph (Al-Zehlaoui)]], Bishop of Los Angeles and the West, ''Locum Tenens'' of the Diocese of Eagle River and the Northwest
*Right Reverend [[Thomas (Joseph) of Charleston and Oakland|Thomas (Joseph)]], Bishop of Charleston, Oakland and the Mid-Atlantic
*Right Reverend [[Mark (Maymon) of Toledo|Mark (Maymon)]], Bishop of Toledo and the Midwest
*Right Reverend [[Alexander (Mufarrij) of Ottawa|Alexander (Mufarrij)]], Bishop of Ottawa, Eastern Canada and Upstate New York
*New York Archdiocese (1924-1975)
**Metropolitan [[Victor (Abo-Assaley) of New York|Victor (Abo-Assaley)]], 1924-1935
**Metropolitan [[Anthony (Bashir) of New York|Anthony (Bashir)]], 1936-1966
**Metropolitan [[Philip (Saliba) of New York|Philip (Saliba)]], 1966-1975
*Toledo Archdiocese (1936-1975)
**Metropolitan [[Samuel (David) of Toledo|Samuel (David)]], 1936-1958
**Metropolitan [[Michael (Shaheen) of Toledo|Michael (Shaheen)]], 1958-1975
*Archdiocese of North America (1975-present)
**Metropolitan [[Philip (Saliba) of New York|Philip (Saliba)]], 1975-present
===Former bishops===
*Right Reverend [[Demetri (Khoury) of Jableh|Demetri (Khoury)]], auxiliary bishop for Toledo, retired
*Corey, George S., ed. ''The First One Hundred Years: a Centennial Anthology Celebrating Antiochian Orthodoxy in North America'', Englewood, NJ: Antakya Press, 1995 (ISBN 0962419028)
== External links ==
[[Image:Antiochian logo.jpg|right|The Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of North America]]
* [http://www.antiochian.org/ Official Website of the Archdiocese]
* [http://www.antiochpat.org/ Official Website of the Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch]
* [http://www.antiochian.org/668 History of the Archdiocese] (book excerpt)
[[Category:Antiochian Dioceses|North America]]

Revision as of 06:53, August 22, 2007