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|−|The Old Believers ( Staroveryi) or Old rituals ( Staroobrjadtsyi) or, as they themselves prefer to be called, Ancient Orthodox ( Drevlepravoslavnyi) , are those Christians remained faithful to the ancient rites, dogmas and ecclesiastical structures of Orthodox Russian, before the changes in the seventeenth century were introduced by Patriarch Nikon of Moscow. |+|
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|−|Many of the Ancient Orthodox Many to Siberia and neighboring countries, especially Romania. Most of them have never lost or refused the priesthood, even though some have denied it, and are therefore called "asacerdotali" (Bespopovtsyi): their reaction to the priesthood is not motivated by the innovations of Nikon, But their vision of the imminent kingdom of the Antichrist. |+|
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|−|Over time, the Ancient Orthodox priests founded a center at the cemetery Rogozh in Moscow, and later the monastery of Belo-Krinitsa ("white fountain") in Bukovina, then part of Austria, now in Ukraine. Although there were ancient Orthodox bishops ordained by Non-Russian Orthodox Russians prelates, none of them had left successors, because under the reign of Tsar Nicholas I lew laws restricted the reception of converts from the Official Church. |+|
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|−|In Austria, he founded the monastery of Belo-Krinitsa, as a place of freedom for the Ancient Orthodox (which carried the name of Lipoveni), thanks to laws enacted in 1783 by the Emperor Joseph II. In Vienna, the Minister of Interior, Conte Kolovrat, and Archduke Ludwig prepared the way for the permission to be given by the Ferdinand in 1844, to invite a foreign bishop to establish its headquarters in Belo-Krinitsa to serve the needs of the Ancients Orthodox in the domains of the Empire. |+|
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existed for generations communities of Ancient Orthodox in Turkey who were European refugees from the violence in Russia, and it was natural that the search for a bishop move between their first steps. According to reports from the Russian government after the mid dell'800 about 4,000 Ancient Orthodox the Empire lived in Austria, mostly in Bukovina, on the border with Russia at the Prut river, and about 36, 000 lived the Ottoman Empire. Of the latter, the majority lived in Dobruja north at the Danube delta. To put the monks in contact with the Metropolitan was Osip Semenovich Goncharov, Ataman of Nekrasovtsyi. |+|
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|−|In 1811, Andrea was married, and shortly after he was ordained priest in turn by Metropolitan Matthew. In 1814 he lost his wife, who had given him a son, also named George. In 1817 he was elected Igumeno of the Monastery of the Holy Trinity on the island of Halki. Il Patriarca Costantino lo fece protosincello della Chiesa patriarcale greca nel 1827. Patriarch Constantine had him protosincello of the patriarchal Greek Church in 1827. As is clear from a document dated 9 September 1835, he was ordained Metropolitan of Sarajevo in Bosnia by Patriarch Gregory assisted by four other bishops. Remained in place for five years before being removed by the Turks. |+|
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|−| A Serb, Costantino Efimovic, was used as an interpreter between the Metropolitan Ambrose and the two ancient Orthodox monks, who examined his orthodoxy, to whom he presented the said document of the patriarch greek. Metropolitan Ambrose and his son then took time to investigate the status of the Russian Orthodox Old canonry and what he was asked, before giving its consent on 15 April 1846. |+|
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|−|After a trip along the Danube, the Metropolitan Ambrose and the two monks arrived in Tulcea, Romania in today, where five hundred Nekrasovtsyi, together with the monks of the monastery of Slavo-Rus, their Father and Igumeno Makarij Arkadij Lavrentijevskij presented to the Metropolitan traditional bread with salt. The government requested and obtained from the patriarchate greek a favorable report on the Metropolitan, before giving him permission to establish his residence in their domains. After a meeting to discuss the procedure for settlement of the Metropolitan, on 28 October 1846 he held the office Vigil in honor of St. Nicholas the miracle worker. The following day, after reading the usual profession of faith in the ritual Slavonice ecclesiastical transliterated into Greek characters, the Metropolitan was accepted according to Canon 95 of the Sixth Ecumenical Council. The priest-monaco Ieronim, with the blessing of the first and the new Metropolitan of Belo-Krinitsa and all the Ancient Orthodox Russians, began the Divine Liturgy in which the Metropolitan concelebration. |+|
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|−|The Metropolitan read the prayers in his native language, greek, but the deacon and the choir used the Slavonia. Due to the absence of two other bishops, he used two archpriests, a procedure already used before in the history of the Church in cases of necessity, and described in some lives of saints. In August 1847 there was the ordination of Bishop Arkadij by Salvo-Rus, an ancient seat of an Orthodox monastery at Tulcea, which still exists in Romania. |+|
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|−|The Russian Foreign Ministry threatened to retaliate the government of the Roman Catholic, if it had not withdrawn the permission of the Ancient Orthodox establish its Metropolia the Empire Habsburg Empire. The Holy Synod, by which the Tsar of the church controlled state nikoniana time since the abolition of the Patriarchate under Peter I, likewise threatened to cut all financial assistance from the patriarchate of Constantinople, if he had not done everything in its power to induce the Metropolitan Ambrose to change its position. Metropolitan Ambrose, however, refused. Certainly the Ancient Orthodox Russians convinced him that the system of the Holy Synod, established in 1700 by Peter I to check the status of the church in place of the patriarch, and with whom they have not wanted to do was not a canon. By decree of Tsar Paul I, the Russian rulers had declared "the Church" and all the bishops of the church had been obliged to honor an oath to that effect. |+|
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response to diplomatic pressure, the Austrian authorities closed the monastery of Belo Krinitsa-March 3 1848, and the Metropolitan Ambrose was sent into exile in Tzill in Styria. After the outbreak of revolutions in Vienna, with the assistance of Count Kolovrat, the Minister mentioned, the monastery of Belo- Krinitsa was reopened at the end of 1848, though the Metropolitan had to remain in exile. The successor of the latter was Antonija (Shutov), which became the first old-Orthodox archbishop of Moscow. |+|
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|−|Metropolitan Ambrose lived fifteen years in exile and suffering among people who did not speak either language, but was willing to help in their need for a priesthood. He saw this as the will of God in him. On 28 October 1863 he sent his last official act as primate of the Old Russian Orthodox Archbishop Antonija and all the bishops under his jurisdiction. The document begins with the words: "For the mercy of God, the humble Archbishop and Metropolitan of all the Ancient Orthodox, Ambrose." In the text he expresses regret that he lived so far away from his flock, and that his health did not let it do more, but take your time to discuss many issues relating to the church people under his spiritual care. This document clearly refuted those enemies dell'Antica Orthodoxy that would have us believe that the Holy Metropolitan has concluded his days by rejecting his flock. Metropolitan Kirill held his funeral at Belo officio-Krinitsa, but the Metropolitan was buried in the greek orthodox cemetery in Trieste. His pastoral staff is now in Moscow and has been safeguarded in the Archbishop Alimpij used as the first Metropolitan of Moscow and All Russia. |+|
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|−|In 1899 the Patriarch of Constantinople established a commission to study the issue of Metropolitan Ambrose and his acceptance of the primacy of the Church- Old Russian Orthodox . The committee issued a decree of recognition of the hierarchy established by Metropolitan Ambrose, decree restless Pobedonostsev, the prosecutor of the secular church of the Holy Synod of the Russian state. |+|
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|−|At a joint synod held at the Monastery of Belo- Krinitsa 150 years after its acceptance of the primacy, Metropolitan Ambrose was canonized on 11 November 1996, in the presence of both his successors, Metropolitan Belo Leontij-Krinitsa and the Metropolitan Alimpij of Moscow and All Russia. The day of his feast was assigned to October 30 (November 12, according to the new calendar) each year. On 18/31 May 2000 was the exhumation of the relics and their translation from Trieste to a Brail, Romania. |+|
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|−|==Source== | |
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|−|*[ http: //digilander.libero.it/ortodossia/Ambrogio.htm Breve Vita Del Padre Nostro Tra I Santi Ambrogio Metropolita Di Belo-Krinitsa E Di Tutti Gli Antichi Ortodossi, Il Confessore] |+|
Ambrosii of Belo-Krinitsa, also Ambrosios (Pappa-Georgopoli), Metropolitan of Belaya Krinitsa, was the first Metropolitan of the schismatic group from the Church of Russia called the Old Believers (Starovery in Russian) or Old Ritualists (Staroobrjadtsy in Russian) or, as they are also called, the Ancient Orthodox (Drevlepravoslavnye in Russian). Consecrated a bishop under the Church of Constantinople, he joined the Old Ritualists in 1846 as the movement's first hierarch that became known as the Belokrinitskaya Hierarchy.
Andreas Popovic was born in 1791 in Maistra in Croatia of Greek origin, at that time part of the Ottoman Empire. In 1811, he married and shortly after was ordained a priest by Metropolitan Matthew. In 1814, Father Andreas lost his wife, who had given him a son, whom they had named George, after his grandfather. After having entered a monastic life with the name Ambrosii, Fr. Ambrosii was elected, in 1817, Igumen of the Monastery of the Holy Trinity on the island of Halki. In 1835, he was consecrated Bishop of Sarajevo in Bosnia by Patriarch Gregory VI, assisted by four other bishops. He remained in his position for five years before being removed by the Ottoman authorities
At that time, two Russian monks Pavel and Alimpii from a group of Old Believers in the area of Bukovina in area of Dobruja, north at the Danube delta were looking for a bishop willing to join the Old Believers. Through Osip Semenovich Goncharov, Ataman of the Nekrasov Cossacks, contact was established between Bp. Ambrosii and the two Russian monks.
Costantino Efimovic, a Serb, acted as an interpreter between Bp. Ambrosii and two monks. As Pavel and Alimpii examined the orthodox beliefs of Ambrosii, Bp. Ambrosii presented documents issued by the Patriarch of Constantinople that confirmed Ambrosii's canonical status. Bp. Ambrosii and his son, in turn, investigated the status of the Russian Orthodox Old canonry and what he was asked, before consenting on April 15, 1846 to become their bishop.
After a trip along the Danube, Bp. Ambrosii and the monks Pavel and Alimpii arrived in Tulcea, nowadays in Romania. There five hundred Nekrasov Cossacks, together with the monks of the monastery of Slavo-Rus, their Father and Igumen Makarii Arkadii Lavrentiyevskii, presented the Metropolitan with the traditional tokens of hospitality: bread with salt. The Austrian government requested and obtained from the Patriarchate of Constantinople a favorable report on Bp. Ambrosii, before giving him permission to establish his residence in their domains. After a meeting to discuss the procedure for settlement of Ambrosii, on October 28, 1846, he held the office Vigil in honor of St. Nicholas the Miracle Worker. The following day, after having read the usual confession of faith in Slavonic, Bishop Ambrosii was accepted according to Canon 95 of the Sixth Ecumenical Council. The priest monk Ieronim, with the blessing of the first and the new Metropolitan of Belaya Krinitsa and all the Russian Old Believers, began the Divine Liturgy, celebrated by Bp. Ambrosii.
Bp. Ambrosii read the prayers in his native language, Greek, while the deacon and the choir used Slavonic. Due to the absence of two other bishops, he used two archpriests, a procedure already used before in the history of the Church in cases of necessity and described in some lives of saints. Also in August 1847, there was the ordination of Bishop Arkadii by Salvo-Rus, an ancient seat of an Orthodox monastery at Tulcea, which still exists in Romania.
In response to installation of Bp. Ambrosii, the Russian Foreign Ministry threatened to retaliate with the Roman Catholic government if it did not withdraw the permission for the Old Believers to establish their own Metropolia in the Habsburg Empire. The Holy Synod, by which the Tsar controlled the State Church since the abolition of the Patriarchate under Peter I, likewise threatened to cut all financial assistance from the Patriarch of Constantinople if he had not done everything in its power to induce Metropolitan Ambrosii to change its position. Metr. Ambrosii, however, refused. Certainly the Old Believers convinced him that the system of the Holy Synod, established in 1700 by Tsar Peter I to check the status of the church in place of the patriarch was not canonical.
In response to diplomatic pressure, the Austrian-Hungarian authorities closed the monastery of Belaya Krinitsa on March 3, 1848, and Metr. Ambrosii was sent into exile in Tzill in Styria, Austria. After the outbreak of the 1848 revolutions in Vienna, and with the assistance of Count Kolovrat, the monastery of Belaya Krinitsa was reopened at the end of 1848, though Metr. Ambrosii remained in exile. The successor of the latter was Antonii (Shutov), who became the first Old Believers' archbishop of Moscow.
Metr. Ambrosii lived fifteen years in exile and suffered from his isolation. Nonetheless, he helped establish a full church hierarchy for the Old Believers. He saw this as the Will of God. On October 28, 1863, he made his last official act as primate of the Russian Old Believers including Archbishop Antonii and all the bishops under his jurisdiction. The document begins with the words: "For the mercy of God, the humble Archbishop and Metropolitan of all the Old-Rite Orthodox, Ambrosii." In the text, he expresses regret that he lived so far away from his flock and that his health did not allow him to do more, but that he remains open to discuss any issue relating to the church people, under his spiritual care. This document refuted allegations from some enemies of the Old Faith that wanted people to believe that the Holy Metropolitan had eventually rejected his flock.
Metr. Ambrosii died on October 30, 1863. While Metr. Kirill held his funeral at Belaya Krinitsa monastery, Metr. Ambrosii was buried in the Greek-Orthodox cemetery of Trieste.
Aftermath and canonization
In 1899, the Patriarch of Constantinople established a commission to investigate the issue of Metr. Ambrosii and his acceptance of the primacy of the Russian Old Orthodox Church. The committee issued a decree of recognition of the hierarchy established by Metr. Ambrosii. This decree met with disapproval of Constantine Pobedonostsev, the Ober-Procurator of the Holy Synod of the Church of Russia.
At a joint synod held at the Monastery of Belaya Krinitsa 150 years after its acceptance of the primacy, Metr. Ambrosii was glorified on November 11, 1996, in the presence of both his successors, Metr. Leontii of Belaya Krinitsa and the Metr. Alimpii of Moscow and All Russia. The day of his feast was assigned to October 30 (November 12 os) each year. On May 18, 2000, the exhumation of his relics took place and their translation from Trieste to a Braila, Romania. Some years later, the monks Pavel and Alimpii were also glorified by the Old Believers.
Russian Orthodox Old-Rite Church