https://orthodoxwiki.org/api.php?action=feedcontributions&user=Fr+Lev&feedformat=atomOrthodoxWiki - User contributions [en]2016-07-24T11:04:13ZUser contributionsMediaWiki 1.26.2https://orthodoxwiki.org/index.php?title=Talk:Basil_the_Great&diff=124307Talk:Basil the Great2016-07-21T14:00:05Z<p>Fr Lev: </p>
<hr />
<div>I have taken the article from Wikipedia on Basil and edited it for OrthodoxWiki NPOV, as well as some other edits. I have left a lot of links (and added others) that it seemed we would want as articles in the future. What is here is mostly a fairly academic bio. &#8212;[[User:Basil|Basil]]<br />
<br />
: Looks good! --[[User:ASDamick|Rdr. Andrew]]<br />
<br />
The photo on the first page is definitely not an icon of St Basil! --[[User:Fr Lev|Fr Lev]] ([[User talk:Fr Lev|talk]]) 14:00, July 21, 2016 (UTC)</div>Fr Levhttps://orthodoxwiki.org/index.php?title=John_(Roshchin)_of_Naro-Fominsk&diff=120648John (Roshchin) of Naro-Fominsk2015-01-05T14:10:43Z<p>Fr Lev: </p>
<hr />
<div>'''Bishop John''' (secular name '''Georgy Yevgenyevich Roshchin''', {{lang-ru|Георгий Евгеньевич Рощин}}; 22 October 1974) is a [[bishop]] of the [[Russian Orthodox Church]] and elected bishop of [[w:Naro-Fominsk|Naro-Fominsk]], Administrator of the [[w:Patriarchal Parishes in the USA|Patriarchal Parishes in the USA]].<br />
<br />
== Biography ==<br />
He graduated from the [[Moscow Theological Academy and Seminary]].<br />
<br />
In 1996-1997, worked as an employee of the Patriarchate of Moscow Publishing Council. In 1997, he joined the staff of the Patriarchate of Moscow Synodal Department for External Church Relations.<br />
<br />
In December 1998, he was a member of the Moscow Patriarchate's delegation at the Eighth Assembly of the [[w:World Council of Churches|WCC]] (Harare, Zimbabwe) and became a member of the WCC Central Committee.<br />
<br />
In 2000-2002, he studied at the Faculty of Philosophy at the [[w:The Catholic University of America|Catholic University of America]] (Washington, DC).<br />
<br />
From 2003 to 2009, as a member of the Secretariate on Church and Society of the [[Synodal Department for External Church Relations]], he was in charge of inter-religious communication, including interaction with the Interreligious Council of Russia and the SNG Interreligious Council, and international interfaith organizations, was a member of the Commission of the Conference of European Churches "Islam in Europe", participated in the preparation and conduct of the Fourth, Fifth, and Sixth Meetings of the joint Russian-Iranian commission "Islam-Christianity".<br />
<br />
On 27 July 2009, the Holy Synod appointed him Deputy Chairman of the Moscow Patriarchate Synodal Department for the Coordination of Church and Society.<br />
<br />
In 2009, with the blessing of Patriarch Kirill of Moscow and all the Rus, he was a member of the Council for the Study of Religious Materials to identify extremist materials in the [[w:Ministry of Justice (Russia)|Ministry of Justice]]. He was the official representative of the Moscow Patriarchate in the Parliamentary Assembly of the Union of Belarus and Russia, a member of the Commission on organising state support and the development of original Cossack culture, a member of the Public Council under the Federal Drug Control Service, and a member of the Public Council under [[w:Federal Service for State Registration, Cadastre and Cartography|Rosreyestr]].<br />
<br />
From 2010 to 2013, he was the Executive Secretary of the Interreligious Council of the [[w:Commonwealth of Independent States|Commonwealth of Independent States]].<br />
<br />
On 4 October 2012, the Holy Synod appointed him representative of the [[World Russian People's Council]] at the UN and assigned him to St Nicholas Cathedral in New York City.<br />
<br />
On 11 March 2014, with the blessing of Patriarch Kirill of Moscow and all the Rus, the Superior of the Trinity - Sergius Lavra, Archbishop [[Theognost (Guzikov) of Sergiev Posad]], tonsured him a monk with the name John in honour of St John (Maximovitch) of Shanghai and San Francisco.<br />
<br />
A Holy Synod decision on 25 July 2014 (Journal Number 66) elected him as Administrator of the Patriarchal Parishes in the USA, and vicar bishop of the Diocese of Moscow with the title “Naro-Fominsk”.<br />
<br />
On August 1st, the Feast of the Uncovering of the Relics of St. Seraphim of Sarov, Patriarch Kirill of Moscow and all Russia served the Divine Liturgy in the Church of St. George the Great Martyr at Poklonnaya Hill. This date commemorates the 100th Anniversary of Russia's entry into the First World War. During the Divine Liturgy Patriarch Kirill led the Episcopal Consecration of Archimandrite John (Roshchin) as Bishop of Naro-Fominsk.<br />
<br />
== Source ==<br />
* [http://mospatusa.com/news_140801_1.html Archimandrite John (Roshchin) Consecrated to the Episcopacy]<br />
<br />
==External link==<br />
*[http://mospatusa.com/bishopjohnbiography.html Official biography]<br />
<br />
<br />
[[Category:Bishops]]<br />
[[Category:Bishops of Naro-Fominsk]]<br />
[[Category:21st-century bishops]]</div>Fr Levhttps://orthodoxwiki.org/index.php?title=Russian_Orthodox_Church_in_the_USA&diff=120452Russian Orthodox Church in the USA2014-12-10T13:58:10Z<p>Fr Lev: /* Bishops */</p>
<hr />
<div>{{orthodoxyinamerica}}<br />
The '''Russian Orthodox Church in the USA''' is the name of the group of [[parish]]es of the Russian mission in America that recognize the canonical authority of the [[Church of Russia]]. They were previously known as the [[Russian Exarchate of North America]] before [[autocephaly]] was granted to the [[Metropolia]] in 1970. <br />
<br />
All of the parishes of the [[Exarchate]] were given a choice to join the [[OCA]] at that time. The parishes that remained were the following: <br />
#St. Nicholas Church, Brookside, Alabama<br />
#St. Demetrius Monastery, Bellflower, California<br />
# Christ the Savior Church, Berkeley, California<br />
# St. Nicholas Cathedral, San Francisco, California<br />
# Church of All Saints Glorified in the Russian Land, San Francisco, California<br />
# Our Lady of Kazan Church, San Diego, California<br />
# Resurrection Church, Chicago, Illinois<br />
# Dormition Church Benld, Illinois<br />
# Holy Trinity Church, Baltimore, Maryland<br />
# St. Elias Church, Battle Creek, Michigan<br />
# St. Innocent Church, Detroit, Michigan<br />
# St. Michael the Archangel Church, Detroit, Michigan<br />
# Church of St. Andrew the First-Called Apostle, East Lansing, Michigan<br />
# Holy Trinity Church, Saginaw, Michigan<br />
# St. John Chrysostom Church, Grand Rapids, Michigan<br />
# House Chapel of St. Seraphim of Sarov, Westown, New York<br />
# St. Demetrius Church, Jackson, Michigan<br />
# St. Nicholas Church, Bayonne, New Jersey<br />
# Sts. Peter and Paul Church, Elizabeth, New Jersey<br />
# Three Hierarchs Church, Garfield, New Jersey<br />
# Holy Cross Church, Hackettstown, New Jersey<br />
# Sts. Peter and Paul Church; Passaic, New Jersey<br />
# St. John the Baptist Church, Singac , New Jersey<br />
# St. Olga Church, Somerset, New Jersey<br />
# St. Mark Chapel, New York<br />
# Church of St. George the Great Martyr, New York<br />
# Church of All Saints Glorified in the Russian Land, on the estate of Pine Bush, New York<br />
# St. John the Baptist Chapel, Bronx, New York<br />
# Church of All Saints Glotified in the Russian Land, Amsterdam (Wolf Run), Ohio<br />
# St. Stephen Church, Lorairi, Ohio<br />
# Nativity of Christ Church, Youngstown, Ohio<br />
# St. Nicholas Church, Chester, Pennsylvania<br />
# St. Nicholas Church, Edinboro, Pageville, Pennsylvania<br />
# St. Nicholas Church, Reading, Pennsylvania<br />
# Sts. Peter and Paul Church, Mount Union, Pennsylvania<br />
# St. Nicholas Church, Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania<br />
# St. Andrew the Apostle Church, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania<br />
# St. Michael the Archangel Church, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania<br />
# Sts. Peter and Paul Church, Scranton, Pennsylvania<br />
# Sts. Peter and Paul Church, Burgaw, North Carolina<br />
# St. Gregory the Theologian Church, Tampa, Florida<br />
# Sts. Peter and Paul Church, Manchester, New Hampshire<br />
# Church of St. George the Great Martyr, Buffalo, New York<br />
# All Exarchate parishes and clergy in Canada<br />
# [[St. Nicholas Cathedral (New York, New York)|St. Nicholas Cathedral]], New York<br />
<br />
The parishes that chose to remain under the canonical protection of the Moscow Patriarchate after the grant of autocephaly came to be known as the ''Russian Orthodox Church in the USA'' under the oversight of an [[auxiliary bishop]].<br />
<br />
==Bishops== <br />
Vicar of His Holiness Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia, Administrator of the Patriarchal parishes in the USA<br />
* His Grace [[Mercurius (Ivanov) of Zaraisk|Mercurius]], Bishop of Zaraisk, 2000-2009<br />
* His Eminence [[Justinian (Ovchinnikov) of Naro-Fominsk|Justinian]], Archbishop of Naro-Fominsk, 2010-2014<br />
* His Grace [[John (Roshchin) of Naro-Fominsk|John]], Bishop of Naro-Fominsk, 2014-present<br />
<br />
==External links==<br />
*[http://www.russianchurchusa.org/ Russian Orthodox Church in the USA Web Site] ([http://www.russianchurchusa.org/?ln=en english])<br />
*[http://www.3saints.com/patr_parishes.html Patriarchal Parish in North America]<br />
<br />
[[Category:Jurisdictions]]<br />
[[Category:Moscow Patriarchate Dioceses|Russian Orthodox Church in the USA]]<br />
<br />
[[ro:Biserica Ortodoxă Rusă din SUA]]</div>Fr Levhttps://orthodoxwiki.org/index.php?title=Russian_Orthodox_Church_in_the_USA&diff=120451Russian Orthodox Church in the USA2014-12-10T13:57:38Z<p>Fr Lev: /* Bishops */ updated bishop</p>
<hr />
<div>{{orthodoxyinamerica}}<br />
The '''Russian Orthodox Church in the USA''' is the name of the group of [[parish]]es of the Russian mission in America that recognize the canonical authority of the [[Church of Russia]]. They were previously known as the [[Russian Exarchate of North America]] before [[autocephaly]] was granted to the [[Metropolia]] in 1970. <br />
<br />
All of the parishes of the [[Exarchate]] were given a choice to join the [[OCA]] at that time. The parishes that remained were the following: <br />
#St. Nicholas Church, Brookside, Alabama<br />
#St. Demetrius Monastery, Bellflower, California<br />
# Christ the Savior Church, Berkeley, California<br />
# St. Nicholas Cathedral, San Francisco, California<br />
# Church of All Saints Glorified in the Russian Land, San Francisco, California<br />
# Our Lady of Kazan Church, San Diego, California<br />
# Resurrection Church, Chicago, Illinois<br />
# Dormition Church Benld, Illinois<br />
# Holy Trinity Church, Baltimore, Maryland<br />
# St. Elias Church, Battle Creek, Michigan<br />
# St. Innocent Church, Detroit, Michigan<br />
# St. Michael the Archangel Church, Detroit, Michigan<br />
# Church of St. Andrew the First-Called Apostle, East Lansing, Michigan<br />
# Holy Trinity Church, Saginaw, Michigan<br />
# St. John Chrysostom Church, Grand Rapids, Michigan<br />
# House Chapel of St. Seraphim of Sarov, Westown, New York<br />
# St. Demetrius Church, Jackson, Michigan<br />
# St. Nicholas Church, Bayonne, New Jersey<br />
# Sts. Peter and Paul Church, Elizabeth, New Jersey<br />
# Three Hierarchs Church, Garfield, New Jersey<br />
# Holy Cross Church, Hackettstown, New Jersey<br />
# Sts. Peter and Paul Church; Passaic, New Jersey<br />
# St. John the Baptist Church, Singac , New Jersey<br />
# St. Olga Church, Somerset, New Jersey<br />
# St. Mark Chapel, New York<br />
# Church of St. George the Great Martyr, New York<br />
# Church of All Saints Glorified in the Russian Land, on the estate of Pine Bush, New York<br />
# St. John the Baptist Chapel, Bronx, New York<br />
# Church of All Saints Glotified in the Russian Land, Amsterdam (Wolf Run), Ohio<br />
# St. Stephen Church, Lorairi, Ohio<br />
# Nativity of Christ Church, Youngstown, Ohio<br />
# St. Nicholas Church, Chester, Pennsylvania<br />
# St. Nicholas Church, Edinboro, Pageville, Pennsylvania<br />
# St. Nicholas Church, Reading, Pennsylvania<br />
# Sts. Peter and Paul Church, Mount Union, Pennsylvania<br />
# St. Nicholas Church, Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania<br />
# St. Andrew the Apostle Church, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania<br />
# St. Michael the Archangel Church, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania<br />
# Sts. Peter and Paul Church, Scranton, Pennsylvania<br />
# Sts. Peter and Paul Church, Burgaw, North Carolina<br />
# St. Gregory the Theologian Church, Tampa, Florida<br />
# Sts. Peter and Paul Church, Manchester, New Hampshire<br />
# Church of St. George the Great Martyr, Buffalo, New York<br />
# All Exarchate parishes and clergy in Canada<br />
# [[St. Nicholas Cathedral (New York, New York)|St. Nicholas Cathedral]], New York<br />
<br />
The parishes that chose to remain under the canonical protection of the Moscow Patriarchate after the grant of autocephaly came to be known as the ''Russian Orthodox Church in the USA'' under the oversight of an [[auxiliary bishop]].<br />
<br />
==Bishops== <br />
Vicar of His Holiness Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia, Administrator of the Patriarchal parishes in the USA<br />
* His Grace [[Mercurius (Ivanov) of Zaraisk|Mercurius]], Bishop of Zaraisk, 2000-2009<br />
* His Eminence [[Justinian (Ovchinnikov) of Naro-Fominsk|Justinian]], Archbishop of Naro-Fominsk, 2010-2014<br />
* His Grace [[John(Roshchin) of Naro-Fominsk|John]], Bishop of Naro-Fominsk, 2014-present<br />
<br />
==External links==<br />
*[http://www.russianchurchusa.org/ Russian Orthodox Church in the USA Web Site] ([http://www.russianchurchusa.org/?ln=en english])<br />
*[http://www.3saints.com/patr_parishes.html Patriarchal Parish in North America]<br />
<br />
[[Category:Jurisdictions]]<br />
[[Category:Moscow Patriarchate Dioceses|Russian Orthodox Church in the USA]]<br />
<br />
[[ro:Biserica Ortodoxă Rusă din SUA]]</div>Fr Levhttps://orthodoxwiki.org/index.php?title=Western_Saints_before_the_AD_1054_Schism&diff=120440Western Saints before the AD 1054 Schism2014-12-09T13:43:00Z<p>Fr Lev: /* November */ added internal links</p>
<hr />
<div>''The following compilation is not an approved list of Western saints and may well not be "official." Notes and comments about each of them are welcome. It also includes commemorations recognized in the East, but observed on different dates.''<br />
<br />
== January ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' Eugendus<br />
<br />
'''2.''' Adalard of Corbie<br />
<br />
Auspasius of Auch<br />
<br />
'''3.''' [[Genevieve of Paris]]<br />
<br />
'''4.''' Fereal of Uzes<br />
<br />
Pharaildis<br />
<br />
Rigobert<br />
<br />
'''8.''' Aldric<br />
<br />
Erhard<br />
<br />
Gudula<br />
<br />
Pega of Peakirk <br />
<br />
'''9.''' Adrian of Canterbury<br />
<br />
'''12.''' Biscop<br />
<br />
'''13.''' Berhtwald<br />
<br />
Berno of Cluny<br />
<br />
[[Remigius of Rheims]]<br />
<br />
'''14.''' Mungo (Kentigern)<br />
<br />
'''15.''' Ceolwulf<br />
<br />
Emebert<br />
<br />
'''16.''' Fursey of Cnobheresburg<br />
<br />
'''17.''' Mildgyth<br />
<br />
Sulpitius the Pious<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Deicolus<br />
<br />
'''19.''' Agricius of Tier<br />
<br />
Contentius<br />
<br />
Remigius of Rouen<br />
<br />
'''21.''' Osburh of Coventry<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Praejectus<br />
<br />
Racho of Autun<br />
<br />
'''29.''' Aquilinus of Cologne/Milano<br />
<br />
[[Gildas the Wise]]<br />
<br />
Valerius of Treves<br />
<br />
'''30.''' Aldegonde<br />
<br />
Balthild<br />
<br />
'''31.''' Domitius of Amiens<br />
<br />
Uphia<br />
<br />
== February ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' [[Brigid of Kildare]]<br />
<br />
Severus of Avranches<br />
<br />
Sigebert III<br />
<br />
'''3.''' [[Ansgar]] (Anskar) of Bremen<br />
<br />
[[Laurence of Canterbury]]<br />
<br />
Werburh<br />
<br />
'''4.''' Aldate/Aldatus of Gloucester<br />
<br />
Rimbert<br />
<br />
'''5.''' Adelaide of Vilich<br />
<br />
Bertulf of Renty<br />
<br />
'''6.''' Amandus<br />
<br />
'''8.''' Aelfflaed of Whitby<br />
<br />
Cuthmann of Steyning<br />
<br />
'''9.''' Alto of Altomunster<br />
<br />
Ansbert<br />
<br />
Marius of Avenches<br />
<br />
'''10.''' Autrebertha<br />
<br />
[[Scholastica]]<br />
<br />
'''11.''' [[Blaise of Sebaste]]<br />
<br />
'''12.''' Aethelwold of Lindisfarne<br />
<br />
Benedict of Aniane<br />
<br />
'''13.''' Castor of Karden<br />
<br />
'''15.''' [[Sigfrid of Sweden]]<br />
<br />
'''17.''' Silvin of Auchy<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Angilbert<br />
<br />
[[Colman of Lindisfarne]]<br />
<br />
'''20.''' Eleutherius of Tournai<br />
<br />
'''21.''' Germanus of Granfelden<br />
<br />
'''23.''' Midburh<br />
<br />
'''24.''' Aethelberht of Kent<br />
<br />
Basil of Melrose<br />
<br />
Modest<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Praetextatus/Prix<br />
<br />
'''27.''' Aelfnoth of Stowe<br />
<br />
'''29.''' [[Oswald of Worcester]]<br />
<br />
== March ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' Abdalong of Marseilles<br />
<br />
Albinus of Angers<br />
<br />
[[David of Wales]]<br />
<br />
'''2.''' [[Chad of Lichfield]]<br />
<br />
'''6.''' Baldred/Balthere of Tyninghame<br />
<br />
Billfrith <br />
<br />
Chrodegang of Metz<br />
<br />
'''7.''' Eosterwine of Monkwearmouth<br />
<br />
'''8.''' Felix of Dommac<br />
<br />
'''9.''' Bosa of York<br />
<br />
'''10.''' Agilbert<br />
<br />
Attala<br />
<br />
Himelin<br />
<br />
'''12.''' Aelfheah the Bald<br />
<br />
'''14.''' [[Benedict of Nursia]]<br />
<br />
Matilda<br />
<br />
'''16.''' Heribert of Cologne<br />
<br />
'''17.''' Gertrude of Nivelles<br />
<br />
[[Patrick of Ireland]]<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Eadweard the Martyr<br />
<br />
'''19.''' Alchmund of Derby<br />
<br />
'''20.''' [[Clement of Ireland]]<br />
<br />
[[Cuthbert of Lindisfarne]]<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Humbert<br />
<br />
'''26.''' Ludger of Saxony<br />
<br />
'''27.''' Rupert of Salzburg<br />
<br />
'''28.''' Bereharius<br />
<br />
Guntram<br />
<br />
'''29.''' Eustace<br />
<br />
== April ==<br />
<br />
'''2.''' Aebbe the Younger<br />
<br />
Nicetius of Lyon<br />
<br />
'''3.''' Burgundofara<br />
<br />
'''5.''' Aethelburh of Kent<br />
<br />
'''9.''' Hugh of Champagne<br />
<br />
'''11.''' Guthlac of Crowland<br />
<br />
'''12.''' Erkembode<br />
<br />
'''15.''' Abbo II of Metz<br />
<br />
'''16.''' Padarn<br />
<br />
'''19.''' Alphege of Canterbury<br />
<br />
'''22.''' Aprunculus of Treves<br />
<br />
Opportuna of Montreuil<br />
<br />
'''23.''' Gerald/Gerard of Toul<br />
<br />
'''24.''' Ecgberht of Ripon<br />
<br />
Ivo of Ramsey<br />
<br />
Mellitus of London<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Rusticus of Lyon<br />
<br />
'''26.''' Richarius<br />
<br />
Trudpert<br />
<br />
'''29.''' Adalgar<br />
<br />
Aethelwold of Farne<br />
<br />
Wilfrith the Younger<br />
<br />
'''30.''' Earconwald<br />
<br />
<br />
== May ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' Aredius of Gap<br />
<br />
Bertha of Kent<br />
<br />
Marcouf<br />
<br />
Sigismund of Burgundy<br />
<br />
Theodard of Narbonne<br />
<br />
'''4.''' Arbeo of Freising<br />
<br />
Florian<br />
<br />
'''5.''' Maurontius of Douay<br />
<br />
'''6.''' Eadberht of Lindisfarne<br />
<br />
'''7.''' [[John of Beverly]]<br />
<br />
'''8.''' Desideratus<br />
<br />
Indracht of Glastonbury<br />
<br />
Itta of Metz<br />
<br />
'''9.''' Bienheure<br />
<br />
'''10.''' Solange<br />
<br />
'''11.''' Gangulphus<br />
<br />
Majolus<br />
<br />
'''12.''' Modoald/Romoald<br />
<br />
Rictrude<br />
<br />
'''15.''' Bertha of Bingen<br />
<br />
Rupert of Bingen<br />
<br />
'''16.''' [[Brendan the Navigator]]<br />
<br />
Germerius<br />
<br />
Honoratus<br />
<br />
'''17.''' Rasso of Adechs<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Aelfgifu of Shaftesbury<br />
<br />
'''19.''' Aelfheah of Canterbury<br />
<br />
'''20.''' Aethelberht II of East Anglia<br />
<br />
Austregisilus<br />
<br />
'''21.''' Hospitius<br />
<br />
'''23.''' Desidarius of Vienne<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Aldhelm of Sherbourne<br />
<br />
'''26.''' [[Augustine of Canterbury]]<br />
<br />
'''27.''' [[Bede]] of Jarrow<br />
<br />
'''28.''' [[Germanus of Paris]]<br />
<br />
William of Gellone<br />
<br />
'''29.''' [[Maximinus of Trier]]<br />
<br />
'''30.''' Hubertus<br />
<br />
Walstan<br />
<br />
== June ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' Lullus<br />
<br />
Wigstan<br />
<br />
'''4.''' Clotilde<br />
<br />
Eadfrith of Lindisfarne<br />
<br />
'''6.''' Agobard<br />
<br />
Branwalader of Milton<br />
<br />
Claudius<br />
<br />
'''8.''' Chlodulf of Metz<br />
<br />
Gildard<br />
<br />
Medardus<br />
<br />
'''11.''' Godeberta<br />
<br />
Landry of Paris<br />
<br />
'''13, 14, 15.''' Psalmodius<br />
<br />
'''16.''' Aurelianus<br />
<br />
'''17.''' Athwulf of Thorney<br />
<br />
Botwulf of Thorney<br />
<br />
Colman<br />
<br />
Nectan of Hartland<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Osana<br />
<br />
'''19.''' Deodatus<br />
<br />
'''20.''' Gobain<br />
<br />
'''21.''' Agofredus<br />
<br />
Alban of Mainz<br />
<br />
Gobain<br />
<br />
Leutfridus<br />
<br />
Palladius of Embrun<br />
<br />
'''22.''' [[Alban]] Protomartyr of Britain<br />
<br />
'''23.''' Aethelthryth<br />
<br />
'''24.''' Rumbold<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Amphibalus of St. Albans<br />
<br />
'''26.''' Brannac of Braunton<br />
<br />
'''28.''' [[Augustine of Hippo]]<br />
<br />
== July ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' Gal<br />
<br />
Calais<br />
<br />
'''2.''' Monegundus<br />
<br />
'''4.''' Bertha of Artois<br />
<br />
[[Oda of Canterbury]]<br />
<br />
'''6.''' Modwenna of Burton<br />
<br />
Seaxburh of Ely<br />
<br />
'''7.''' Aethelburh of Faremoutiers<br />
<br />
Haedde<br />
<br />
Willibald<br />
<br />
'''8.''' Colman<br />
<br />
Grimbald<br />
<br />
Kilian<br />
<br />
Urith<br />
<br />
Wihtburh<br />
<br />
'''9.''' Agilulfus of Cologne<br />
<br />
Evorhilda<br />
<br />
Neot<br />
<br />
'''10.''' Amalberga of Temse<br />
<br />
'''13.''' Arn of Wurzburg<br />
<br />
Mildthryth<br />
<br />
'''14.''' Frithona of Canterbury<br />
<br />
'''15.''' Apronia<br />
<br />
Eadgyth of Polesworth<br />
<br />
Swithun<br />
<br />
'''16.''' Fulrad<br />
<br />
Gundulph of Maastricht<br />
<br />
Helier<br />
<br />
Reineldis<br />
<br />
'''17.''' Cynehelm/Kenelm of Mercia<br />
<br />
Marcellina<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Arnulf of Metz<br />
<br />
Eadburh of Bicester<br />
<br />
Frederick of Utrecht<br />
<br />
'''20.''' Ansegisus<br />
<br />
Arilda of Oldbury<br />
<br />
Wilgefortis<br />
<br />
'''21.''' Arbogast<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Glodesind<br />
<br />
'''27.''' Galactorius<br />
<br />
'''28.''' [[Samson of Dol]]<br />
<br />
'''31.''' Sativola of Exeter<br />
<br />
== August ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' Aethelwold of Winchester<br />
<br />
Arcadius of Bourges<br />
<br />
'''5.''' Afla of Augsburg<br />
<br />
[[Oswald of Northumbria]]<br />
<br />
'''11.''' Gaugericus<br />
<br />
'''12.''' Porcarius<br />
<br />
'''13.''' Junian<br />
<br />
[[Radegund]]<br />
<br />
'''15.''' Altfrid<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Fiacre<br />
<br />
'''19.''' Bertulf of Bobbio<br />
<br />
Calminius<br />
<br />
Credan of Bodmin<br />
<br />
Magnus<br />
<br />
Sebaldus<br />
<br />
'''20.''' Oswine of Deira<br />
<br />
Philibert of Jumieges<br />
<br />
'''21.''' Eardwulf of Northumbria<br />
<br />
'''24.''' Audoin<br />
<br />
Gildard of Lurcy-le-Bourg<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Aebbe of Coldingham<br />
<br />
Aredius<br />
<br />
Gines de la Jara<br />
<br />
Gregory of Utrecht<br />
<br />
'''26.''' Bregowine<br />
<br />
'''27.''' [[Caesarius of Arles]]<br />
<br />
Decuman of Watchet<br />
<br />
Lycerius<br />
<br />
Syagrius of Autun<br />
<br />
'''28.''' Rumon<br />
<br />
'''31.''' [[Aidan of Lindisfarne]]<br />
<br />
[[Eanswythe of Folkestone]]<br />
<br />
[[ro:Sfinți occidentali de dinainte de schisma din 1054]]<br />
<br />
== September ==<br />
<br />
'''1. ''' Giles<br />
<br />
'''2. ''' Agricola<br />
<br />
'''3. ''' Aigulphus<br />
<br />
'''4. ''' [[Cuthbert of Lindisfarne|Cuthbert the Wonderworker]]<br />
<br />
'''5. ''' Bertin<br />
<br />
'''6. ''' Chainoaldus<br />
<br />
'''7. ''' Clodoaldus (Cloud)<br />
<br />
'''8. ''' Sergius<br />
<br />
'''9. ''' Omer<br />
<br />
'''10. ''' Salvius<br />
<br />
'''11. ''' Adelphus<br />
<br />
'''12. ''' Sacerdos<br />
<br />
'''13. ''' Maulrilius<br />
<br />
'''14. ''' Cormac<br />
<br />
'''15. ''' Leobinus<br />
<br />
'''16. ''' Edith<br />
<br />
[[Euphemia the Great Martyr|Euphemia]]<br />
<br />
Ninian<br />
<br />
'''17. ''' Rodingus<br />
<br />
'''18. ''' Richardis<br />
<br />
'''19. ''' Januarius<br />
<br />
'''20. ''' Candida<br />
<br />
'''21. ''' Alexander<br />
<br />
'''22. ''' Florentius<br />
<br />
'''23. ''' Linus<br />
<br />
'''24. ''' Geremarus<br />
<br />
'''25. ''' Firminus<br />
<br />
'''26. ''' Vigilius<br />
<br />
'''27. ''' Florentinus and Hilary<br />
<br />
'''28. ''' Faustus<br />
<br />
'''29. ''' Michael the Archangel<br />
<br />
'''30. ''' [[Jerome]]<br />
<br />
== October ==<br />
<br />
'''1. ''' [[Remigius of Rheims]]<br />
<br />
Bavo<br />
<br />
Eadgar of England<br />
<br />
Melor<br />
<br />
Nicetius<br />
<br />
'''2. ''' Leodegarius<br />
<br />
'''3. ''' Cyprian of Toulon<br />
<br />
Menna<br />
<br />
'''4. ''' Aurea<br />
<br />
'''5. ''' Maurus and Placidus<br />
<br />
'''6. ''' Pardulphus<br />
<br />
Romanus of Auxerre<br />
<br />
'''7. ''' Osgyth<br />
<br />
Palladius<br />
<br />
'''8. ''' Benedicta<br />
<br />
'''9. ''' Denis of Paris<br />
<br />
'''10. ''' Clarus<br />
<br />
Gereon & fellow martyrs<br />
<br />
Paulinus of York<br />
<br />
Tanca<br />
<br />
'''11. ''' Aethelburth of Barking<br />
<br />
Agilbert<br />
<br />
Bruno the Great<br />
<br />
'''12. ''' Edwin<br />
<br />
Wilfrid of York<br />
<br />
'''13. ''' Edward the Confessor<br />
<br />
Gerald<br />
<br />
Simpert<br />
<br />
'''14. ''' Angadrisma<br />
<br />
Burchard of Wurzburg<br />
<br />
Menehould<br />
<br />
'''15. ''' Bruno<br />
<br />
Wulfram<br />
<br />
'''16. ''' Baldric<br />
<br />
Michael the Archangel's appearance at Mont saint-Michel)<br />
<br />
Gaul<br />
<br />
Junian<br />
<br />
'''17. ''' Aethelred of Kent<br />
<br />
Anstrudis<br />
<br />
Berarius<br />
<br />
Translation of St [[Etheldreda of Ely]]<br />
<br />
[[Nothelm]]<br />
<br />
'''18. ''' Eadnoth the Younger<br />
<br />
Monon<br />
<br />
'''19. ''' Aquilinus of Evreux<br />
<br />
Desiderius of Auxerre <br />
<br />
Frideswide<br />
<br />
Theofrid<br />
<br />
'''20. ''' Acca of Hexham<br />
<br />
Caprasius<br />
<br />
'''21. ''' Ursula & Martyrs<br />
<br />
'''22. ''' Moderan<br />
<br />
'''23. ''' Severin<br />
<br />
Romanus<br />
<br />
'''24. ''' Maglorious<br />
<br />
Senoch<br />
<br />
'''25. ''' Crispin & Crispinian<br />
<br />
'''26. ''' Alfred the Great<br />
<br />
Cedd<br />
<br />
[[Cuthbert of Canterbury]]<br />
<br />
Eata of Hexham<br />
<br />
'''27. ''' Vincent, Sabina and Christeta<br />
<br />
'''28. ''' Faro<br />
<br />
'''29. ''' Bond<br />
<br />
'''30. ''' Aethelnoth of Canterbury<br />
<br />
Lucanus<br />
<br />
'''31. ''' Quentin<br />
<br />
Wolfgang of Regensburg<br />
<br />
== November ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' All Saints’<br />
<br />
Beornstan of Winchester<br />
<br />
'''2.''' All Souls’<br />
<br />
Victorinus<br />
<br />
'''3.''' Guenhael<br />
<br />
Pirmin<br />
<br />
Rumwold of Buckingham<br />
<br />
'''4.''' Winifred<br />
<br />
'''5.''' Bertilla<br />
<br />
Lie<br />
<br />
'''6.''' Leonard<br />
<br />
'''7.''' Bega of Copeland<br />
<br />
Rufus of Metz<br />
<br />
[[Willibrord]]<br />
<br />
'''8.''' Four Crowned Martyrs<br />
<br />
Deusdedit<br />
<br />
'''9.''' Ursinus<br />
<br />
'''10.''' Adelin of Seoz<br />
<br />
Justus of Canterbury<br />
<br />
[[Leo the Great]]<br />
<br />
'''11.''' [[Martin of Tours]]<br />
<br />
'''12.''' Cunibert<br />
<br />
Lebuinus<br />
<br />
Martin of Rome<br />
<br />
'''13.''' Brixius<br />
<br />
Dalmatius of Rodez<br />
<br />
Quintian of Rodez<br />
<br />
'''14.''' Erkenwald<br />
<br />
Sidonius of Saint-Saens<br />
<br />
'''15.''' Didier of Cahors<br />
<br />
Malo<br />
<br />
'''16.''' Africus<br />
<br />
Eucherius<br />
<br />
'''17.''' [[Gregory of Tours]]<br />
<br />
[[Hilda of Whitby]]<br />
<br />
Munditia<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Juthwara<br />
<br />
Nazarius<br />
<br />
Odo of Cluny<br />
<br />
Theofrid<br />
<br />
'''19.''' Severinus, Exuperius and Felician<br />
<br />
'''20.''' Bernward<br />
<br />
Corbinian<br />
<br />
[[Edmund the Martyr]]<br />
<br />
'''21.''' Columbanus the Younger<br />
<br />
'''22.''' Cecilia<br />
<br />
'''23.''' [[Clement of Rome]]<br />
<br />
Trudo<br />
<br />
'''24.''' Chrysogonus<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Alan of Lavaur<br />
<br />
Moses of Rome<br />
<br />
'''26.''' [[Linus of Rome]]<br />
<br />
'''27.''' Acarius<br />
<br />
Congar of Congresbury<br />
<br />
Siffred<br />
<br />
'''28.''' Rufus<br />
<br />
'''29.''' Saturninus<br />
<br />
'''30.''' Trojan<br />
<br />
== December ==<br />
<br />
'''1. ''' Eligius<br />
<br />
'''2. ''' Peter Chrysologous<br />
<br />
'''3. ''' Abbo of Auxerre<br />
<br />
[[Birinus of Dorchester]]<br />
<br />
'''4. ''' Ada<br />
<br />
Sigiramus<br />
<br />
'''5. ''' Aprus of Sens<br />
<br />
Bassus<br />
<br />
Gerbold<br />
<br />
'''6. ''' [[Nicholas of Myra]]<br />
<br />
Asella<br />
<br />
'''7. ''' [[Ambrose of Milan]]<br />
<br />
'''8. ''' Eucharius<br />
<br />
Conception of the Theotokos<br />
<br />
Romaricus<br />
<br />
'''9. ''' [[Conception of the Theotokos]]<br />
<br />
'''10. ''' Miltiades<br />
<br />
'''11. ''' [[Damasus I of Rome]]<br />
<br />
'''12. ''' Corentinuus<br />
<br />
'''13. ''' Judoc of Winchester<br />
<br />
[[Lucy of Syracuse]]<br />
<br />
Odile of Alsace<br />
<br />
'''14. ''' Venantius Fortunatus<br />
<br />
'''15. ''' Mamiminus<br />
<br />
Mesmin<br />
<br />
'''16. ''' Adelaide of Burgundy<br />
<br />
Eberhard of Friuli<br />
<br />
Flavitus<br />
<br />
Valentine, Concordius, Navalis and Agricola<br />
<br />
'''17. ''' Begga<br />
<br />
Sturm<br />
<br />
'''18. ''' Desiderius of Fontenelle<br />
<br />
Gatian<br />
<br />
'''19. ''' Gregory of Auxerre<br />
<br />
'''20. ''' Ursicinus<br />
<br />
'''21. ''' [[Apostle Thomas|Thomas the Apostle]]<br />
<br />
'''22. ''' Flavian<br />
<br />
'''23. ''' Dagobert II<br />
<br />
Servulus<br />
<br />
'''24. ''' Adela and Irmina<br />
<br />
Gregory of Spoleto<br />
<br />
'''25. ''' [[Nativity|Nativity of Our Lord]]<br />
<br />
Aethelburh of Wilton<br />
<br />
'''26. ''' [[Zosimus of Rome]]<br />
<br />
'''27. ''' Fabiola<br />
<br />
'''28. ''' Antony of Lérins<br />
<br />
'''29. ''' Ebrulf<br />
<br />
Trophimus<br />
<br />
'''30. ''' Ecgwine of Evesham<br />
<br />
Sabinus<br />
<br />
'''31. ''' [[Sylvester I of Rome]]</div>Fr Levhttps://orthodoxwiki.org/index.php?title=Western_Saints_before_the_AD_1054_Schism&diff=120439Western Saints before the AD 1054 Schism2014-12-09T13:40:26Z<p>Fr Lev: /* December */ added internal link</p>
<hr />
<div>''The following compilation is not an approved list of Western saints and may well not be "official." Notes and comments about each of them are welcome. It also includes commemorations recognized in the East, but observed on different dates.''<br />
<br />
== January ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' Eugendus<br />
<br />
'''2.''' Adalard of Corbie<br />
<br />
Auspasius of Auch<br />
<br />
'''3.''' [[Genevieve of Paris]]<br />
<br />
'''4.''' Fereal of Uzes<br />
<br />
Pharaildis<br />
<br />
Rigobert<br />
<br />
'''8.''' Aldric<br />
<br />
Erhard<br />
<br />
Gudula<br />
<br />
Pega of Peakirk <br />
<br />
'''9.''' Adrian of Canterbury<br />
<br />
'''12.''' Biscop<br />
<br />
'''13.''' Berhtwald<br />
<br />
Berno of Cluny<br />
<br />
[[Remigius of Rheims]]<br />
<br />
'''14.''' Mungo (Kentigern)<br />
<br />
'''15.''' Ceolwulf<br />
<br />
Emebert<br />
<br />
'''16.''' Fursey of Cnobheresburg<br />
<br />
'''17.''' Mildgyth<br />
<br />
Sulpitius the Pious<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Deicolus<br />
<br />
'''19.''' Agricius of Tier<br />
<br />
Contentius<br />
<br />
Remigius of Rouen<br />
<br />
'''21.''' Osburh of Coventry<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Praejectus<br />
<br />
Racho of Autun<br />
<br />
'''29.''' Aquilinus of Cologne/Milano<br />
<br />
[[Gildas the Wise]]<br />
<br />
Valerius of Treves<br />
<br />
'''30.''' Aldegonde<br />
<br />
Balthild<br />
<br />
'''31.''' Domitius of Amiens<br />
<br />
Uphia<br />
<br />
== February ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' [[Brigid of Kildare]]<br />
<br />
Severus of Avranches<br />
<br />
Sigebert III<br />
<br />
'''3.''' [[Ansgar]] (Anskar) of Bremen<br />
<br />
[[Laurence of Canterbury]]<br />
<br />
Werburh<br />
<br />
'''4.''' Aldate/Aldatus of Gloucester<br />
<br />
Rimbert<br />
<br />
'''5.''' Adelaide of Vilich<br />
<br />
Bertulf of Renty<br />
<br />
'''6.''' Amandus<br />
<br />
'''8.''' Aelfflaed of Whitby<br />
<br />
Cuthmann of Steyning<br />
<br />
'''9.''' Alto of Altomunster<br />
<br />
Ansbert<br />
<br />
Marius of Avenches<br />
<br />
'''10.''' Autrebertha<br />
<br />
[[Scholastica]]<br />
<br />
'''11.''' [[Blaise of Sebaste]]<br />
<br />
'''12.''' Aethelwold of Lindisfarne<br />
<br />
Benedict of Aniane<br />
<br />
'''13.''' Castor of Karden<br />
<br />
'''15.''' [[Sigfrid of Sweden]]<br />
<br />
'''17.''' Silvin of Auchy<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Angilbert<br />
<br />
[[Colman of Lindisfarne]]<br />
<br />
'''20.''' Eleutherius of Tournai<br />
<br />
'''21.''' Germanus of Granfelden<br />
<br />
'''23.''' Midburh<br />
<br />
'''24.''' Aethelberht of Kent<br />
<br />
Basil of Melrose<br />
<br />
Modest<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Praetextatus/Prix<br />
<br />
'''27.''' Aelfnoth of Stowe<br />
<br />
'''29.''' [[Oswald of Worcester]]<br />
<br />
== March ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' Abdalong of Marseilles<br />
<br />
Albinus of Angers<br />
<br />
[[David of Wales]]<br />
<br />
'''2.''' [[Chad of Lichfield]]<br />
<br />
'''6.''' Baldred/Balthere of Tyninghame<br />
<br />
Billfrith <br />
<br />
Chrodegang of Metz<br />
<br />
'''7.''' Eosterwine of Monkwearmouth<br />
<br />
'''8.''' Felix of Dommac<br />
<br />
'''9.''' Bosa of York<br />
<br />
'''10.''' Agilbert<br />
<br />
Attala<br />
<br />
Himelin<br />
<br />
'''12.''' Aelfheah the Bald<br />
<br />
'''14.''' [[Benedict of Nursia]]<br />
<br />
Matilda<br />
<br />
'''16.''' Heribert of Cologne<br />
<br />
'''17.''' Gertrude of Nivelles<br />
<br />
[[Patrick of Ireland]]<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Eadweard the Martyr<br />
<br />
'''19.''' Alchmund of Derby<br />
<br />
'''20.''' [[Clement of Ireland]]<br />
<br />
[[Cuthbert of Lindisfarne]]<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Humbert<br />
<br />
'''26.''' Ludger of Saxony<br />
<br />
'''27.''' Rupert of Salzburg<br />
<br />
'''28.''' Bereharius<br />
<br />
Guntram<br />
<br />
'''29.''' Eustace<br />
<br />
== April ==<br />
<br />
'''2.''' Aebbe the Younger<br />
<br />
Nicetius of Lyon<br />
<br />
'''3.''' Burgundofara<br />
<br />
'''5.''' Aethelburh of Kent<br />
<br />
'''9.''' Hugh of Champagne<br />
<br />
'''11.''' Guthlac of Crowland<br />
<br />
'''12.''' Erkembode<br />
<br />
'''15.''' Abbo II of Metz<br />
<br />
'''16.''' Padarn<br />
<br />
'''19.''' Alphege of Canterbury<br />
<br />
'''22.''' Aprunculus of Treves<br />
<br />
Opportuna of Montreuil<br />
<br />
'''23.''' Gerald/Gerard of Toul<br />
<br />
'''24.''' Ecgberht of Ripon<br />
<br />
Ivo of Ramsey<br />
<br />
Mellitus of London<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Rusticus of Lyon<br />
<br />
'''26.''' Richarius<br />
<br />
Trudpert<br />
<br />
'''29.''' Adalgar<br />
<br />
Aethelwold of Farne<br />
<br />
Wilfrith the Younger<br />
<br />
'''30.''' Earconwald<br />
<br />
<br />
== May ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' Aredius of Gap<br />
<br />
Bertha of Kent<br />
<br />
Marcouf<br />
<br />
Sigismund of Burgundy<br />
<br />
Theodard of Narbonne<br />
<br />
'''4.''' Arbeo of Freising<br />
<br />
Florian<br />
<br />
'''5.''' Maurontius of Douay<br />
<br />
'''6.''' Eadberht of Lindisfarne<br />
<br />
'''7.''' [[John of Beverly]]<br />
<br />
'''8.''' Desideratus<br />
<br />
Indracht of Glastonbury<br />
<br />
Itta of Metz<br />
<br />
'''9.''' Bienheure<br />
<br />
'''10.''' Solange<br />
<br />
'''11.''' Gangulphus<br />
<br />
Majolus<br />
<br />
'''12.''' Modoald/Romoald<br />
<br />
Rictrude<br />
<br />
'''15.''' Bertha of Bingen<br />
<br />
Rupert of Bingen<br />
<br />
'''16.''' [[Brendan the Navigator]]<br />
<br />
Germerius<br />
<br />
Honoratus<br />
<br />
'''17.''' Rasso of Adechs<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Aelfgifu of Shaftesbury<br />
<br />
'''19.''' Aelfheah of Canterbury<br />
<br />
'''20.''' Aethelberht II of East Anglia<br />
<br />
Austregisilus<br />
<br />
'''21.''' Hospitius<br />
<br />
'''23.''' Desidarius of Vienne<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Aldhelm of Sherbourne<br />
<br />
'''26.''' [[Augustine of Canterbury]]<br />
<br />
'''27.''' [[Bede]] of Jarrow<br />
<br />
'''28.''' [[Germanus of Paris]]<br />
<br />
William of Gellone<br />
<br />
'''29.''' [[Maximinus of Trier]]<br />
<br />
'''30.''' Hubertus<br />
<br />
Walstan<br />
<br />
== June ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' Lullus<br />
<br />
Wigstan<br />
<br />
'''4.''' Clotilde<br />
<br />
Eadfrith of Lindisfarne<br />
<br />
'''6.''' Agobard<br />
<br />
Branwalader of Milton<br />
<br />
Claudius<br />
<br />
'''8.''' Chlodulf of Metz<br />
<br />
Gildard<br />
<br />
Medardus<br />
<br />
'''11.''' Godeberta<br />
<br />
Landry of Paris<br />
<br />
'''13, 14, 15.''' Psalmodius<br />
<br />
'''16.''' Aurelianus<br />
<br />
'''17.''' Athwulf of Thorney<br />
<br />
Botwulf of Thorney<br />
<br />
Colman<br />
<br />
Nectan of Hartland<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Osana<br />
<br />
'''19.''' Deodatus<br />
<br />
'''20.''' Gobain<br />
<br />
'''21.''' Agofredus<br />
<br />
Alban of Mainz<br />
<br />
Gobain<br />
<br />
Leutfridus<br />
<br />
Palladius of Embrun<br />
<br />
'''22.''' [[Alban]] Protomartyr of Britain<br />
<br />
'''23.''' Aethelthryth<br />
<br />
'''24.''' Rumbold<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Amphibalus of St. Albans<br />
<br />
'''26.''' Brannac of Braunton<br />
<br />
'''28.''' [[Augustine of Hippo]]<br />
<br />
== July ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' Gal<br />
<br />
Calais<br />
<br />
'''2.''' Monegundus<br />
<br />
'''4.''' Bertha of Artois<br />
<br />
[[Oda of Canterbury]]<br />
<br />
'''6.''' Modwenna of Burton<br />
<br />
Seaxburh of Ely<br />
<br />
'''7.''' Aethelburh of Faremoutiers<br />
<br />
Haedde<br />
<br />
Willibald<br />
<br />
'''8.''' Colman<br />
<br />
Grimbald<br />
<br />
Kilian<br />
<br />
Urith<br />
<br />
Wihtburh<br />
<br />
'''9.''' Agilulfus of Cologne<br />
<br />
Evorhilda<br />
<br />
Neot<br />
<br />
'''10.''' Amalberga of Temse<br />
<br />
'''13.''' Arn of Wurzburg<br />
<br />
Mildthryth<br />
<br />
'''14.''' Frithona of Canterbury<br />
<br />
'''15.''' Apronia<br />
<br />
Eadgyth of Polesworth<br />
<br />
Swithun<br />
<br />
'''16.''' Fulrad<br />
<br />
Gundulph of Maastricht<br />
<br />
Helier<br />
<br />
Reineldis<br />
<br />
'''17.''' Cynehelm/Kenelm of Mercia<br />
<br />
Marcellina<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Arnulf of Metz<br />
<br />
Eadburh of Bicester<br />
<br />
Frederick of Utrecht<br />
<br />
'''20.''' Ansegisus<br />
<br />
Arilda of Oldbury<br />
<br />
Wilgefortis<br />
<br />
'''21.''' Arbogast<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Glodesind<br />
<br />
'''27.''' Galactorius<br />
<br />
'''28.''' [[Samson of Dol]]<br />
<br />
'''31.''' Sativola of Exeter<br />
<br />
== August ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' Aethelwold of Winchester<br />
<br />
Arcadius of Bourges<br />
<br />
'''5.''' Afla of Augsburg<br />
<br />
[[Oswald of Northumbria]]<br />
<br />
'''11.''' Gaugericus<br />
<br />
'''12.''' Porcarius<br />
<br />
'''13.''' Junian<br />
<br />
[[Radegund]]<br />
<br />
'''15.''' Altfrid<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Fiacre<br />
<br />
'''19.''' Bertulf of Bobbio<br />
<br />
Calminius<br />
<br />
Credan of Bodmin<br />
<br />
Magnus<br />
<br />
Sebaldus<br />
<br />
'''20.''' Oswine of Deira<br />
<br />
Philibert of Jumieges<br />
<br />
'''21.''' Eardwulf of Northumbria<br />
<br />
'''24.''' Audoin<br />
<br />
Gildard of Lurcy-le-Bourg<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Aebbe of Coldingham<br />
<br />
Aredius<br />
<br />
Gines de la Jara<br />
<br />
Gregory of Utrecht<br />
<br />
'''26.''' Bregowine<br />
<br />
'''27.''' [[Caesarius of Arles]]<br />
<br />
Decuman of Watchet<br />
<br />
Lycerius<br />
<br />
Syagrius of Autun<br />
<br />
'''28.''' Rumon<br />
<br />
'''31.''' [[Aidan of Lindisfarne]]<br />
<br />
[[Eanswythe of Folkestone]]<br />
<br />
[[ro:Sfinți occidentali de dinainte de schisma din 1054]]<br />
<br />
== September ==<br />
<br />
'''1. ''' Giles<br />
<br />
'''2. ''' Agricola<br />
<br />
'''3. ''' Aigulphus<br />
<br />
'''4. ''' [[Cuthbert of Lindisfarne|Cuthbert the Wonderworker]]<br />
<br />
'''5. ''' Bertin<br />
<br />
'''6. ''' Chainoaldus<br />
<br />
'''7. ''' Clodoaldus (Cloud)<br />
<br />
'''8. ''' Sergius<br />
<br />
'''9. ''' Omer<br />
<br />
'''10. ''' Salvius<br />
<br />
'''11. ''' Adelphus<br />
<br />
'''12. ''' Sacerdos<br />
<br />
'''13. ''' Maulrilius<br />
<br />
'''14. ''' Cormac<br />
<br />
'''15. ''' Leobinus<br />
<br />
'''16. ''' Edith<br />
<br />
[[Euphemia the Great Martyr|Euphemia]]<br />
<br />
Ninian<br />
<br />
'''17. ''' Rodingus<br />
<br />
'''18. ''' Richardis<br />
<br />
'''19. ''' Januarius<br />
<br />
'''20. ''' Candida<br />
<br />
'''21. ''' Alexander<br />
<br />
'''22. ''' Florentius<br />
<br />
'''23. ''' Linus<br />
<br />
'''24. ''' Geremarus<br />
<br />
'''25. ''' Firminus<br />
<br />
'''26. ''' Vigilius<br />
<br />
'''27. ''' Florentinus and Hilary<br />
<br />
'''28. ''' Faustus<br />
<br />
'''29. ''' Michael the Archangel<br />
<br />
'''30. ''' [[Jerome]]<br />
<br />
== October ==<br />
<br />
'''1. ''' [[Remigius of Rheims]]<br />
<br />
Bavo<br />
<br />
Eadgar of England<br />
<br />
Melor<br />
<br />
Nicetius<br />
<br />
'''2. ''' Leodegarius<br />
<br />
'''3. ''' Cyprian of Toulon<br />
<br />
Menna<br />
<br />
'''4. ''' Aurea<br />
<br />
'''5. ''' Maurus and Placidus<br />
<br />
'''6. ''' Pardulphus<br />
<br />
Romanus of Auxerre<br />
<br />
'''7. ''' Osgyth<br />
<br />
Palladius<br />
<br />
'''8. ''' Benedicta<br />
<br />
'''9. ''' Denis of Paris<br />
<br />
'''10. ''' Clarus<br />
<br />
Gereon & fellow martyrs<br />
<br />
Paulinus of York<br />
<br />
Tanca<br />
<br />
'''11. ''' Aethelburth of Barking<br />
<br />
Agilbert<br />
<br />
Bruno the Great<br />
<br />
'''12. ''' Edwin<br />
<br />
Wilfrid of York<br />
<br />
'''13. ''' Edward the Confessor<br />
<br />
Gerald<br />
<br />
Simpert<br />
<br />
'''14. ''' Angadrisma<br />
<br />
Burchard of Wurzburg<br />
<br />
Menehould<br />
<br />
'''15. ''' Bruno<br />
<br />
Wulfram<br />
<br />
'''16. ''' Baldric<br />
<br />
Michael the Archangel's appearance at Mont saint-Michel)<br />
<br />
Gaul<br />
<br />
Junian<br />
<br />
'''17. ''' Aethelred of Kent<br />
<br />
Anstrudis<br />
<br />
Berarius<br />
<br />
Translation of St [[Etheldreda of Ely]]<br />
<br />
[[Nothelm]]<br />
<br />
'''18. ''' Eadnoth the Younger<br />
<br />
Monon<br />
<br />
'''19. ''' Aquilinus of Evreux<br />
<br />
Desiderius of Auxerre <br />
<br />
Frideswide<br />
<br />
Theofrid<br />
<br />
'''20. ''' Acca of Hexham<br />
<br />
Caprasius<br />
<br />
'''21. ''' Ursula & Martyrs<br />
<br />
'''22. ''' Moderan<br />
<br />
'''23. ''' Severin<br />
<br />
Romanus<br />
<br />
'''24. ''' Maglorious<br />
<br />
Senoch<br />
<br />
'''25. ''' Crispin & Crispinian<br />
<br />
'''26. ''' Alfred the Great<br />
<br />
Cedd<br />
<br />
[[Cuthbert of Canterbury]]<br />
<br />
Eata of Hexham<br />
<br />
'''27. ''' Vincent, Sabina and Christeta<br />
<br />
'''28. ''' Faro<br />
<br />
'''29. ''' Bond<br />
<br />
'''30. ''' Aethelnoth of Canterbury<br />
<br />
Lucanus<br />
<br />
'''31. ''' Quentin<br />
<br />
Wolfgang of Regensburg<br />
<br />
== November ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' All Saints’<br />
<br />
Beornstan of Winchester<br />
<br />
'''2.''' All Souls’<br />
<br />
Victorinus<br />
<br />
'''3.''' Guenhael<br />
<br />
Pirmin<br />
<br />
Rumwold of Buckingham<br />
<br />
'''4.''' Winifred<br />
<br />
'''5.''' Bertilla<br />
<br />
Lie<br />
<br />
'''6.''' Leonard<br />
<br />
'''7.''' Bega of Copeland<br />
<br />
Rufus of Metz<br />
<br />
[[Willibrord]]<br />
<br />
'''8.''' Four Crowned Martyrs<br />
<br />
Deusdedit<br />
<br />
'''9.''' Ursinus<br />
<br />
'''10.''' Adelin of Seoz<br />
<br />
Justus of Canterbury<br />
<br />
[[Leo the Great]]<br />
<br />
'''11.''' [[Martin of Tours]]<br />
<br />
'''12.''' Cunibert<br />
<br />
Lebuinus<br />
<br />
Martin of Rome<br />
<br />
'''13.''' Brixius<br />
<br />
Dalmatius of Rodez<br />
<br />
Quintian of Rodez<br />
<br />
'''14.''' Erkenwald<br />
<br />
Sidonius of Saint-Saens<br />
<br />
'''15.''' Didier of Cahors<br />
<br />
Malo<br />
<br />
'''16.''' Africus<br />
<br />
Eucherius<br />
<br />
'''17.''' Gregory of Tours<br />
<br />
Hilda of Whitby<br />
<br />
Munditia<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Juthwara<br />
<br />
Nazarius<br />
<br />
Odo of Cluny<br />
<br />
Theofrid<br />
<br />
'''19.''' Severinus, Exuperius and Felician<br />
<br />
'''20.''' Bernward<br />
<br />
Corbinian<br />
<br />
[[Edmund the Martyr]]<br />
<br />
'''21.''' Columbanus the Younger<br />
<br />
'''22.''' Cecilia<br />
<br />
'''23.''' [[Clement of Rome]]<br />
<br />
Trudo<br />
<br />
'''24.''' Chrysogonus<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Alan of Lavaur<br />
<br />
Moses of Rome<br />
<br />
'''26.''' [[Linus of Rome]]<br />
<br />
'''27.''' Acarius<br />
<br />
Congar of Congresbury<br />
<br />
Siffred<br />
<br />
'''28.''' Rufus<br />
<br />
'''29.''' Saturninus<br />
<br />
'''30.''' Trojan<br />
<br />
== December ==<br />
<br />
'''1. ''' Eligius<br />
<br />
'''2. ''' Peter Chrysologous<br />
<br />
'''3. ''' Abbo of Auxerre<br />
<br />
[[Birinus of Dorchester]]<br />
<br />
'''4. ''' Ada<br />
<br />
Sigiramus<br />
<br />
'''5. ''' Aprus of Sens<br />
<br />
Bassus<br />
<br />
Gerbold<br />
<br />
'''6. ''' [[Nicholas of Myra]]<br />
<br />
Asella<br />
<br />
'''7. ''' [[Ambrose of Milan]]<br />
<br />
'''8. ''' Eucharius<br />
<br />
Conception of the Theotokos<br />
<br />
Romaricus<br />
<br />
'''9. ''' [[Conception of the Theotokos]]<br />
<br />
'''10. ''' Miltiades<br />
<br />
'''11. ''' [[Damasus I of Rome]]<br />
<br />
'''12. ''' Corentinuus<br />
<br />
'''13. ''' Judoc of Winchester<br />
<br />
[[Lucy of Syracuse]]<br />
<br />
Odile of Alsace<br />
<br />
'''14. ''' Venantius Fortunatus<br />
<br />
'''15. ''' Mamiminus<br />
<br />
Mesmin<br />
<br />
'''16. ''' Adelaide of Burgundy<br />
<br />
Eberhard of Friuli<br />
<br />
Flavitus<br />
<br />
Valentine, Concordius, Navalis and Agricola<br />
<br />
'''17. ''' Begga<br />
<br />
Sturm<br />
<br />
'''18. ''' Desiderius of Fontenelle<br />
<br />
Gatian<br />
<br />
'''19. ''' Gregory of Auxerre<br />
<br />
'''20. ''' Ursicinus<br />
<br />
'''21. ''' [[Apostle Thomas|Thomas the Apostle]]<br />
<br />
'''22. ''' Flavian<br />
<br />
'''23. ''' Dagobert II<br />
<br />
Servulus<br />
<br />
'''24. ''' Adela and Irmina<br />
<br />
Gregory of Spoleto<br />
<br />
'''25. ''' [[Nativity|Nativity of Our Lord]]<br />
<br />
Aethelburh of Wilton<br />
<br />
'''26. ''' [[Zosimus of Rome]]<br />
<br />
'''27. ''' Fabiola<br />
<br />
'''28. ''' Antony of Lérins<br />
<br />
'''29. ''' Ebrulf<br />
<br />
Trophimus<br />
<br />
'''30. ''' Ecgwine of Evesham<br />
<br />
Sabinus<br />
<br />
'''31. ''' [[Sylvester I of Rome]]</div>Fr Levhttps://orthodoxwiki.org/index.php?title=Western_Saints_before_the_AD_1054_Schism&diff=120438Western Saints before the AD 1054 Schism2014-12-09T13:39:02Z<p>Fr Lev: /* December */ added internal link</p>
<hr />
<div>''The following compilation is not an approved list of Western saints and may well not be "official." Notes and comments about each of them are welcome. It also includes commemorations recognized in the East, but observed on different dates.''<br />
<br />
== January ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' Eugendus<br />
<br />
'''2.''' Adalard of Corbie<br />
<br />
Auspasius of Auch<br />
<br />
'''3.''' [[Genevieve of Paris]]<br />
<br />
'''4.''' Fereal of Uzes<br />
<br />
Pharaildis<br />
<br />
Rigobert<br />
<br />
'''8.''' Aldric<br />
<br />
Erhard<br />
<br />
Gudula<br />
<br />
Pega of Peakirk <br />
<br />
'''9.''' Adrian of Canterbury<br />
<br />
'''12.''' Biscop<br />
<br />
'''13.''' Berhtwald<br />
<br />
Berno of Cluny<br />
<br />
[[Remigius of Rheims]]<br />
<br />
'''14.''' Mungo (Kentigern)<br />
<br />
'''15.''' Ceolwulf<br />
<br />
Emebert<br />
<br />
'''16.''' Fursey of Cnobheresburg<br />
<br />
'''17.''' Mildgyth<br />
<br />
Sulpitius the Pious<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Deicolus<br />
<br />
'''19.''' Agricius of Tier<br />
<br />
Contentius<br />
<br />
Remigius of Rouen<br />
<br />
'''21.''' Osburh of Coventry<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Praejectus<br />
<br />
Racho of Autun<br />
<br />
'''29.''' Aquilinus of Cologne/Milano<br />
<br />
[[Gildas the Wise]]<br />
<br />
Valerius of Treves<br />
<br />
'''30.''' Aldegonde<br />
<br />
Balthild<br />
<br />
'''31.''' Domitius of Amiens<br />
<br />
Uphia<br />
<br />
== February ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' [[Brigid of Kildare]]<br />
<br />
Severus of Avranches<br />
<br />
Sigebert III<br />
<br />
'''3.''' [[Ansgar]] (Anskar) of Bremen<br />
<br />
[[Laurence of Canterbury]]<br />
<br />
Werburh<br />
<br />
'''4.''' Aldate/Aldatus of Gloucester<br />
<br />
Rimbert<br />
<br />
'''5.''' Adelaide of Vilich<br />
<br />
Bertulf of Renty<br />
<br />
'''6.''' Amandus<br />
<br />
'''8.''' Aelfflaed of Whitby<br />
<br />
Cuthmann of Steyning<br />
<br />
'''9.''' Alto of Altomunster<br />
<br />
Ansbert<br />
<br />
Marius of Avenches<br />
<br />
'''10.''' Autrebertha<br />
<br />
[[Scholastica]]<br />
<br />
'''11.''' [[Blaise of Sebaste]]<br />
<br />
'''12.''' Aethelwold of Lindisfarne<br />
<br />
Benedict of Aniane<br />
<br />
'''13.''' Castor of Karden<br />
<br />
'''15.''' [[Sigfrid of Sweden]]<br />
<br />
'''17.''' Silvin of Auchy<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Angilbert<br />
<br />
[[Colman of Lindisfarne]]<br />
<br />
'''20.''' Eleutherius of Tournai<br />
<br />
'''21.''' Germanus of Granfelden<br />
<br />
'''23.''' Midburh<br />
<br />
'''24.''' Aethelberht of Kent<br />
<br />
Basil of Melrose<br />
<br />
Modest<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Praetextatus/Prix<br />
<br />
'''27.''' Aelfnoth of Stowe<br />
<br />
'''29.''' [[Oswald of Worcester]]<br />
<br />
== March ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' Abdalong of Marseilles<br />
<br />
Albinus of Angers<br />
<br />
[[David of Wales]]<br />
<br />
'''2.''' [[Chad of Lichfield]]<br />
<br />
'''6.''' Baldred/Balthere of Tyninghame<br />
<br />
Billfrith <br />
<br />
Chrodegang of Metz<br />
<br />
'''7.''' Eosterwine of Monkwearmouth<br />
<br />
'''8.''' Felix of Dommac<br />
<br />
'''9.''' Bosa of York<br />
<br />
'''10.''' Agilbert<br />
<br />
Attala<br />
<br />
Himelin<br />
<br />
'''12.''' Aelfheah the Bald<br />
<br />
'''14.''' [[Benedict of Nursia]]<br />
<br />
Matilda<br />
<br />
'''16.''' Heribert of Cologne<br />
<br />
'''17.''' Gertrude of Nivelles<br />
<br />
[[Patrick of Ireland]]<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Eadweard the Martyr<br />
<br />
'''19.''' Alchmund of Derby<br />
<br />
'''20.''' [[Clement of Ireland]]<br />
<br />
[[Cuthbert of Lindisfarne]]<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Humbert<br />
<br />
'''26.''' Ludger of Saxony<br />
<br />
'''27.''' Rupert of Salzburg<br />
<br />
'''28.''' Bereharius<br />
<br />
Guntram<br />
<br />
'''29.''' Eustace<br />
<br />
== April ==<br />
<br />
'''2.''' Aebbe the Younger<br />
<br />
Nicetius of Lyon<br />
<br />
'''3.''' Burgundofara<br />
<br />
'''5.''' Aethelburh of Kent<br />
<br />
'''9.''' Hugh of Champagne<br />
<br />
'''11.''' Guthlac of Crowland<br />
<br />
'''12.''' Erkembode<br />
<br />
'''15.''' Abbo II of Metz<br />
<br />
'''16.''' Padarn<br />
<br />
'''19.''' Alphege of Canterbury<br />
<br />
'''22.''' Aprunculus of Treves<br />
<br />
Opportuna of Montreuil<br />
<br />
'''23.''' Gerald/Gerard of Toul<br />
<br />
'''24.''' Ecgberht of Ripon<br />
<br />
Ivo of Ramsey<br />
<br />
Mellitus of London<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Rusticus of Lyon<br />
<br />
'''26.''' Richarius<br />
<br />
Trudpert<br />
<br />
'''29.''' Adalgar<br />
<br />
Aethelwold of Farne<br />
<br />
Wilfrith the Younger<br />
<br />
'''30.''' Earconwald<br />
<br />
<br />
== May ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' Aredius of Gap<br />
<br />
Bertha of Kent<br />
<br />
Marcouf<br />
<br />
Sigismund of Burgundy<br />
<br />
Theodard of Narbonne<br />
<br />
'''4.''' Arbeo of Freising<br />
<br />
Florian<br />
<br />
'''5.''' Maurontius of Douay<br />
<br />
'''6.''' Eadberht of Lindisfarne<br />
<br />
'''7.''' [[John of Beverly]]<br />
<br />
'''8.''' Desideratus<br />
<br />
Indracht of Glastonbury<br />
<br />
Itta of Metz<br />
<br />
'''9.''' Bienheure<br />
<br />
'''10.''' Solange<br />
<br />
'''11.''' Gangulphus<br />
<br />
Majolus<br />
<br />
'''12.''' Modoald/Romoald<br />
<br />
Rictrude<br />
<br />
'''15.''' Bertha of Bingen<br />
<br />
Rupert of Bingen<br />
<br />
'''16.''' [[Brendan the Navigator]]<br />
<br />
Germerius<br />
<br />
Honoratus<br />
<br />
'''17.''' Rasso of Adechs<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Aelfgifu of Shaftesbury<br />
<br />
'''19.''' Aelfheah of Canterbury<br />
<br />
'''20.''' Aethelberht II of East Anglia<br />
<br />
Austregisilus<br />
<br />
'''21.''' Hospitius<br />
<br />
'''23.''' Desidarius of Vienne<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Aldhelm of Sherbourne<br />
<br />
'''26.''' [[Augustine of Canterbury]]<br />
<br />
'''27.''' [[Bede]] of Jarrow<br />
<br />
'''28.''' [[Germanus of Paris]]<br />
<br />
William of Gellone<br />
<br />
'''29.''' [[Maximinus of Trier]]<br />
<br />
'''30.''' Hubertus<br />
<br />
Walstan<br />
<br />
== June ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' Lullus<br />
<br />
Wigstan<br />
<br />
'''4.''' Clotilde<br />
<br />
Eadfrith of Lindisfarne<br />
<br />
'''6.''' Agobard<br />
<br />
Branwalader of Milton<br />
<br />
Claudius<br />
<br />
'''8.''' Chlodulf of Metz<br />
<br />
Gildard<br />
<br />
Medardus<br />
<br />
'''11.''' Godeberta<br />
<br />
Landry of Paris<br />
<br />
'''13, 14, 15.''' Psalmodius<br />
<br />
'''16.''' Aurelianus<br />
<br />
'''17.''' Athwulf of Thorney<br />
<br />
Botwulf of Thorney<br />
<br />
Colman<br />
<br />
Nectan of Hartland<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Osana<br />
<br />
'''19.''' Deodatus<br />
<br />
'''20.''' Gobain<br />
<br />
'''21.''' Agofredus<br />
<br />
Alban of Mainz<br />
<br />
Gobain<br />
<br />
Leutfridus<br />
<br />
Palladius of Embrun<br />
<br />
'''22.''' [[Alban]] Protomartyr of Britain<br />
<br />
'''23.''' Aethelthryth<br />
<br />
'''24.''' Rumbold<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Amphibalus of St. Albans<br />
<br />
'''26.''' Brannac of Braunton<br />
<br />
'''28.''' [[Augustine of Hippo]]<br />
<br />
== July ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' Gal<br />
<br />
Calais<br />
<br />
'''2.''' Monegundus<br />
<br />
'''4.''' Bertha of Artois<br />
<br />
[[Oda of Canterbury]]<br />
<br />
'''6.''' Modwenna of Burton<br />
<br />
Seaxburh of Ely<br />
<br />
'''7.''' Aethelburh of Faremoutiers<br />
<br />
Haedde<br />
<br />
Willibald<br />
<br />
'''8.''' Colman<br />
<br />
Grimbald<br />
<br />
Kilian<br />
<br />
Urith<br />
<br />
Wihtburh<br />
<br />
'''9.''' Agilulfus of Cologne<br />
<br />
Evorhilda<br />
<br />
Neot<br />
<br />
'''10.''' Amalberga of Temse<br />
<br />
'''13.''' Arn of Wurzburg<br />
<br />
Mildthryth<br />
<br />
'''14.''' Frithona of Canterbury<br />
<br />
'''15.''' Apronia<br />
<br />
Eadgyth of Polesworth<br />
<br />
Swithun<br />
<br />
'''16.''' Fulrad<br />
<br />
Gundulph of Maastricht<br />
<br />
Helier<br />
<br />
Reineldis<br />
<br />
'''17.''' Cynehelm/Kenelm of Mercia<br />
<br />
Marcellina<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Arnulf of Metz<br />
<br />
Eadburh of Bicester<br />
<br />
Frederick of Utrecht<br />
<br />
'''20.''' Ansegisus<br />
<br />
Arilda of Oldbury<br />
<br />
Wilgefortis<br />
<br />
'''21.''' Arbogast<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Glodesind<br />
<br />
'''27.''' Galactorius<br />
<br />
'''28.''' [[Samson of Dol]]<br />
<br />
'''31.''' Sativola of Exeter<br />
<br />
== August ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' Aethelwold of Winchester<br />
<br />
Arcadius of Bourges<br />
<br />
'''5.''' Afla of Augsburg<br />
<br />
[[Oswald of Northumbria]]<br />
<br />
'''11.''' Gaugericus<br />
<br />
'''12.''' Porcarius<br />
<br />
'''13.''' Junian<br />
<br />
[[Radegund]]<br />
<br />
'''15.''' Altfrid<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Fiacre<br />
<br />
'''19.''' Bertulf of Bobbio<br />
<br />
Calminius<br />
<br />
Credan of Bodmin<br />
<br />
Magnus<br />
<br />
Sebaldus<br />
<br />
'''20.''' Oswine of Deira<br />
<br />
Philibert of Jumieges<br />
<br />
'''21.''' Eardwulf of Northumbria<br />
<br />
'''24.''' Audoin<br />
<br />
Gildard of Lurcy-le-Bourg<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Aebbe of Coldingham<br />
<br />
Aredius<br />
<br />
Gines de la Jara<br />
<br />
Gregory of Utrecht<br />
<br />
'''26.''' Bregowine<br />
<br />
'''27.''' [[Caesarius of Arles]]<br />
<br />
Decuman of Watchet<br />
<br />
Lycerius<br />
<br />
Syagrius of Autun<br />
<br />
'''28.''' Rumon<br />
<br />
'''31.''' [[Aidan of Lindisfarne]]<br />
<br />
[[Eanswythe of Folkestone]]<br />
<br />
[[ro:Sfinți occidentali de dinainte de schisma din 1054]]<br />
<br />
== September ==<br />
<br />
'''1. ''' Giles<br />
<br />
'''2. ''' Agricola<br />
<br />
'''3. ''' Aigulphus<br />
<br />
'''4. ''' [[Cuthbert of Lindisfarne|Cuthbert the Wonderworker]]<br />
<br />
'''5. ''' Bertin<br />
<br />
'''6. ''' Chainoaldus<br />
<br />
'''7. ''' Clodoaldus (Cloud)<br />
<br />
'''8. ''' Sergius<br />
<br />
'''9. ''' Omer<br />
<br />
'''10. ''' Salvius<br />
<br />
'''11. ''' Adelphus<br />
<br />
'''12. ''' Sacerdos<br />
<br />
'''13. ''' Maulrilius<br />
<br />
'''14. ''' Cormac<br />
<br />
'''15. ''' Leobinus<br />
<br />
'''16. ''' Edith<br />
<br />
[[Euphemia the Great Martyr|Euphemia]]<br />
<br />
Ninian<br />
<br />
'''17. ''' Rodingus<br />
<br />
'''18. ''' Richardis<br />
<br />
'''19. ''' Januarius<br />
<br />
'''20. ''' Candida<br />
<br />
'''21. ''' Alexander<br />
<br />
'''22. ''' Florentius<br />
<br />
'''23. ''' Linus<br />
<br />
'''24. ''' Geremarus<br />
<br />
'''25. ''' Firminus<br />
<br />
'''26. ''' Vigilius<br />
<br />
'''27. ''' Florentinus and Hilary<br />
<br />
'''28. ''' Faustus<br />
<br />
'''29. ''' Michael the Archangel<br />
<br />
'''30. ''' [[Jerome]]<br />
<br />
== October ==<br />
<br />
'''1. ''' [[Remigius of Rheims]]<br />
<br />
Bavo<br />
<br />
Eadgar of England<br />
<br />
Melor<br />
<br />
Nicetius<br />
<br />
'''2. ''' Leodegarius<br />
<br />
'''3. ''' Cyprian of Toulon<br />
<br />
Menna<br />
<br />
'''4. ''' Aurea<br />
<br />
'''5. ''' Maurus and Placidus<br />
<br />
'''6. ''' Pardulphus<br />
<br />
Romanus of Auxerre<br />
<br />
'''7. ''' Osgyth<br />
<br />
Palladius<br />
<br />
'''8. ''' Benedicta<br />
<br />
'''9. ''' Denis of Paris<br />
<br />
'''10. ''' Clarus<br />
<br />
Gereon & fellow martyrs<br />
<br />
Paulinus of York<br />
<br />
Tanca<br />
<br />
'''11. ''' Aethelburth of Barking<br />
<br />
Agilbert<br />
<br />
Bruno the Great<br />
<br />
'''12. ''' Edwin<br />
<br />
Wilfrid of York<br />
<br />
'''13. ''' Edward the Confessor<br />
<br />
Gerald<br />
<br />
Simpert<br />
<br />
'''14. ''' Angadrisma<br />
<br />
Burchard of Wurzburg<br />
<br />
Menehould<br />
<br />
'''15. ''' Bruno<br />
<br />
Wulfram<br />
<br />
'''16. ''' Baldric<br />
<br />
Michael the Archangel's appearance at Mont saint-Michel)<br />
<br />
Gaul<br />
<br />
Junian<br />
<br />
'''17. ''' Aethelred of Kent<br />
<br />
Anstrudis<br />
<br />
Berarius<br />
<br />
Translation of St [[Etheldreda of Ely]]<br />
<br />
[[Nothelm]]<br />
<br />
'''18. ''' Eadnoth the Younger<br />
<br />
Monon<br />
<br />
'''19. ''' Aquilinus of Evreux<br />
<br />
Desiderius of Auxerre <br />
<br />
Frideswide<br />
<br />
Theofrid<br />
<br />
'''20. ''' Acca of Hexham<br />
<br />
Caprasius<br />
<br />
'''21. ''' Ursula & Martyrs<br />
<br />
'''22. ''' Moderan<br />
<br />
'''23. ''' Severin<br />
<br />
Romanus<br />
<br />
'''24. ''' Maglorious<br />
<br />
Senoch<br />
<br />
'''25. ''' Crispin & Crispinian<br />
<br />
'''26. ''' Alfred the Great<br />
<br />
Cedd<br />
<br />
[[Cuthbert of Canterbury]]<br />
<br />
Eata of Hexham<br />
<br />
'''27. ''' Vincent, Sabina and Christeta<br />
<br />
'''28. ''' Faro<br />
<br />
'''29. ''' Bond<br />
<br />
'''30. ''' Aethelnoth of Canterbury<br />
<br />
Lucanus<br />
<br />
'''31. ''' Quentin<br />
<br />
Wolfgang of Regensburg<br />
<br />
== November ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' All Saints’<br />
<br />
Beornstan of Winchester<br />
<br />
'''2.''' All Souls’<br />
<br />
Victorinus<br />
<br />
'''3.''' Guenhael<br />
<br />
Pirmin<br />
<br />
Rumwold of Buckingham<br />
<br />
'''4.''' Winifred<br />
<br />
'''5.''' Bertilla<br />
<br />
Lie<br />
<br />
'''6.''' Leonard<br />
<br />
'''7.''' Bega of Copeland<br />
<br />
Rufus of Metz<br />
<br />
[[Willibrord]]<br />
<br />
'''8.''' Four Crowned Martyrs<br />
<br />
Deusdedit<br />
<br />
'''9.''' Ursinus<br />
<br />
'''10.''' Adelin of Seoz<br />
<br />
Justus of Canterbury<br />
<br />
[[Leo the Great]]<br />
<br />
'''11.''' [[Martin of Tours]]<br />
<br />
'''12.''' Cunibert<br />
<br />
Lebuinus<br />
<br />
Martin of Rome<br />
<br />
'''13.''' Brixius<br />
<br />
Dalmatius of Rodez<br />
<br />
Quintian of Rodez<br />
<br />
'''14.''' Erkenwald<br />
<br />
Sidonius of Saint-Saens<br />
<br />
'''15.''' Didier of Cahors<br />
<br />
Malo<br />
<br />
'''16.''' Africus<br />
<br />
Eucherius<br />
<br />
'''17.''' Gregory of Tours<br />
<br />
Hilda of Whitby<br />
<br />
Munditia<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Juthwara<br />
<br />
Nazarius<br />
<br />
Odo of Cluny<br />
<br />
Theofrid<br />
<br />
'''19.''' Severinus, Exuperius and Felician<br />
<br />
'''20.''' Bernward<br />
<br />
Corbinian<br />
<br />
[[Edmund the Martyr]]<br />
<br />
'''21.''' Columbanus the Younger<br />
<br />
'''22.''' Cecilia<br />
<br />
'''23.''' [[Clement of Rome]]<br />
<br />
Trudo<br />
<br />
'''24.''' Chrysogonus<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Alan of Lavaur<br />
<br />
Moses of Rome<br />
<br />
'''26.''' [[Linus of Rome]]<br />
<br />
'''27.''' Acarius<br />
<br />
Congar of Congresbury<br />
<br />
Siffred<br />
<br />
'''28.''' Rufus<br />
<br />
'''29.''' Saturninus<br />
<br />
'''30.''' Trojan<br />
<br />
== December ==<br />
<br />
'''1. ''' Eligius<br />
<br />
'''2. ''' Peter Chrysologous<br />
<br />
'''3. ''' Abbo of Auxerre<br />
<br />
[[Birinus of Dorchester]]<br />
<br />
'''4. ''' Ada<br />
<br />
Sigiramus<br />
<br />
'''5. ''' Aprus of Sens<br />
<br />
Bassus<br />
<br />
Gerbold<br />
<br />
'''6. ''' [[Nicholas of Myra]]<br />
<br />
Asella<br />
<br />
'''7. ''' [[Ambrose of Milan]]<br />
<br />
'''8. ''' Eucharius<br />
<br />
Conception of the Theotokos<br />
<br />
Romaricus<br />
<br />
'''9. ''' [[Conception of the Theotokos]]<br />
<br />
'''10. ''' Miltiades<br />
<br />
'''11. ''' [[Damasus I of Rome]]<br />
<br />
'''12. ''' Corentinuus<br />
<br />
'''13. ''' Judoc of Winchester<br />
<br />
[[Lucy of Syracuse]]<br />
<br />
Odile of Alsace<br />
<br />
'''14. ''' Venantius Fortunatus<br />
<br />
'''15. ''' Mamiminus<br />
<br />
Mesmin<br />
<br />
'''16. ''' Adelaide of Burgundy<br />
<br />
Eberhard of Friuli<br />
<br />
Flavitus<br />
<br />
Valentine, Concordius, Navalis and Agricola<br />
<br />
'''17. ''' Begga<br />
<br />
Sturm<br />
<br />
'''18. ''' Desiderius of Fontenelle<br />
<br />
Gatian<br />
<br />
'''19. ''' Gregory of Auxerre<br />
<br />
'''20. ''' Ursicinus<br />
<br />
'''21. ''' [[Apostle Thomas|Thomas the Apostle]]<br />
<br />
'''22. ''' Flavian<br />
<br />
'''23. ''' Dagobert II<br />
<br />
Servulus<br />
<br />
'''24. ''' Adela and Irmina<br />
<br />
Gregory of Spoleto<br />
<br />
'''25. ''' [[Nativity|Nativity of Our Lord]]<br />
<br />
Aethelburh of Wilton<br />
<br />
'''26. ''' Zosimus<br />
<br />
'''27. ''' Fabiola<br />
<br />
'''28. ''' Antony of Lérins<br />
<br />
'''29. ''' Ebrulf<br />
<br />
Trophimus<br />
<br />
'''30. ''' Ecgwine of Evesham<br />
<br />
Sabinus<br />
<br />
'''31. ''' [[Sylvester I of Rome]]</div>Fr Levhttps://orthodoxwiki.org/index.php?title=Christ_the_Savior_Monastery_(Niagara_Falls,_NY)&diff=120340Christ the Savior Monastery (Niagara Falls, NY)2014-11-17T19:14:21Z<p>Fr Lev: </p>
<hr />
<div>{{monastery|<br />
name=Christ the Savior Monastery or Christminster|<br />
jurisdiction=[[ROCOR]], [[Stavropegial]]|<br />
type=Male Monastery|<br />
founded=1962|<br />
superior=Dom James(Deschene)|<br />
size=unknown|<br />
hq=Niagara Falls, New York|<br />
language=English|<br />
music=Gregorian|<br />
calendar=[[Julian Calendar|Julian]]|<br />
feasts=unknown |<br />
website=[http://christminster.org/ Official Website]<br />
}}<br />
<br />
'''Christminster''' or '''Christ the Savior Monastery''' is a [[Western Rite]] [[monastery]] of the [[Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia]] (ROCOR), established in Rhode Island in 1993 with the blessing of [[Archbishop]] [[Hilarion (Kapral) of New York|Hilarion]], then [[Bishop]] of Manhattan, who authorized Dom [[James M. Deschene]] (formerly the [[prior]] of the [[Monastery of the Assumption of Our Lady of Mount Royal (Jacksonville, Florida)|Monastery of Our Lady of Mount Royal]]) to continue the Western Rite mission of Mount Royal under the title of ''Christ the Saviour Monastery'' or ''Christminster''. It is currently located in Niagara Falls, NY.<br />
<br />
== History ==<br />
Founded in 1910 as an Old Catholic monastery, [[Mount Royal]]'s mission and work continued under [[Old Catholic]] auspices until 1962. In that year the community was received into the patriarchal Russian Orthodox Church by its American [[exarch]], Bishop [[Dositheus (Ivanchenko) of New York|Dositheus (Ivanchenko) of New York]]. For several years, the [[monk]]s of Mount Royal staffed a Western Rite chapel in the Russian Cathedral of St. Nicholas in Manhattan, later moving to Woodstock, New York. Bishop Dositheus' successor, Archbishop [[John (Wendland) of New York and the Aleutians|John (Wendland)]], blessed and confirmed the Western Rite observance and mission of Mount Royal and the leadership of its [[abbot]], Dom [[Augustine Whitfield]].<br />
<br />
In 1975, under Abbot Augustine, the monastery was received into the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia by Archbishop [[Nikon (Rklitski) of Florida|Nikon (Rklitzsky)]], who again authorized and blessed its mission and observances.<br />
<br />
In 1993, upon the retirement of Abbot Augustine, Christminster was founded in Rhode Island with the blessing of Bishop Hilarion to carry on the work of Western Rite Orthodoxy in the ROCOR Synod.<br />
<br />
==External links==<br />
* [http://www.christminster.org/ Christ the Savior Monastery] (official site)<br />
* [http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Occidentalis/message/9375 News site] <br />
<br />
[[Category:Monasteries]]<br />
[[Category:ROCOR Monasteries]]<br />
[[Category:Canadian Monasteries]]<br />
[[Category:Western Rite]]</div>Fr Levhttps://orthodoxwiki.org/index.php?title=Christ_the_Savior_Monastery_(Niagara_Falls,_NY)&diff=120339Christ the Savior Monastery (Niagara Falls, NY)2014-11-17T19:13:43Z<p>Fr Lev: </p>
<hr />
<div>{{monastery|<br />
name=Christ the Savior Monastery or Christminster|<br />
jurisdiction=[[ROCOR]], [[Stavropegial]]|<br />
type=Male Monastery|<br />
founded=1962|<br />
superior=Dom James(Deschene)|<br />
size=unknown|<br />
hq=Niagara Falls, New York|<br />
language=English and Latin|<br />
music=Gregorian|<br />
calendar=[[Julian Calendar|Julian]]|<br />
feasts=unknown |<br />
website=[http://christminster.org/ Official Website]<br />
}}<br />
<br />
'''Christminster''' or '''Christ the Savior Monastery''' is a [[Western Rite]] [[monastery]] of the [[Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia]] (ROCOR), established in Rhode Island in 1993 with the blessing of [[Archbishop]] [[Hilarion (Kapral) of New York|Hilarion]], then [[Bishop]] of Manhattan, who authorized Dom [[James M. Deschene]] (formerly the [[prior]] of the [[Monastery of the Assumption of Our Lady of Mount Royal (Jacksonville, Florida)|Monastery of Our Lady of Mount Royal]]) to continue the Western Rite mission of Mount Royal under the title of ''Christ the Saviour Monastery'' or ''Christminster''. It is currently located in Niagara Falls, NY.<br />
<br />
== History ==<br />
Founded in 1910 as an Old Catholic monastery, [[Mount Royal]]'s mission and work continued under [[Old Catholic]] auspices until 1962. In that year the community was received into the patriarchal Russian Orthodox Church by its American [[exarch]], Bishop [[Dositheus (Ivanchenko) of New York|Dositheus (Ivanchenko) of New York]]. For several years, the [[monk]]s of Mount Royal staffed a Western Rite chapel in the Russian Cathedral of St. Nicholas in Manhattan, later moving to Woodstock, New York. Bishop Dositheus' successor, Archbishop [[John (Wendland) of New York and the Aleutians|John (Wendland)]], blessed and confirmed the Western Rite observance and mission of Mount Royal and the leadership of its [[abbot]], Dom [[Augustine Whitfield]].<br />
<br />
In 1975, under Abbot Augustine, the monastery was received into the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia by Archbishop [[Nikon (Rklitski) of Florida|Nikon (Rklitzsky)]], who again authorized and blessed its mission and observances.<br />
<br />
In 1993, upon the retirement of Abbot Augustine, Christminster was founded in Rhode Island with the blessing of Bishop Hilarion to carry on the work of Western Rite Orthodoxy in the ROCOR Synod.<br />
<br />
==External links==<br />
* [http://www.christminster.org/ Christ the Savior Monastery] (official site)<br />
* [http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Occidentalis/message/9375 News site] <br />
<br />
[[Category:Monasteries]]<br />
[[Category:ROCOR Monasteries]]<br />
[[Category:Canadian Monasteries]]<br />
[[Category:Western Rite]]</div>Fr Levhttps://orthodoxwiki.org/index.php?title=Christ_the_Savior_Monastery_(Niagara_Falls,_NY)&diff=120338Christ the Savior Monastery (Niagara Falls, NY)2014-11-17T19:13:18Z<p>Fr Lev: added box</p>
<hr />
<div>{{monastery|<br />
name=Christ the Savior Monastery or Christminster|<br />
jurisdiction=[[ROCOR]], [[Stavropegial]]|<br />
type=Male Monastery|<br />
founded=1962|<br />
superior=Dom James(Deschene)|<br />
size=unknown|<br />
hq=Niagra Falls, New York|<br />
language=English and Latin|<br />
music=Gregorian|<br />
calendar=[[Julian Calendar|Julian]]|<br />
feasts=unknown |<br />
website=[http://christminster.org/ Official Website]<br />
}}<br />
<br />
'''Christminster''' or '''Christ the Savior Monastery''' is a [[Western Rite]] [[monastery]] of the [[Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia]] (ROCOR), established in Rhode Island in 1993 with the blessing of [[Archbishop]] [[Hilarion (Kapral) of New York|Hilarion]], then [[Bishop]] of Manhattan, who authorized Dom [[James M. Deschene]] (formerly the [[prior]] of the [[Monastery of the Assumption of Our Lady of Mount Royal (Jacksonville, Florida)|Monastery of Our Lady of Mount Royal]]) to continue the Western Rite mission of Mount Royal under the title of ''Christ the Saviour Monastery'' or ''Christminster''. It is currently located in Niagara Falls, NY.<br />
<br />
== History ==<br />
Founded in 1910 as an Old Catholic monastery, [[Mount Royal]]'s mission and work continued under [[Old Catholic]] auspices until 1962. In that year the community was received into the patriarchal Russian Orthodox Church by its American [[exarch]], Bishop [[Dositheus (Ivanchenko) of New York|Dositheus (Ivanchenko) of New York]]. For several years, the [[monk]]s of Mount Royal staffed a Western Rite chapel in the Russian Cathedral of St. Nicholas in Manhattan, later moving to Woodstock, New York. Bishop Dositheus' successor, Archbishop [[John (Wendland) of New York and the Aleutians|John (Wendland)]], blessed and confirmed the Western Rite observance and mission of Mount Royal and the leadership of its [[abbot]], Dom [[Augustine Whitfield]].<br />
<br />
In 1975, under Abbot Augustine, the monastery was received into the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia by Archbishop [[Nikon (Rklitski) of Florida|Nikon (Rklitzsky)]], who again authorized and blessed its mission and observances.<br />
<br />
In 1993, upon the retirement of Abbot Augustine, Christminster was founded in Rhode Island with the blessing of Bishop Hilarion to carry on the work of Western Rite Orthodoxy in the ROCOR Synod.<br />
<br />
==External links==<br />
* [http://www.christminster.org/ Christ the Savior Monastery] (official site)<br />
* [http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Occidentalis/message/9375 News site] <br />
<br />
[[Category:Monasteries]]<br />
[[Category:ROCOR Monasteries]]<br />
[[Category:Canadian Monasteries]]<br />
[[Category:Western Rite]]</div>Fr Levhttps://orthodoxwiki.org/index.php?title=Prophetologion&diff=120331Prophetologion2014-11-17T14:22:23Z<p>Fr Lev: </p>
<hr />
<div>The '''Prophetologion''' (Slavonic: ''Paremijnik'') is a text that contains the [[Old Testament]] [[Lectionary]] readings appointed at [[Vespers]] and at other services during the Church year. There have also been texts containing the [[Lent]]en Lectionary which have been published in English. Although it is not a Prophetologion, one classic text that contains the most commonly used portions of the entire Lectionary is [http://www.light-n-life.com/shopping/order_product.asp?ProductNum=BOOK110 "Divine Prayers and Services of the Catholic Orthodox Church of Christ" by Fr. Seraphim Nassar] &mdash; commonly known as "The Nassar Five-Pounder."<br />
<br />
== Prophetolgions in English ==<br />
*There is a very well done [http://www.lulu.com/shop/rdr-peter-gardner-ed/the-prophetologion/hardcover/product-21776016.html Prophetolgion by Reader Peter Gardner], which uses the Boston Psalter for prokimena, and traditional English for the readings.<br />
*In 2012, Bishop [[Demetri (Khoury) of Jableh]] of the Antiochian Archdiocese produced a Prophetologion [http://almoutran.com/pdf/PROPHETOLOGION-Full.pdf] which is freely available as a download. <br />
*Archimandrite Ephrem (Lash)has produced an online Prophetologion [http://www.anastasis.org.uk/prophetologion.htm], translating the Old Testament texts from the [[Septuagint]].<br />
== See also ==<br />
*[[Lectionary]]<br />
*[[Liturgical books]]<br />
<br />
== External links==<br />
*[http://almoutran.com/pdf/PROPHETOLOGION-Full.pdf Prophetologion (Bishop Demtri (Khoury)]<br />
*[http://www.monachos.net/library/Lectionary_of_Lenten_Readings_for_Weekday_Services Lenten Lectionary]<br />
*[http://www.anastasis.org.uk/prophetologion.htm Prophetologion (Arch. Ephrem (Lash))]<br />
*[http://www.saintjonah.org/services/library.htm Practical Tips on How To Build a Liturgical Library]<br />
*[http://www.lulu.com/shop/rdr-peter-gardner-ed/the-prophetologion/hardcover/product-21776016.html Prophetolgion by Reader Peter Gardner]<br />
[[Category:Scripture]]<br />
[[Category:Texts]]<br />
[[Category:Old Testament]]<br />
[[Category:Liturgics]]</div>Fr Levhttps://orthodoxwiki.org/index.php?title=Talk:Cherubic_Hymn&diff=120236Talk:Cherubic Hymn2014-11-06T13:41:00Z<p>Fr Lev: Created page with "Since the article itself refers to the previous (and still used) cherubikon from the Liturgy of St James, I think this article should be re-written so that it doesn't define "..."</p>
<hr />
<div>Since the article itself refers to the previous (and still used) cherubikon from the Liturgy of St James, I think this article should be re-written so that it doesn't define "cherubic hymn" as the one currently used for most liturgies. --[[User:Fr Lev|Fr Lev]] 05:41, November 6, 2014 (PST)</div>Fr Levhttps://orthodoxwiki.org/index.php?title=Proskomedia&diff=120205Proskomedia2014-10-28T18:34:08Z<p>Fr Lev: </p>
<hr />
<div>{{liturgy}}<br />
The '''Proskomedia''' (from the Greek προσκομιδή, “offering”), sometimes referred to as ''prothesis'' (from the Greek πρόϑεσις, "setting forth") or ''proskomide'', is the '''Office of Oblation''' celebrated by the [[priest]] prior to the [[Divine Liturgy]] during which the bread and wine are prepared for the [[Eucharist]]. The Proskomedia is a prerequisite for the Divine Liturgy. The priest conducts the Office of Oblation behind the [[Iconostasis]] at the '''[[Table of oblation]]''' or '''Table of Preparation''' (also '''Prothesis''', or sometime Proskomide) that is located to the left of the [[Altar]] Table. Proskomedia, when translated to English, means "preparation."<br />
<br />
[[Image:Proscomidiar.jpg|left|thumb|200px|The Proscomidiar]]<br />
The Prothesis (Table of Oblation) represents the cave of Bethlehem where our Lord and Savior was born. Originally, the Prothesis was located in the same room as the altar table, being simply a smaller table placed against the eastern wall to the north of the altar table. During the reign of the Emperor [[Justin II]], the Prothesis came to occupy its own separate chamber to the north of the altar, in a separate apse, and joined to the altar by a door way. Another apse was added on the south side for the [[Diaconicon]]. From this time on many large Orthodox churches were built with three apses on the eastern end of the church building. However, most smaller churches continued to be built having only one aspe containing the altar, the Prothesis and the Diaconicon.<br />
<br />
[[Image:Discos Chalice.jpg|left|thumb|150px|The Chalice with the Diskos and Star]]<br />
The bread and wine are prepared for the liturgy on the Prothesis. The [[chalice]] and a round plate on a stand called the diskos or paten that holds the bread are kept on this table. These vessels are normally decorated with iconographic engravings, Christian symbols, and the sign of the cross. The top of each loaf is impressed with a seal bearing the sign of the cross. <br />
<br />
The Greeks usually use one large loaf for the Liturgy of Preparation, with a large round seal on it inscribed not only with the square seal (from which the Lamb will be taken), but also markings indicating where the portions for the Theotokos, the Ranks, the Living and Dead will be removed. Those churches which follow Slavic usage will typically use five small loaves, recalling the five loaves from which Christ fed the multitude (John 6:5-14). Normally all will be stamped with a small square seal, though special seals for the Theotokos are sometimes used.<br />
<br />
Also on this table is a special liturgical knife, symbolically called the [[spear]], that is used for cutting the eucharistic bread ([[prosphora]]) and a liturgical [[spoon]] for administering holy communion to the people. There are also special covers for the chalice and diskos and a cruciform piece of metal called the [[asterisk]] or star that holds the cover over the eucharistic bread on the diskos. A sponge and cloths for drying the chalice after the liturgy are also usually kept here. The Prothesis is decorated in a manner similar to that of the altar table. Above the Prothesis may be found various [[icon]]s, often one of Christ praying in Gethsemene: "Let this cup pass..."<br />
<br />
==Sources==<br />
*[http://www.goarch.org/print/en/ourfaith/article9561.asp GOARCH: Oblation Table]<br />
*[http://www.oca.org/OCchapter.asp?SID=2&ID=46 OCA: Table of Oblation]<br />
*[http://www.oca.org/OCchapter.asp?SID=2&ID=91 OCA: Prothesis]<br />
<br />
==External links==<br />
*[http://www.stseraphimschurch.org/articles/proskomedia-e.html The Proskomedia Explained]<br />
*[http://www.ortodoksi.net/tietopankki/sakramentit/proskomidi.htm Proskomedia (Video)] (fi)<br />
*[http://www.saintjonah.org/services/proskomede.doc Proskomedia (Text)]<br />
*[[w:Prothesis_%28altar%29]] Wikipedia: Prothesis (altar)<br />
<br />
[[Category:Liturgics]]<br />
<br />
[[fr:Proscomidie]]<br />
[[mk:Проскомидија]]<br />
[[ro:Proscomidia]]<br />
[[ru:Проскомидия]]</div>Fr Levhttps://orthodoxwiki.org/index.php?title=Proskomedia&diff=120204Proskomedia2014-10-28T18:30:46Z<p>Fr Lev: </p>
<hr />
<div>{{liturgy}}<br />
The '''Proskomedia''' (from the Greek προσκομιδή, “offering”), sometimes referred to as ''prothesis'' (from the Greek πρόϑεσις) or ''proskomide'', is the '''Office of Oblation''' celebrated by the [[priest]] prior to the [[Divine Liturgy]] during which the bread and wine are prepared for the [[Eucharist]]. The Proskomedia is a prerequisite for the Divine Liturgy. The priest conducts the Office of Oblation behind the [[Iconostasis]] at the '''[[Table of oblation]]''' or '''Table of Preparation''' (also '''Prothesis''', or sometime Proskomide) that is located to the left of the [[Altar]] Table. Proskomedia, when translated to English, means "preparation."<br />
<br />
[[Image:Proscomidiar.jpg|left|thumb|200px|The Proscomidiar]]<br />
The Prothesis (Table of Oblation) represents the cave of Bethlehem where our Lord and Savior was born. Originally, the Prothesis was located in the same room as the altar table, being simply a smaller table placed against the eastern wall to the north of the altar table. During the reign of the Emperor [[Justin II]], the Prothesis came to occupy its own separate chamber to the north of the altar, in a separate apse, and joined to the altar by a door way. Another apse was added on the south side for the [[Diaconicon]]. From this time on many large Orthodox churches were built with three apses on the eastern end of the church building. However, most smaller churches continued to be built having only one aspe containing the altar, the Prothesis and the Diaconicon.<br />
<br />
[[Image:Discos Chalice.jpg|left|thumb|150px|The Chalice with the Diskos and Star]]<br />
The bread and wine are prepared for the liturgy on the Prothesis. The [[chalice]] and a round plate on a stand called the diskos or paten that holds the bread are kept on this table. These vessels are normally decorated with iconographic engravings, Christian symbols, and the sign of the cross. The top of each loaf is impressed with a seal bearing the sign of the cross. <br />
<br />
The Greeks usually use one large loaf for the Liturgy of Preparation, with a large round seal on it inscribed not only with the square seal (from which the Lamb will be taken), but also markings indicating where the portions for the Theotokos, the Ranks, the Living and Dead will be removed. Those churches which follow Slavic usage will typically use five small loaves, recalling the five loaves from which Christ fed the multitude (John 6:5-14). Normally all will be stamped with a small square seal, though special seals for the Theotokos are sometimes used.<br />
<br />
Also on this table is a special liturgical knife, symbolically called the [[spear]], that is used for cutting the eucharistic bread ([[prosphora]]) and a liturgical [[spoon]] for administering holy communion to the people. There are also special covers for the chalice and diskos and a cruciform piece of metal called the [[asterisk]] or star that holds the cover over the eucharistic bread on the diskos. A sponge and cloths for drying the chalice after the liturgy are also usually kept here. The Prothesis is decorated in a manner similar to that of the altar table. Above the Prothesis may be found various [[icon]]s, often one of Christ praying in Gethsemene: "Let this cup pass..."<br />
<br />
==Sources==<br />
*[http://www.goarch.org/print/en/ourfaith/article9561.asp GOARCH: Oblation Table]<br />
*[http://www.oca.org/OCchapter.asp?SID=2&ID=46 OCA: Table of Oblation]<br />
*[http://www.oca.org/OCchapter.asp?SID=2&ID=91 OCA: Prothesis]<br />
<br />
==External links==<br />
*[http://www.stseraphimschurch.org/articles/proskomedia-e.html The Proskomedia Explained]<br />
*[http://www.ortodoksi.net/tietopankki/sakramentit/proskomidi.htm Proskomedia (Video)] (fi)<br />
*[http://www.saintjonah.org/services/proskomede.doc Proskomedia (Text)]<br />
*[[w:Prothesis_%28altar%29]] Wikipedia: Prothesis (altar)<br />
<br />
[[Category:Liturgics]]<br />
<br />
[[fr:Proscomidie]]<br />
[[mk:Проскомидија]]<br />
[[ro:Proscomidia]]<br />
[[ru:Проскомидия]]</div>Fr Levhttps://orthodoxwiki.org/index.php?title=Proskomedia&diff=120203Proskomedia2014-10-28T16:03:39Z<p>Fr Lev: </p>
<hr />
<div>{{liturgy}}<br />
The '''Proskomedia''' (sometimes referred to as ''prothesis'' or ''proskomide'') is the '''Office of Oblation''' celebrated by the [[priest]] prior to the [[Divine Liturgy]] during which the bread and wine are prepared for the [[Eucharist]]. The Proskomedia is a prerequisite for the Divine Liturgy. The priest conducts the Office of Oblation behind the [[Iconostasis]] at the '''[[Table of oblation]]''' or '''Table of Preparation''' (also '''Prothesis''', or sometime Proskomide) that is located to the left of the [[Altar]] Table. Proskomedia, when translated to English, means "preparation."<br />
<br />
[[Image:Proscomidiar.jpg|left|thumb|200px|The Proscomidiar]]<br />
The Prothesis (Table of Oblation) represents the cave of Bethlehem where our Lord and Savior was born. Originally, the Prothesis was located in the same room as the altar table, being simply a smaller table placed against the eastern wall to the north of the altar table. During the reign of the Emperor [[Justin II]], the Prothesis came to occupy its own separate chamber to the north of the altar, in a separate apse, and joined to the altar by a door way. Another apse was added on the south side for the [[Diaconicon]]. From this time on many large Orthodox churches were built with three apses on the eastern end of the church building. However, most smaller churches continued to be built having only one aspe containing the altar, the Prothesis and the Diaconicon.<br />
<br />
[[Image:Discos Chalice.jpg|left|thumb|150px|The Chalice with the Diskos and Star]]<br />
The bread and wine are prepared for the liturgy on the Prothesis. The [[chalice]] and a round plate on a stand called the diskos or paten that holds the bread are kept on this table. These vessels are normally decorated with iconographic engravings, Christian symbols, and the sign of the cross. The top of each loaf is impressed with a seal bearing the sign of the cross. <br />
<br />
The Greeks usually use one large loaf for the Liturgy of Preparation, with a large round seal on it inscribed not only with the square seal (from which the Lamb will be taken), but also markings indicating where the portions for the Theotokos, the Ranks, the Living and Dead will be removed. Those churches which follow Slavic usage will typically use five small loaves, recalling the five loaves from which Christ fed the multitude (John 6:5-14). Normally all will be stamped with a small square seal, though special seals for the Theotokos are sometimes used.<br />
<br />
Also on this table is a special liturgical knife, symbolically called the [[spear]], that is used for cutting the eucharistic bread ([[prosphora]]) and a liturgical [[spoon]] for administering holy communion to the people. There are also special covers for the chalice and diskos and a cruciform piece of metal called the [[asterisk]] or star that holds the cover over the eucharistic bread on the diskos. A sponge and cloths for drying the chalice after the liturgy are also usually kept here. The Prothesis is decorated in a manner similar to that of the altar table. Above the Prothesis may be found various [[icon]]s, often one of Christ praying in Gethsemene: "Let this cup pass..."<br />
<br />
==Sources==<br />
*[http://www.goarch.org/print/en/ourfaith/article9561.asp GOARCH: Oblation Table]<br />
*[http://www.oca.org/OCchapter.asp?SID=2&ID=46 OCA: Table of Oblation]<br />
*[http://www.oca.org/OCchapter.asp?SID=2&ID=91 OCA: Prothesis]<br />
<br />
==External links==<br />
*[http://www.stseraphimschurch.org/articles/proskomedia-e.html The Proskomedia Explained]<br />
*[http://www.ortodoksi.net/tietopankki/sakramentit/proskomidi.htm Proskomedia (Video)] (fi)<br />
*[http://www.saintjonah.org/services/proskomede.doc Proskomedia (Text)]<br />
*[[w:Prothesis_%28altar%29]] Wikipedia: Prothesis (altar)<br />
<br />
[[Category:Liturgics]]<br />
<br />
[[fr:Proscomidie]]<br />
[[mk:Проскомидија]]<br />
[[ro:Proscomidia]]<br />
[[ru:Проскомидия]]</div>Fr Levhttps://orthodoxwiki.org/index.php?title=Patriarchal_Exarchate_for_Orthodox_Parishes_of_Russian_Tradition_in_Western_Europe&diff=120199Patriarchal Exarchate for Orthodox Parishes of Russian Tradition in Western Europe2014-10-28T12:53:51Z<p>Fr Lev: </p>
<hr />
<div>The '''Patriarchal Exarchate for Orthodox Parishes of Russian Tradition in Western Europe''' is an [[exarchate]] of the [[Church of Constantinople|Ecumenical Patriatchate]] of Russian Orthodox tradition, based in Paris, and having [[parish]]es throughout Europe, mainly centered in France. The Exarchate is sometimes known as ''rue Daru'' from the street in Paris where its cathedral is located. It has been led by Archbishop [[Job (Getcha) of Telmessos]] since his consecration in 2013.<br />
{{diocese|<br />
name=Patriarchal Exarchate for Orthodox Parishes of Russian Tradition in Western Europe|<br />
jurisdiction=[[Church of Constantinople|Constantinople]]|<br />
type=Exarchate|<br />
founded=1931|<br />
bishop=[[Job (Getcha) of Telmessos|Abp. Job]]|<br />
see=Paris|<br />
hq=Paris, France|<br />
territory=Western Europe, British Isles|<br />
language=[[Church Slavonic]], local languages|<br />
music=[[Russian Chant]], [[Byzantine Chant]]|<br />
calendar=[[Julian Calendar|Julian]]|<br />
population=100,000|<br />
website=[http://exarchat.eu exarchat.eu]<br />
}}<br />
<br />
==History==<br />
After the onset of the Bolshevik Revolution in 1917, Russian Orthodox Christians based outside Russia and those who fled there from the communist regime found themselves in a difficult situation. A solution intended as temporary was the formation of the [[Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia]] (ROCOR), in which during the early 1920s the vast majority of Russian Orthodox abroad participated, united by their opposition to the Soviet government. The Russian bishop of Paris at the time was Metropolitan [[Evlogy (Georgievsky) of Paris|Evlogy (Georgievsky)]], who had been appointed by St. [[Tikhon of Moscow]] in 1921 as the representative of the [[Church of Russia|Patriarchate of Moscow]] in Western Europe and sat in the synod with the remainder of the ROCOR [[bishop]]s.<br />
<br />
In 1927 Evlogy broke with the ROCOR (along with Metr. [[Platon (Rozhdestvensky) of New York]], leader of the [[Orthodox Church in America|Russian Metropolia in America]]) and was subsequently condemned by them, splitting the Russian &eacute;migr&eacute; community in Western Europe. In 1928, Metr. [[Sergius I (Stragorodsky) of Moscow|Sergius (Stragorodsky)]], then ''[[locum tenens]]'' of the Patriarchate of Moscow, demanded declarations of loyalty to the Soviet regime, a proposition which Evlogy initially supported by subsequently repudiated. In 1930, after taking part in a prayer service in London in supplication for Christians suffering under the Soviets, Evlogy was removed from office by Sergius and replaced.<br />
<br />
Most of Evlogy's parishes remained loyal to him, however, as they were generally against the Soviet government. Evlogy then petitioned Ecumenical Patriarch Photius II to be received under his canonical care and was received in 1931, becoming an exarchate of the Ecumenical Patriarchate. In 1965, the jurisdiction was downgraded to a [[vicariate]], but returned to the rank of exarchate in 1999.<br />
<br />
In 2006, against the protests of Moscow, the Exarchate received Bp. [[Basil (Osborne) of Amphipolis|Basil (Osborne)]] (formerly the temporary administrator of the Moscow Patriarchate's [[Diocese of Sourozh]]), along with a number of parishes and clergy in the United Kingdom. Bp. Basil was elected as an auxiliary of the Exarchate's archbishop and given care of the [[Episcopal Vicariate in Great Britain and Ireland]], formed of those parishes and clergy that came with him.<br />
<br />
Since its reception by the Ecumenical Patriarch in 1931, the Exarchate has grown to roughly 100 parishes (more than 40 of which are in France), served by about 66 [[priest]]s who care for the needs of an increasingly multi-cultural flock, numbering roughly 100,000 strong. The Exarchate also has one [[monastery]] for women, the [[Orthodox Monastery of the Veil of Our Lady (Bussy-en-Othe, France)]], which publishes translations of liturgical materials. <br />
<br />
Communities of the Exarchate, the largest Orthodox group in France where it is centered, range throughout Western Europe, including Great Britain, Belgium, the Netherlands, Germany, Norway, Denmark, Sweden, Italy and Spain. Member Clergy and various Laymen of the Exarchate in Scandinavia have been active in developing worship in the local languages. There is also a smaller Lap (Sami) community associated with the Exarchate. The indigenous peoples of Sámpi (Lapland) were evangelized by [[Tryphon of Pechenga]] in the 1500's.<br />
<br />
Perhaps the best known institution of the Exarchate is the [[St. Sergius Orthodox Theological Institute (Paris, France)|St. Sergius Orthodox Theological Institute]], founded in 1925 by Metr. Evlogy and sometime home of several well-known Orthodox theologians and writers of the twentieth century, including [[Georges Florovsky]], [[Alexander Schmemann]] and [[John Meyendorff]] (although not [[Vladimir Lossky]], who neither taught at St. Sergius nor was a member of the Exarchate, himself remaining loyal to the Moscow Patriarchate).<br />
<br />
==Bishops==<br />
* Archbishop [[Job (Getcha) of Telmessos]], [[ruling bishop]]<br />
<br />
===Retired Bishops===<br />
* Bishop [[Michael (Storogenko) of Claudiopolis]], auxiliary bishop<br />
* Bishop [[Paul (Alderson) of Tracheia]], auxiliary bishop<br />
<br />
===Reposed===<br />
* Metropolitan [[Eulogius (Georgievsky) of Paris]], ruling bishop<br />
* Archbishop [[Gabriel (de Vylder) of Komana]], ruling bishop<br />
* Archbishop [[Georges (Wagner) of Evdokia]] <br />
* Bishop [[Alexander (Semenoff-Tian-Chansky) of Zila]], auxiliary bishop<br />
* Bishop [[Serge (Konovaloff) of Evkarpia]], ruling bishop<br />
<br />
==External links==<br />
*[http://exarchat.eu/ Official site] (in French, Russian and English)<br />
*[http://www.cnewa.org/ecc-bodypg.aspx?eccpageID=43&IndexView=toc Eastern Christian Churches: The Russian Orthodox Exarchate in Western Europe], by Ronald Roberson, Roman Catholic priest and scholar<br />
*[http://www.exarchate-uk.org/ Deanery of Great Britain and Ireland] <br />
*[http://perso.wanadoo.fr/monastere.bussy/ Monastère Orthodoxe Notre Dame de Toute Protection] (in French)<br />
*[http://www.ortodoks.dk/ Parish in Copenhagen, Denmark] (in Danish)<br />
*[http://www.ortodoks.com/ Parish in Oslo, Norway] (in Norwegian)<br />
*[http://www.hlherman.no/ Parish in Kristiansand, Norway] (in English, Norwegian & Greek)<br />
*[http://www.sirillus.se/kristi_forklarings_kyrka/index.htm Parish in Sweden] (in Swedish)<br />
<br />
[[Category:Jurisdictions]]<br />
[[Category:Dioceses]]<br />
[[Category:Ecumenical Patriarchate Dioceses]]<br />
[[Category:Orthodoxy in France]]<br />
[[Category:Orthodoxy in Western Europe]]<br />
<br />
[[ro:Exarhatul Patriarhal pentru Parohiile Ortodoxe de Tradiţie Rusă din Europa Vestică]]</div>Fr Levhttps://orthodoxwiki.org/index.php?title=Septuagint&diff=120125Septuagint2014-10-17T14:37:45Z<p>Fr Lev: </p>
<hr />
<div>{{OldTestament}}<br />
The "Translation of the Seventy" (from the Greek Ἡ μετάφρασις τῶν Ἑβδομήκοντα), better known as the '''Septuagint''' (from the Latin ''septuaginta'' or "seventy", also referred to by the Roman numeral for seventy, '''LXX''') originally referred to a 3rd century B.C. translation of the [[Pentateuch]] into [[Koine Greek]]. By the time of [[Justin Martyr]] (+ c. 160), the term has come to refer to the other scriptural and related texts translated from Hebrew and Aramaic into Greek in the next century. It is the basis of the canonical [[Old Testament]] of the [[Orthodox Church]]. <br />
<br />
==History==<br />
The earliest extant version of the Old Testament is the translation executed in Alexandria in the third century before the Christian era; this version became known as the '''Septuagint''' and more recently, the ''Alexandrian'' version. <br />
<br />
It was commissioned at the behest of the Egyptian King, Ptolemy, who wished to expand the celebrated library of Alexandria to include the wisdom of all the ancient religions of the world. Because Greek was the language of Alexandria, the Scriptures therefore had to be translated into that language. <br />
<br />
The earliest writer who gives an account of the Septuagint version is Aristobulus, a Jewish author who lived at the commencement of the second century B.C. In his ''Letter of Aristeas'', he explains that the version of "the Law into Greek" was completed under the reign of Ptolemy Philadelphus, and that Demetrius Phalerus had been employed about it. Since it is documented that Demetrius Phalerus died at the beginning of the reign of Ptolemy Philadelphus, it has been reasonably inferred that Aristobulus was a witness that the work of translation had been commenced under Ptolemy Soter. <br />
<br />
Ptolemy contacted the chief priest, Eleazar, in Jerusalem and asked him to send translators. Six were chosen from each of the twelve tribes of Israel, giving us the commonly accepted number of seventy-two. (Other accounts have the number at seventy or seventy-five.) Only the Torah (the first five books) was translated initially, but eventually other translations (and even compositions) were added to the collection. By the time of our [[Lord]], the Septuagint was the Bible in use by most Hellenistic Jews.<br />
<br />
<br />
Thus, when the [[Apostles]] quote the Jewish Scripture in their own writings, the overwhelmingly dominant source for their wording comes directly from the Septuagint (LXX). Given that the spread of the [[Gospel]] was most successful among the Gentiles and Hellenistic Jews, it made sense that the LXX would be the Bible for the early Church. Following in the footsteps of those first generations of Christians, the [[Orthodox Church]] continues to regard the LXX as its only canonical text of the [[Old Testament]]. There are a number of differences between the canon of the LXX and that of [[Roman Catholic Church]] and [[Protestantism|Protestant Christians]], based on differences in translation tradition or doctrine.<br />
<br />
==Differences with other Christian Canons==<br />
The differences with Rome are fairly small and have never been a subject of much contention between the Orthodox and that communion. The canonical lists are essentially the same in content (some of the names are different) but for the following items: The Latin canon does not include [[I Esdras]] (though it uses that name for what the Orthodox call [[II Esdras]]); there are only 150 [[Psalms]] in the Latin canon, while the LXX has 151 (and the Psalms are numbered and divided differently between the two canons, because the modern Latin canon is based on the Hebrew Masoretic Text, though the [[Vulgate]] used the Septuagintal Psalm numbering); the [[Epistle of Jeremiah]] is a separate book in the LXX, while it is included as part of Baruch for the Latins; and the Latins do not include either [[III Maccabees|III]] or [[IV Maccabees]]. Traditionally, Roman Catholics used the numbering of the Latin Vulgate, which follows the Septuagint. However, since the Second Vatican Council, Roman Catholic publications, including Catholic Bibles and liturgical texts, have used the numbering found in the Masoretic Text.<br />
<br />
The differences with the Protestant canon are based on the 16th century misunderstanding of Martin Luther. When he was translating the Old Testament into German, he mistakenly believed that the oldest source for the Old Testament would be in Hebrew, so he found and used the so-called Masoretic Text (MT), a 9th century Jewish canon compiled largely in reaction to Christian claims that the Old Testament Scriptures belonged to the Church. The MT is thus also the basis for the Old Testament text of the 17th century Authorized Version in English (the "King James Version"). There are multiple differences between the LXX and MT. The MT lacks the following texts: [[I Esdras]], the portion of [[II Esdras]] (which the MT simply calls "Ezra") called the "[[Prayer of Manasseh]]," [[Tobit]], [[Judith]], portions of [[Book of Esther|Esther]], [[Wisdom of Solomon]], [[Wisdom of Sirach]] (Ecclesiasticus), [[Baruch]], the [[Epistle of Jeremiah]], the so-called "additions to Daniel" (The [[Prayer of the Three Holy Children|Song of the Three Children]], [[Susanna (Book of Daniel)|Susanna]], and [[Bel and the Dragon]]), the 151st Psalm, and all four Maccabees books. The Psalms are also numbered and divided up differently.<br />
<br />
== Variations with the Masoretic Text (MT) ==<br />
There are multiple internal variations between the LXX and the MT. The texts read differently in many places, giving a much more [[Christology|Christological]] tone to the LXX which was deliberately avoided when the Masoretes were putting together their anti-Christian canon. These differences in wording are the evidence that the Apostles were using the LXX. Here follow several examples of radical differences in wording:<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="2"<br />
|-<br />
! !! LXX !! MT<br />
|-<br />
! Gen. 4:7<br />
| Hast thou not sinned if thou hast brought it rightly, but not rightly divided it? Be still, to thee shall be his submission, and thou shalt rule over him. || If thou doest well, shalt thou not be accepted? And if thou doest not well, sin lieth at the door. And unto thee shall be his desire, and thou shalt rule over him.<br />
|-<br />
! Gen. 4:13<br />
| And Cain said to the Lord God, My crime is too great for me to be forgiven. || And Cain said unto the Lord, My punishment is greater than I can bear.<br />
|-<br />
! Exodus 21:16/17<br />
| He that reviles his father or his mother shall surely die. || And he that curseth his father, or his mother, shall surely be put to death.<br />
|-<br />
! Psalm 39/40:6<br />
| Sacrifice and offering Thou hast not desired, but a body Thou hast prepared for me... || Sacrifice and offering thou didst not desire, mine ears has thou opened...<br />
|}<br />
<br />
==Different Translations of the Septuagint in English==<br />
The Septuagint has been translated a few times into English, the first one (though excluding the Apocrypha) being ''The Holy Bible containing the Old and New Covenant'' of Charles Thomson in 1808; his translation was later revised and enlarged by C. A. Muses in 1954 under the title ''The Septuagint Bible''. The Thomson's Translation of the Old Covenant is a direct translation of the Greek Septuagint version of the Old Testament into English, rare for its time. The work took 19 years to complete and was originally published in 1808.<br />
Lancelot Brenton's ''The Septuagint version of the Old Testament: according to the Vatican text, translated into English : with the principal various readings of the Alexandrine copy, and a table of comparative chronology'' was published in 1844 and for most of the time since its publication it has been the only one readily available, and has continually been in print. The creator of the ''World English Bible'', Michael Paul Johnson, has produced a version of Brenton's translation in American English, entitled ''LXX2012: Septuagint in English 2012''.<br />
<br />
The ''[[Orthodox Study Bible]]'' was released in early 2008 with a new translation of the Septuagint based on the Greek text of Alfred Rahlfs ''Septuaginta'', and with reference to the Brenton translation. Thomas Nelson Publishers granted use of the New King James Version text in the places where the translation of the LXX would match that of the Hebrew Masoretic text. This edition includes the New Testament as well, which also uses the New King James Version. It also includes extensive commentary from an Eastern Orthodox perspective.<ref> http://orthodoxstudybible.com/index.html</ref><br />
''The Eastern / Greek Orthodox Bible'' (EOB) is an extensive revision and correction of Brenton’s translation. Its language and syntax have been modernized and simplified. It also includes extensive introductory material and footnotes featuring significant inter-LXX and LXX/MT variants.<br />
''The New English Translation of the Septuagint and the Other Greek Translations Traditionally Included Under that Title'' (NETS), published in 2007 (with corrections and emendations issued in 2009 and 2014), is a major scholarly translation based on the critical texts available at the time from Gottingen and Rahlfs semi-critical ''Septuaginta''.<br />
Kevin Mayhew Publishers has printed the translation by Peter King, SJ, in four volumes (''The Pentateuch'' 2010, ''The Historical Books'' 2012, ''The Wisdom Literature'' 2008, and ''The Prophets'' 2013), which are now available (along with King's translation of the New Testament) as ''The Bible''. King's work, however, is difficult to obtain in the US.<br />
<br />
==Dead Sea Scrolls==<br />
With the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls in the mid twentieth century many examples have been recovered of the Old Testament in Hebrew from the time of Christ and the Holy Apostles and earlier. Scholarship during the past half century based upon these Dead Sea discoveries has revealed a close agreement between the LXX and pre-Masoretic Hebrew texts. In a review of some of this scholarship, Hershal Shanks<ref> Hershal Shanks, ''4QSama - The Difficult Life of a Dead Sea Scroll'', Biblical Archaeology Review, Vol 33 No 3, May/June 2007, pp66-70.</ref> notes that ''”…many Hebrew texts [are available] that were the base text for Septuagintal translations…”''. Further he notes that what ''”…texts like 4QSama show is that the Septuagintal translations are really quite reliable”'' and ''”…gives new authority to the Greek translations against the Masoretic text”''. Quoting Frank Moore Cross (a co-author of the book under review), Hershal continues ''”We could scarcely hope to find closer agreement between the Old Greek [Septuagintal] tradition and 4QSama than actually is found in our fragments”''.<br />
<br />
The scholarship based upon the new information provided in the Dead Sea Scroll thus supports the millennial old tradition on use of the Septuagint by the Orthodox Church.<br />
<br />
==Reference==<br />
<references/><br />
<br />
== External links ==<br />
* [http://orthodoxstudybible.com The Orthodox Study Bible page] - contains the Septuagint Old Testament using the NKJV as a base text<br />
* [http://www.kalvesmaki.com/LXX/ The Septuagint Online] - Compiled by Joel Kalvesmaki, Editor in Byzantine Studies at Dumbarton Oaks and convert to Orthodoxy 1993.<br />
* [http://www.lxx.org/ The Orthodox Study Bible Old Testament Project Website]<br />
* [http://www.ccel.org/bible/brenton/ The Septuagint LXX: Greek and English] by Sir Lancelot C.L. Brenton<br />
* [http://www.ecclesia.org/truth/septuagint-hyperlinked.html Septuagint, Brenton's Edition] (omits "deuterocanonical"/"apocryphal" books)<br />
* [http://spindleworks.com/septuagint/septuagint.htm The Septuagint], compiled from the [http://unbound.biola.edu/ Unbound] website by Henry Sikkema in 1999 (omits "deuterocanonical"/"apocryphal" books)<br />
* [http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/nets/ New English Translation of the Septuagint]. It has been released at San Diego, November 19, 2007 by Oxford University Press. [http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/nets/edition/ Provisional edition] online. This project is being carried out under the aegis of The International Organization for Septuagint and Cognate Studies (IOSCS). An international team of more than thirty scholars is working on the entire corpus of the Greek Jewish Scriptures. It is the first such English version in 160 years. Called the New English Translation of the Septuagint (NETS), the text reflects both the wealth of manuscript evidence that has been brought to light since the 19th century and, of course, current English idiom. (Note however, that this project is using the NRSV(1989) version as its English base of referral).<br />
* "[http://www.orthodox-church.info/eob/ The Eastern Orthodox Bible]" - a new translation rather than a revision of another work, dedicated to the recently reposed Archbishop Vsevolod of the (canonical) Ukrainian Orthodox Church in the USA.<br />
* [http://www.orthodoxengland.org.uk/pdf/kjvsept.pdf The KJV Septuagint] - translated from the Septuagint edition published by the Orthodox Church of Greece's ''Apostoliki Diakonia'', using the King James Version as a template. Scheduled to be published by St. Innocent Press in 2013, this will be the only English translation to date using an approved ecclesiastical text of the Septuagint.<br />
* [http://www.peterpapoutsis.com/ Peter Papoutsis]'s translation of the Septuagint<br />
* R. Grant Jones. [http://www.geocities.com/heartland/pines/7224/Rick/Septuagint/spindex.htm Notes on The Septuagint].<br />
'''Church Fathers'''<br><br />
* [[Clement of Alexandria]]. ''[http://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/anf02.vi.iv.i.xxii.html Chapter XXII.—On the Greek Translation of the Old Testament].'' In: THE STROMATA (MISCELLANIES), BOOK I.<br />
* [[Justin Martyr]]. ''[http://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/anf01.viii.vi.xiii.html Chapter XIII.—History of the Septuagint].'' In: Hortatory Address to the Greeks. <br />
<br />
===Institutes===<br />
* [http://www.twu.ca/sites/septuagint/ Septuagint Institute] (Trinity Western University, Canada). In 2005 the Septuagint Studies department moved from the University of Toronto to TWU, forming the new Septuagint Institute (SI). The SI complements TWU's already established Dead Sea Scrolls Institute (DSSI), founded in 1995, and together they form North America's new hub of Septuagint research.<br />
* [http://adw-goe.de/en/research/research-projects-within-the-academies-programme/septuaginta-unternehmen/ Septuaginta-Unternehmens Institute] in Gottingen, Germany. The Septuaginta-Unternehmen is a special research institute that was founded in 1908 in Göttingen under the auspices of the Göttingen Academy of Sciences. Its purpose was to conduct sound scientific investigation into the Septuagint and to trace the history of evolution of the Septuagint text, on the basis of the mass of manuscript data, and ultimately to establish a text which could be claimed to be for all intents and purposes identical with the Septuagint in its pristine form, a proto-Septuagint.([http://www.humboldt-stiftung.de/de/netzwerk/veranstalt/hoersaal/doc/muraoka.pdf 1]) The institute made Göttingen the nerve centre of Septuagint studies. The first director of the Institute, '''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alfred_Rahlfs Alfred Rahlfs]''', published ''Septuaginta, 2 volume edition in 1935'' (Septuagint in Greek). Rahlf's critical edition of the Septuagint for the book of Genesis rests on a foundation of some 140 manuscripts (nine pre-dating the fourth century CE), 10 daughter-versions, plus biblical citations in Greek and Latin literature. However, his two-volume, semi-critical edition ''Septuaginta'' has been supplanted by the fully critical Göttingen ''Septuaginta Vetus Testamentum Graecum'', in 23 volumes covering approximately two-thirds of the LXX text, along with a supplementary series.<br />
* [http://www.hexapla.org/ The HEXAPLA Institute]. Its purpose is to publish a new critical edition of the fragments of Origen's [[Hexapla]], focusing on the later development of Septuagint tradition.<br />
* [http://www.theo.kuleuven.be/lxxtc/en/ Centre for Septuagint Studies and Textual Criticism]. Catholic University of Leuven, Belgium.<br />
<br />
==See also== <br />
*[[Aristobulus of Paneas]], the earliest writer to give an account of the Septuagint version.<br />
*[[Deuterocanon]] (Apocrypha)<br />
*[[Hermeneutics]]<br />
*[[Holy Scripture]]<br />
*[[Simeon the God-receiver]]<br />
*[[Byzantine Creation Era]]<br />
<br />
[[Category:Church History]]<br />
[[Category:Judaism]]<br />
[[Category:Scripture]]<br />
[[Category:Texts]]<br />
<br />
==Further reading==<br />
* H. Orlinsky. ''"The Septuagint and its Hebrew Text."'' In: '''The Cambridge History of Judaism: Vol. II, The Hellenistic Age'''. Eds. W. Davies and L. Finkelstein. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.<br />
* Dr. Natalio Fernández Marcos. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=8MbvEZ4bgdwC&source=gbs_navlinks_s The Septuagint in Context: Introduction to the Greek Versions of the Bible].'' Transl. 2nd revised and expanded Spanish edition, by W. G. E. Watson. Leiden: BRILL, 2000. 394 pp. ISBN 9789004115743<br />
* Prof. Dr. Carsten Peter Thiede. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=q18JiQSnBksC&source=gbs_navlinks_s The Dead Sea Scrolls and the Jewish Origins of Christianity].'' Palgrave Macmillan, 2003. 256 pp. ISBN 9781403961433 (''See discussion of Septuagint'')<br />
* Prof. Dr. Jennifer Mary Dines. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=Qv8Riv3QIbQC&source=gbs_navlinks_s The Septuagint].'' Ed. Michael Anthony Knibb. Continuum International Publishing Group, 2004. 196 pp. ISBN 9780567084644<br />
* Prof. Dr. Karen Jobes and Dr. Moises Silva. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=NSt_AAAAMAAJ&source=gbs_navlinks_s Invitation to the Septuagint].'' 2nd ed. Baker Academic, 2000. 351 pp. ISBN 9780801022357<br />
* Prof. Dr. Tim McLay. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=41rx-TDIF9gC&source=gbs_navlinks_s The Use of the Septuagint in New Testament Research].'' Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2003. 207 pp. ISBN 9780802860910<br />
* Prof Dr. Wolfgang Kraus, R. Glenn Wooden. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=M-oXuG_2wLIC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_navlinks_s Septuagint Research: Issues and Challenges in the Study of the Greek Jewish Scriptures].'' Society of Biblical Literature, 2006. 414 pp. ISBN 9781589832046<br />
'''Articles'''<br />
* [http://www.israelshamir.net/Biography.htm Israel Adam Shamir]. ''[http://www.israelshamir.net/English/Bible_to_Hebrew.htm Translating the Bible into Hebrew].'' A Talk at Rhodes Conference, 8-12 October 2009.<br />
:(Russian Israeli writer Israel Shamir is a Jewish convert to the Greek Orthodox [[Church of Jerusalem]]. Arguing for the veracity of the Septuagint over the Masoretic text, he states that there is an urgent need for a distinctly Christian [[Old Testament]] in Hebrew; he recommends reconstruction of the Hebrew source of the Septuagint, as a means of witnessing to the Jews today from a truly Christian Hebrew Bible)<br />
* ''[http://www.presstv.ir/detail/158212.html Greek bibles, much older than thought].'' Press TV (Israel). Sat Jan 1, 2011 7:17PM.<br />
: (Cambridge University researchers suggest that early Jewry used a Greek version of the Bible in synagogues much longer than previously thought: ''"Studying a fragment of manuscript kept in Cairo Genizah, a special vaulted room in Cairo's Ben-Ezra Synagogue, the team found that in some places the Jewish community continued to use Greek bibles almost until living memory."'')<br />
<br />
[[el:Μετάφραση των Εβδομήκοντα]]<br />
[[ro:Septuaginta]]</div>Fr Levhttps://orthodoxwiki.org/index.php?title=Septuagint&diff=120124Septuagint2014-10-17T14:24:46Z<p>Fr Lev: /* Different Translations of the Septuagint in English */</p>
<hr />
<div>{{OldTestament}}<br />
The '''Septuagint''' (a name derived from the Latin word for "seventy", also referred to as the '''LXX''') originally referred to a 3rd century B.C. translation of the [[Pentateuch]] into [[Koine Greek]]. By the time of [[Justin Martyr]] (+ c. 160), the term has come to refer to the other scriptural and related texts translated from Hebrew and Aramaic into Greek in the next century. It is the basis of the canonical [[Old Testament]] of the [[Orthodox Church]]. <br />
<br />
==History==<br />
The earliest extant version of the Old Testament is the translation executed in Alexandria in the third century before the Christian era; this version became known as the '''Septuagint''' and more recently, the ''Alexandrian'' version. <br />
<br />
It was commissioned at the behest of the Egyptian King, Ptolemy, who wished to expand the celebrated library of Alexandria to include the wisdom of all the ancient religions of the world. Because Greek was the language of Alexandria, the Scriptures therefore had to be translated into that language. <br />
<br />
The earliest writer who gives an account of the Septuagint version is Aristobulus, a Jewish author who lived at the commencement of the second century B.C. In his ''Letter of Aristeas'', he explains that the version of "the Law into Greek" was completed under the reign of Ptolemy Philadelphus, and that Demetrius Phalerus had been employed about it. Since it is documented that Demetrius Phalerus died at the beginning of the reign of Ptolemy Philadelphus, it has been reasonably inferred that Aristobulus was a witness that the work of translation had been commenced under Ptolemy Soter. <br />
<br />
Ptolemy contacted the chief priest, Eleazar, in Jerusalem and asked him to send translators. Six were chosen from each of the twelve tribes of Israel, giving us the commonly accepted number of seventy-two. (Other accounts have the number at seventy or seventy-five.) Only the Torah (the first five books) was translated initially, but eventually other translations (and even compositions) were added to the collection. By the time of our [[Lord]], the Septuagint was the Bible in use by most Hellenistic Jews.<br />
<br />
<br />
Thus, when the [[Apostles]] quote the Jewish Scripture in their own writings, the overwhelmingly dominant source for their wording comes directly from the Septuagint (LXX). Given that the spread of the [[Gospel]] was most successful among the Gentiles and Hellenistic Jews, it made sense that the LXX would be the Bible for the early Church. Following in the footsteps of those first generations of Christians, the [[Orthodox Church]] continues to regard the LXX as its only canonical text of the [[Old Testament]]. There are a number of differences between the canon of the LXX and that of [[Roman Catholic Church]] and [[Protestantism|Protestant Christians]], based on differences in translation tradition or doctrine.<br />
<br />
==Differences with other Christian Canons==<br />
The differences with Rome are fairly small and have never been a subject of much contention between the Orthodox and that communion. The canonical lists are essentially the same in content (some of the names are different) but for the following items: The Latin canon does not include [[I Esdras]] (though it uses that name for what the Orthodox call [[II Esdras]]); there are only 150 [[Psalms]] in the Latin canon, while the LXX has 151 (and the Psalms are numbered and divided differently between the two canons, because the modern Latin canon is based on the Hebrew Masoretic Text, though the [[Vulgate]] used the Septuagintal Psalm numbering); the [[Epistle of Jeremiah]] is a separate book in the LXX, while it is included as part of Baruch for the Latins; and the Latins do not include either [[III Maccabees|III]] or [[IV Maccabees]]. Traditionally, Roman Catholics used the numbering of the Latin Vulgate, which follows the Septuagint. However, since the Second Vatican Council, Roman Catholic publications, including Catholic Bibles and liturgical texts, have used the numbering found in the Masoretic Text.<br />
<br />
The differences with the Protestant canon are based on the 16th century misunderstanding of Martin Luther. When he was translating the Old Testament into German, he mistakenly believed that the oldest source for the Old Testament would be in Hebrew, so he found and used the so-called Masoretic Text (MT), a 9th century Jewish canon compiled largely in reaction to Christian claims that the Old Testament Scriptures belonged to the Church. The MT is thus also the basis for the Old Testament text of the 17th century Authorized Version in English (the "King James Version"). There are multiple differences between the LXX and MT. The MT lacks the following texts: [[I Esdras]], the portion of [[II Esdras]] (which the MT simply calls "Ezra") called the "[[Prayer of Manasseh]]," [[Tobit]], [[Judith]], portions of [[Book of Esther|Esther]], [[Wisdom of Solomon]], [[Wisdom of Sirach]] (Ecclesiasticus), [[Baruch]], the [[Epistle of Jeremiah]], the so-called "additions to Daniel" (The [[Prayer of the Three Holy Children|Song of the Three Children]], [[Susanna (Book of Daniel)|Susanna]], and [[Bel and the Dragon]]), the 151st Psalm, and all four Maccabees books. The Psalms are also numbered and divided up differently.<br />
<br />
== Variations with the Masoretic Text (MT) ==<br />
There are multiple internal variations between the LXX and the MT. The texts read differently in many places, giving a much more [[Christology|Christological]] tone to the LXX which was deliberately avoided when the Masoretes were putting together their anti-Christian canon. These differences in wording are the evidence that the Apostles were using the LXX. Here follow several examples of radical differences in wording:<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="2"<br />
|-<br />
! !! LXX !! MT<br />
|-<br />
! Gen. 4:7<br />
| Hast thou not sinned if thou hast brought it rightly, but not rightly divided it? Be still, to thee shall be his submission, and thou shalt rule over him. || If thou doest well, shalt thou not be accepted? And if thou doest not well, sin lieth at the door. And unto thee shall be his desire, and thou shalt rule over him.<br />
|-<br />
! Gen. 4:13<br />
| And Cain said to the Lord God, My crime is too great for me to be forgiven. || And Cain said unto the Lord, My punishment is greater than I can bear.<br />
|-<br />
! Exodus 21:16/17<br />
| He that reviles his father or his mother shall surely die. || And he that curseth his father, or his mother, shall surely be put to death.<br />
|-<br />
! Psalm 39/40:6<br />
| Sacrifice and offering Thou hast not desired, but a body Thou hast prepared for me... || Sacrifice and offering thou didst not desire, mine ears has thou opened...<br />
|}<br />
<br />
==Different Translations of the Septuagint in English==<br />
The Septuagint has been translated a few times into English, the first one (though excluding the Apocrypha) being ''The Holy Bible containing the Old and New Covenant'' of Charles Thomson in 1808; his translation was later revised and enlarged by C. A. Muses in 1954 under the title ''The Septuagint Bible''. The Thomson's Translation of the Old Covenant is a direct translation of the Greek Septuagint version of the Old Testament into English, rare for its time. The work took 19 years to complete and was originally published in 1808.<br />
Lancelot Brenton's ''The Septuagint version of the Old Testament: according to the Vatican text, translated into English : with the principal various readings of the Alexandrine copy, and a table of comparative chronology'' was published in 1844 and for most of the time since its publication it has been the only one readily available, and has continually been in print. The creator of the ''World English Bible'', Michael Paul Johnson, has produced a version of Brenton's translation in American English, entitled ''LXX2012: Septuagint in English 2012''.<br />
<br />
The ''[[Orthodox Study Bible]]'' was released in early 2008 with a new translation of the Septuagint based on the Greek text of Alfred Rahlfs ''Septuaginta'', and with reference to the Brenton translation. Thomas Nelson Publishers granted use of the New King James Version text in the places where the translation of the LXX would match that of the Hebrew Masoretic text. This edition includes the New Testament as well, which also uses the New King James Version. It also includes extensive commentary from an Eastern Orthodox perspective.<ref> http://orthodoxstudybible.com/index.html</ref><br />
''The Eastern / Greek Orthodox Bible'' (EOB) is an extensive revision and correction of Brenton’s translation. Its language and syntax have been modernized and simplified. It also includes extensive introductory material and footnotes featuring significant inter-LXX and LXX/MT variants.<br />
''The New English Translation of the Septuagint and the Other Greek Translations Traditionally Included Under that Title'' (NETS), published in 2007 (with corrections and emendations issued in 2009 and 2014), is a major scholarly translation based on the critical texts available at the time from Gottingen and Rahlfs semi-critical ''Septuaginta''.<br />
Kevin Mayhew Publishers has printed the translation by Peter King, SJ, in four volumes (''The Pentateuch'' 2010, ''The Historical Books'' 2012, ''The Wisdom Literature'' 2008, and ''The Prophets'' 2013), which are now available (along with King's translation of the New Testament) as ''The Bible''. King's work, however, is difficult to obtain in the US.<br />
<br />
==Dead Sea Scrolls==<br />
With the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls in the mid twentieth century many examples have been recovered of the Old Testament in Hebrew from the time of Christ and the Holy Apostles and earlier. Scholarship during the past half century based upon these Dead Sea discoveries has revealed a close agreement between the LXX and pre-Masoretic Hebrew texts. In a review of some of this scholarship, Hershal Shanks<ref> Hershal Shanks, ''4QSama - The Difficult Life of a Dead Sea Scroll'', Biblical Archaeology Review, Vol 33 No 3, May/June 2007, pp66-70.</ref> notes that ''”…many Hebrew texts [are available] that were the base text for Septuagintal translations…”''. Further he notes that what ''”…texts like 4QSama show is that the Septuagintal translations are really quite reliable”'' and ''”…gives new authority to the Greek translations against the Masoretic text”''. Quoting Frank Moore Cross (a co-author of the book under review), Hershal continues ''”We could scarcely hope to find closer agreement between the Old Greek [Septuagintal] tradition and 4QSama than actually is found in our fragments”''.<br />
<br />
The scholarship based upon the new information provided in the Dead Sea Scroll thus supports the millennial old tradition on use of the Septuagint by the Orthodox Church.<br />
<br />
==Reference==<br />
<references/><br />
<br />
== External links ==<br />
* [http://orthodoxstudybible.com The Orthodox Study Bible page] - contains the Septuagint Old Testament using the NKJV as a base text<br />
* [http://www.kalvesmaki.com/LXX/ The Septuagint Online] - Compiled by Joel Kalvesmaki, Editor in Byzantine Studies at Dumbarton Oaks and convert to Orthodoxy 1993.<br />
* [http://www.lxx.org/ The Orthodox Study Bible Old Testament Project Website]<br />
* [http://www.ccel.org/bible/brenton/ The Septuagint LXX: Greek and English] by Sir Lancelot C.L. Brenton<br />
* [http://www.ecclesia.org/truth/septuagint-hyperlinked.html Septuagint, Brenton's Edition] (omits "deuterocanonical"/"apocryphal" books)<br />
* [http://spindleworks.com/septuagint/septuagint.htm The Septuagint], compiled from the [http://unbound.biola.edu/ Unbound] website by Henry Sikkema in 1999 (omits "deuterocanonical"/"apocryphal" books)<br />
* [http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/nets/ New English Translation of the Septuagint]. It has been released at San Diego, November 19, 2007 by Oxford University Press. [http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/nets/edition/ Provisional edition] online. This project is being carried out under the aegis of The International Organization for Septuagint and Cognate Studies (IOSCS). An international team of more than thirty scholars is working on the entire corpus of the Greek Jewish Scriptures. It is the first such English version in 160 years. Called the New English Translation of the Septuagint (NETS), the text reflects both the wealth of manuscript evidence that has been brought to light since the 19th century and, of course, current English idiom. (Note however, that this project is using the NRSV(1989) version as its English base of referral).<br />
* "[http://www.orthodox-church.info/eob/ The Eastern Orthodox Bible]" - a new translation rather than a revision of another work, dedicated to the recently reposed Archbishop Vsevolod of the (canonical) Ukrainian Orthodox Church in the USA.<br />
* [http://www.orthodoxengland.org.uk/pdf/kjvsept.pdf The KJV Septuagint] - translated from the Septuagint edition published by the Orthodox Church of Greece's ''Apostoliki Diakonia'', using the King James Version as a template. Scheduled to be published by St. Innocent Press in 2013, this will be the only English translation to date using an approved ecclesiastical text of the Septuagint.<br />
* [http://www.peterpapoutsis.com/ Peter Papoutsis]'s translation of the Septuagint<br />
* R. Grant Jones. [http://www.geocities.com/heartland/pines/7224/Rick/Septuagint/spindex.htm Notes on The Septuagint].<br />
'''Church Fathers'''<br><br />
* [[Clement of Alexandria]]. ''[http://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/anf02.vi.iv.i.xxii.html Chapter XXII.—On the Greek Translation of the Old Testament].'' In: THE STROMATA (MISCELLANIES), BOOK I.<br />
* [[Justin Martyr]]. ''[http://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/anf01.viii.vi.xiii.html Chapter XIII.—History of the Septuagint].'' In: Hortatory Address to the Greeks. <br />
<br />
===Institutes===<br />
* [http://www.twu.ca/sites/septuagint/ Septuagint Institute] (Trinity Western University, Canada). In 2005 the Septuagint Studies department moved from the University of Toronto to TWU, forming the new Septuagint Institute (SI). The SI complements TWU's already established Dead Sea Scrolls Institute (DSSI), founded in 1995, and together they form North America's new hub of Septuagint research.<br />
* [http://adw-goe.de/en/research/research-projects-within-the-academies-programme/septuaginta-unternehmen/ Septuaginta-Unternehmens Institute] in Gottingen, Germany. The Septuaginta-Unternehmen is a special research institute that was founded in 1908 in Göttingen under the auspices of the Göttingen Academy of Sciences. Its purpose was to conduct sound scientific investigation into the Septuagint and to trace the history of evolution of the Septuagint text, on the basis of the mass of manuscript data, and ultimately to establish a text which could be claimed to be for all intents and purposes identical with the Septuagint in its pristine form, a proto-Septuagint.([http://www.humboldt-stiftung.de/de/netzwerk/veranstalt/hoersaal/doc/muraoka.pdf 1]) The institute made Göttingen the nerve centre of Septuagint studies. The first director of the Institute, '''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alfred_Rahlfs Alfred Rahlfs]''', published ''Septuaginta, 2 volume edition in 1935'' (Septuagint in Greek). Rahlf's critical edition of the Septuagint for the book of Genesis rests on a foundation of some 140 manuscripts (nine pre-dating the fourth century CE), 10 daughter-versions, plus biblical citations in Greek and Latin literature. However, his two-volume, semi-critical edition ''Septuaginta'' has been supplanted by the fully critical Göttingen ''Septuaginta Vetus Testamentum Graecum'', in 23 volumes covering approximately two-thirds of the LXX text, along with a supplementary series.<br />
* [http://www.hexapla.org/ The HEXAPLA Institute]. Its purpose is to publish a new critical edition of the fragments of Origen's [[Hexapla]], focusing on the later development of Septuagint tradition.<br />
* [http://www.theo.kuleuven.be/lxxtc/en/ Centre for Septuagint Studies and Textual Criticism]. Catholic University of Leuven, Belgium.<br />
<br />
==See also== <br />
*[[Aristobulus of Paneas]], the earliest writer to give an account of the Septuagint version.<br />
*[[Deuterocanon]] (Apocrypha)<br />
*[[Hermeneutics]]<br />
*[[Holy Scripture]]<br />
*[[Simeon the God-receiver]]<br />
*[[Byzantine Creation Era]]<br />
<br />
[[Category:Church History]]<br />
[[Category:Judaism]]<br />
[[Category:Scripture]]<br />
[[Category:Texts]]<br />
<br />
==Further reading==<br />
* H. Orlinsky. ''"The Septuagint and its Hebrew Text."'' In: '''The Cambridge History of Judaism: Vol. II, The Hellenistic Age'''. Eds. W. Davies and L. Finkelstein. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.<br />
* Dr. Natalio Fernández Marcos. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=8MbvEZ4bgdwC&source=gbs_navlinks_s The Septuagint in Context: Introduction to the Greek Versions of the Bible].'' Transl. 2nd revised and expanded Spanish edition, by W. G. E. Watson. Leiden: BRILL, 2000. 394 pp. ISBN 9789004115743<br />
* Prof. Dr. Carsten Peter Thiede. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=q18JiQSnBksC&source=gbs_navlinks_s The Dead Sea Scrolls and the Jewish Origins of Christianity].'' Palgrave Macmillan, 2003. 256 pp. ISBN 9781403961433 (''See discussion of Septuagint'')<br />
* Prof. Dr. Jennifer Mary Dines. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=Qv8Riv3QIbQC&source=gbs_navlinks_s The Septuagint].'' Ed. Michael Anthony Knibb. Continuum International Publishing Group, 2004. 196 pp. ISBN 9780567084644<br />
* Prof. Dr. Karen Jobes and Dr. Moises Silva. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=NSt_AAAAMAAJ&source=gbs_navlinks_s Invitation to the Septuagint].'' 2nd ed. Baker Academic, 2000. 351 pp. ISBN 9780801022357<br />
* Prof. Dr. Tim McLay. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=41rx-TDIF9gC&source=gbs_navlinks_s The Use of the Septuagint in New Testament Research].'' Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2003. 207 pp. ISBN 9780802860910<br />
* Prof Dr. Wolfgang Kraus, R. Glenn Wooden. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=M-oXuG_2wLIC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_navlinks_s Septuagint Research: Issues and Challenges in the Study of the Greek Jewish Scriptures].'' Society of Biblical Literature, 2006. 414 pp. ISBN 9781589832046<br />
'''Articles'''<br />
* [http://www.israelshamir.net/Biography.htm Israel Adam Shamir]. ''[http://www.israelshamir.net/English/Bible_to_Hebrew.htm Translating the Bible into Hebrew].'' A Talk at Rhodes Conference, 8-12 October 2009.<br />
:(Russian Israeli writer Israel Shamir is a Jewish convert to the Greek Orthodox [[Church of Jerusalem]]. Arguing for the veracity of the Septuagint over the Masoretic text, he states that there is an urgent need for a distinctly Christian [[Old Testament]] in Hebrew; he recommends reconstruction of the Hebrew source of the Septuagint, as a means of witnessing to the Jews today from a truly Christian Hebrew Bible)<br />
* ''[http://www.presstv.ir/detail/158212.html Greek bibles, much older than thought].'' Press TV (Israel). Sat Jan 1, 2011 7:17PM.<br />
: (Cambridge University researchers suggest that early Jewry used a Greek version of the Bible in synagogues much longer than previously thought: ''"Studying a fragment of manuscript kept in Cairo Genizah, a special vaulted room in Cairo's Ben-Ezra Synagogue, the team found that in some places the Jewish community continued to use Greek bibles almost until living memory."'')<br />
<br />
[[el:Μετάφραση των Εβδομήκοντα]]<br />
[[ro:Septuaginta]]</div>Fr Levhttps://orthodoxwiki.org/index.php?title=Septuagint&diff=120123Septuagint2014-10-17T13:36:40Z<p>Fr Lev: /* See also */</p>
<hr />
<div>{{OldTestament}}<br />
The '''Septuagint''' (a name derived from the Latin word for "seventy", also referred to as the '''LXX''') originally referred to a 3rd century B.C. translation of the [[Pentateuch]] into [[Koine Greek]]. By the time of [[Justin Martyr]] (+ c. 160), the term has come to refer to the other scriptural and related texts translated from Hebrew and Aramaic into Greek in the next century. It is the basis of the canonical [[Old Testament]] of the [[Orthodox Church]]. <br />
<br />
==History==<br />
The earliest extant version of the Old Testament is the translation executed in Alexandria in the third century before the Christian era; this version became known as the '''Septuagint''' and more recently, the ''Alexandrian'' version. <br />
<br />
It was commissioned at the behest of the Egyptian King, Ptolemy, who wished to expand the celebrated library of Alexandria to include the wisdom of all the ancient religions of the world. Because Greek was the language of Alexandria, the Scriptures therefore had to be translated into that language. <br />
<br />
The earliest writer who gives an account of the Septuagint version is Aristobulus, a Jewish author who lived at the commencement of the second century B.C. In his ''Letter of Aristeas'', he explains that the version of "the Law into Greek" was completed under the reign of Ptolemy Philadelphus, and that Demetrius Phalerus had been employed about it. Since it is documented that Demetrius Phalerus died at the beginning of the reign of Ptolemy Philadelphus, it has been reasonably inferred that Aristobulus was a witness that the work of translation had been commenced under Ptolemy Soter. <br />
<br />
Ptolemy contacted the chief priest, Eleazar, in Jerusalem and asked him to send translators. Six were chosen from each of the twelve tribes of Israel, giving us the commonly accepted number of seventy-two. (Other accounts have the number at seventy or seventy-five.) Only the Torah (the first five books) was translated initially, but eventually other translations (and even compositions) were added to the collection. By the time of our [[Lord]], the Septuagint was the Bible in use by most Hellenistic Jews.<br />
<br />
<br />
Thus, when the [[Apostles]] quote the Jewish Scripture in their own writings, the overwhelmingly dominant source for their wording comes directly from the Septuagint (LXX). Given that the spread of the [[Gospel]] was most successful among the Gentiles and Hellenistic Jews, it made sense that the LXX would be the Bible for the early Church. Following in the footsteps of those first generations of Christians, the [[Orthodox Church]] continues to regard the LXX as its only canonical text of the [[Old Testament]]. There are a number of differences between the canon of the LXX and that of [[Roman Catholic Church]] and [[Protestantism|Protestant Christians]], based on differences in translation tradition or doctrine.<br />
<br />
==Differences with other Christian Canons==<br />
The differences with Rome are fairly small and have never been a subject of much contention between the Orthodox and that communion. The canonical lists are essentially the same in content (some of the names are different) but for the following items: The Latin canon does not include [[I Esdras]] (though it uses that name for what the Orthodox call [[II Esdras]]); there are only 150 [[Psalms]] in the Latin canon, while the LXX has 151 (and the Psalms are numbered and divided differently between the two canons, because the modern Latin canon is based on the Hebrew Masoretic Text, though the [[Vulgate]] used the Septuagintal Psalm numbering); the [[Epistle of Jeremiah]] is a separate book in the LXX, while it is included as part of Baruch for the Latins; and the Latins do not include either [[III Maccabees|III]] or [[IV Maccabees]]. Traditionally, Roman Catholics used the numbering of the Latin Vulgate, which follows the Septuagint. However, since the Second Vatican Council, Roman Catholic publications, including Catholic Bibles and liturgical texts, have used the numbering found in the Masoretic Text.<br />
<br />
The differences with the Protestant canon are based on the 16th century misunderstanding of Martin Luther. When he was translating the Old Testament into German, he mistakenly believed that the oldest source for the Old Testament would be in Hebrew, so he found and used the so-called Masoretic Text (MT), a 9th century Jewish canon compiled largely in reaction to Christian claims that the Old Testament Scriptures belonged to the Church. The MT is thus also the basis for the Old Testament text of the 17th century Authorized Version in English (the "King James Version"). There are multiple differences between the LXX and MT. The MT lacks the following texts: [[I Esdras]], the portion of [[II Esdras]] (which the MT simply calls "Ezra") called the "[[Prayer of Manasseh]]," [[Tobit]], [[Judith]], portions of [[Book of Esther|Esther]], [[Wisdom of Solomon]], [[Wisdom of Sirach]] (Ecclesiasticus), [[Baruch]], the [[Epistle of Jeremiah]], the so-called "additions to Daniel" (The [[Prayer of the Three Holy Children|Song of the Three Children]], [[Susanna (Book of Daniel)|Susanna]], and [[Bel and the Dragon]]), the 151st Psalm, and all four Maccabees books. The Psalms are also numbered and divided up differently.<br />
<br />
== Variations with the Masoretic Text (MT) ==<br />
There are multiple internal variations between the LXX and the MT. The texts read differently in many places, giving a much more [[Christology|Christological]] tone to the LXX which was deliberately avoided when the Masoretes were putting together their anti-Christian canon. These differences in wording are the evidence that the Apostles were using the LXX. Here follow several examples of radical differences in wording:<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="2"<br />
|-<br />
! !! LXX !! MT<br />
|-<br />
! Gen. 4:7<br />
| Hast thou not sinned if thou hast brought it rightly, but not rightly divided it? Be still, to thee shall be his submission, and thou shalt rule over him. || If thou doest well, shalt thou not be accepted? And if thou doest not well, sin lieth at the door. And unto thee shall be his desire, and thou shalt rule over him.<br />
|-<br />
! Gen. 4:13<br />
| And Cain said to the Lord God, My crime is too great for me to be forgiven. || And Cain said unto the Lord, My punishment is greater than I can bear.<br />
|-<br />
! Exodus 21:16/17<br />
| He that reviles his father or his mother shall surely die. || And he that curseth his father, or his mother, shall surely be put to death.<br />
|-<br />
! Psalm 39/40:6<br />
| Sacrifice and offering Thou hast not desired, but a body Thou hast prepared for me... || Sacrifice and offering thou didst not desire, mine ears has thou opened...<br />
|}<br />
<br />
==Different Translations of the Septuagint in English==<br />
The Septuagint has been translated a few times into English, the first one (though excluding the Apocrypha) being ''The Holy Bible containing the Old and New Covenant'' of Charles Thomson in 1808; his translation was later revised and enlarged by C. A. Muses in 1954 under the title ''The Septuagint Bible''. The Thomson's Translation of the Old Covenant is a direct translation of the Greek Septuagint version of the Old Testament into English, rare for its time. The work took 19 years to complete and was originally published in 1808.<br />
Lancelot Brenton's ''The Septuagint version of the Old Testament: according to the Vatican text, translated into English : with the principal various readings of the Alexandrine copy, and a table of comparative chronology'' was published in 1844 and for most of the time since its publication it has been the only one readily available, and has continually been in print. The creator of the ''World English Bible'', Michael Paul Johnson, has produced a version of Brenton's translation in American English, entitled ''LXX2012: Septuagint in English 2012''.<br />
<br />
The ''[[Orthodox Study Bible]]'' was released in early 2008 with a new translation of the Septuagint based on the Greek text of Alfred Rahlfs ''Septuaginta'', and with reference to the Brenton translation. Thomas Nelson Publishers granted use of the New King James Version text in the places where the translation of the LXX would match that of the Hebrew Masoretic text. This edition includes the New Testament as well, which also uses the New King James Version. It also includes extensive commentary from an Eastern Orthodox perspective.<ref> http://orthodoxstudybible.com/index.html</ref><br />
''The Eastern / Greek Orthodox Bible'' (EOB) is an extensive revision and correction of Brenton’s translation. Its language and syntax have been modernized and simplified. It also includes extensive introductory material and footnotes featuring significant inter-LXX and LXX/MT variants.<br />
''The New English Translation of the Septuagint and the Other Greek Translations Traditionally Included Under that Title'' (NETS), published in 2007 and revised in 2009, is a major scholarly translation based on the critical texts available at the time from Gottingen and Rahlfs semi-critical ''Septuaginta''.<br />
Kevin Mayhew Publishers has printed the translation by Peter King, SJ, in four volumes (''The Pentateuch'' 2010, ''The Historical Books'' 2012, ''The Wisdom Literature'' 2008, and ''The Prophets'' 2013), which are now available (along with King's translation of the New Testament) as ''The Bible''. King's work, however, is difficult to obtain in the US.<br />
<br />
==Dead Sea Scrolls==<br />
With the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls in the mid twentieth century many examples have been recovered of the Old Testament in Hebrew from the time of Christ and the Holy Apostles and earlier. Scholarship during the past half century based upon these Dead Sea discoveries has revealed a close agreement between the LXX and pre-Masoretic Hebrew texts. In a review of some of this scholarship, Hershal Shanks<ref> Hershal Shanks, ''4QSama - The Difficult Life of a Dead Sea Scroll'', Biblical Archaeology Review, Vol 33 No 3, May/June 2007, pp66-70.</ref> notes that ''”…many Hebrew texts [are available] that were the base text for Septuagintal translations…”''. Further he notes that what ''”…texts like 4QSama show is that the Septuagintal translations are really quite reliable”'' and ''”…gives new authority to the Greek translations against the Masoretic text”''. Quoting Frank Moore Cross (a co-author of the book under review), Hershal continues ''”We could scarcely hope to find closer agreement between the Old Greek [Septuagintal] tradition and 4QSama than actually is found in our fragments”''.<br />
<br />
The scholarship based upon the new information provided in the Dead Sea Scroll thus supports the millennial old tradition on use of the Septuagint by the Orthodox Church.<br />
<br />
==Reference==<br />
<references/><br />
<br />
== External links ==<br />
* [http://orthodoxstudybible.com The Orthodox Study Bible page] - contains the Septuagint Old Testament using the NKJV as a base text<br />
* [http://www.kalvesmaki.com/LXX/ The Septuagint Online] - Compiled by Joel Kalvesmaki, Editor in Byzantine Studies at Dumbarton Oaks and convert to Orthodoxy 1993.<br />
* [http://www.lxx.org/ The Orthodox Study Bible Old Testament Project Website]<br />
* [http://www.ccel.org/bible/brenton/ The Septuagint LXX: Greek and English] by Sir Lancelot C.L. Brenton<br />
* [http://www.ecclesia.org/truth/septuagint-hyperlinked.html Septuagint, Brenton's Edition] (omits "deuterocanonical"/"apocryphal" books)<br />
* [http://spindleworks.com/septuagint/septuagint.htm The Septuagint], compiled from the [http://unbound.biola.edu/ Unbound] website by Henry Sikkema in 1999 (omits "deuterocanonical"/"apocryphal" books)<br />
* [http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/nets/ New English Translation of the Septuagint]. It has been released at San Diego, November 19, 2007 by Oxford University Press. [http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/nets/edition/ Provisional edition] online. This project is being carried out under the aegis of The International Organization for Septuagint and Cognate Studies (IOSCS). An international team of more than thirty scholars is working on the entire corpus of the Greek Jewish Scriptures. It is the first such English version in 160 years. Called the New English Translation of the Septuagint (NETS), the text reflects both the wealth of manuscript evidence that has been brought to light since the 19th century and, of course, current English idiom. (Note however, that this project is using the NRSV(1989) version as its English base of referral).<br />
* "[http://www.orthodox-church.info/eob/ The Eastern Orthodox Bible]" - a new translation rather than a revision of another work, dedicated to the recently reposed Archbishop Vsevolod of the (canonical) Ukrainian Orthodox Church in the USA.<br />
* [http://www.orthodoxengland.org.uk/pdf/kjvsept.pdf The KJV Septuagint] - translated from the Septuagint edition published by the Orthodox Church of Greece's ''Apostoliki Diakonia'', using the King James Version as a template. Scheduled to be published by St. Innocent Press in 2013, this will be the only English translation to date using an approved ecclesiastical text of the Septuagint.<br />
* [http://www.peterpapoutsis.com/ Peter Papoutsis]'s translation of the Septuagint<br />
* R. Grant Jones. [http://www.geocities.com/heartland/pines/7224/Rick/Septuagint/spindex.htm Notes on The Septuagint].<br />
'''Church Fathers'''<br><br />
* [[Clement of Alexandria]]. ''[http://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/anf02.vi.iv.i.xxii.html Chapter XXII.—On the Greek Translation of the Old Testament].'' In: THE STROMATA (MISCELLANIES), BOOK I.<br />
* [[Justin Martyr]]. ''[http://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/anf01.viii.vi.xiii.html Chapter XIII.—History of the Septuagint].'' In: Hortatory Address to the Greeks. <br />
<br />
===Institutes===<br />
* [http://www.twu.ca/sites/septuagint/ Septuagint Institute] (Trinity Western University, Canada). In 2005 the Septuagint Studies department moved from the University of Toronto to TWU, forming the new Septuagint Institute (SI). The SI complements TWU's already established Dead Sea Scrolls Institute (DSSI), founded in 1995, and together they form North America's new hub of Septuagint research.<br />
* [http://adw-goe.de/en/research/research-projects-within-the-academies-programme/septuaginta-unternehmen/ Septuaginta-Unternehmens Institute] in Gottingen, Germany. The Septuaginta-Unternehmen is a special research institute that was founded in 1908 in Göttingen under the auspices of the Göttingen Academy of Sciences. Its purpose was to conduct sound scientific investigation into the Septuagint and to trace the history of evolution of the Septuagint text, on the basis of the mass of manuscript data, and ultimately to establish a text which could be claimed to be for all intents and purposes identical with the Septuagint in its pristine form, a proto-Septuagint.([http://www.humboldt-stiftung.de/de/netzwerk/veranstalt/hoersaal/doc/muraoka.pdf 1]) The institute made Göttingen the nerve centre of Septuagint studies. The first director of the Institute, '''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alfred_Rahlfs Alfred Rahlfs]''', published ''Septuaginta, 2 volume edition in 1935'' (Septuagint in Greek). Rahlf's critical edition of the Septuagint for the book of Genesis rests on a foundation of some 140 manuscripts (nine pre-dating the fourth century CE), 10 daughter-versions, plus biblical citations in Greek and Latin literature. However, his two-volume, semi-critical edition ''Septuaginta'' has been supplanted by the fully critical Göttingen ''Septuaginta Vetus Testamentum Graecum'', in 23 volumes covering approximately two-thirds of the LXX text, along with a supplementary series.<br />
* [http://www.hexapla.org/ The HEXAPLA Institute]. Its purpose is to publish a new critical edition of the fragments of Origen's [[Hexapla]], focusing on the later development of Septuagint tradition.<br />
* [http://www.theo.kuleuven.be/lxxtc/en/ Centre for Septuagint Studies and Textual Criticism]. Catholic University of Leuven, Belgium.<br />
<br />
==See also== <br />
*[[Aristobulus of Paneas]], the earliest writer to give an account of the Septuagint version.<br />
*[[Deuterocanon]] (Apocrypha)<br />
*[[Hermeneutics]]<br />
*[[Holy Scripture]]<br />
*[[Simeon the God-receiver]]<br />
*[[Byzantine Creation Era]]<br />
<br />
[[Category:Church History]]<br />
[[Category:Judaism]]<br />
[[Category:Scripture]]<br />
[[Category:Texts]]<br />
<br />
==Further reading==<br />
* H. Orlinsky. ''"The Septuagint and its Hebrew Text."'' In: '''The Cambridge History of Judaism: Vol. II, The Hellenistic Age'''. Eds. W. Davies and L. Finkelstein. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.<br />
* Dr. Natalio Fernández Marcos. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=8MbvEZ4bgdwC&source=gbs_navlinks_s The Septuagint in Context: Introduction to the Greek Versions of the Bible].'' Transl. 2nd revised and expanded Spanish edition, by W. G. E. Watson. Leiden: BRILL, 2000. 394 pp. ISBN 9789004115743<br />
* Prof. Dr. Carsten Peter Thiede. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=q18JiQSnBksC&source=gbs_navlinks_s The Dead Sea Scrolls and the Jewish Origins of Christianity].'' Palgrave Macmillan, 2003. 256 pp. ISBN 9781403961433 (''See discussion of Septuagint'')<br />
* Prof. Dr. Jennifer Mary Dines. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=Qv8Riv3QIbQC&source=gbs_navlinks_s The Septuagint].'' Ed. Michael Anthony Knibb. Continuum International Publishing Group, 2004. 196 pp. ISBN 9780567084644<br />
* Prof. Dr. Karen Jobes and Dr. Moises Silva. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=NSt_AAAAMAAJ&source=gbs_navlinks_s Invitation to the Septuagint].'' 2nd ed. Baker Academic, 2000. 351 pp. ISBN 9780801022357<br />
* Prof. Dr. Tim McLay. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=41rx-TDIF9gC&source=gbs_navlinks_s The Use of the Septuagint in New Testament Research].'' Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2003. 207 pp. ISBN 9780802860910<br />
* Prof Dr. Wolfgang Kraus, R. Glenn Wooden. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=M-oXuG_2wLIC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_navlinks_s Septuagint Research: Issues and Challenges in the Study of the Greek Jewish Scriptures].'' Society of Biblical Literature, 2006. 414 pp. ISBN 9781589832046<br />
'''Articles'''<br />
* [http://www.israelshamir.net/Biography.htm Israel Adam Shamir]. ''[http://www.israelshamir.net/English/Bible_to_Hebrew.htm Translating the Bible into Hebrew].'' A Talk at Rhodes Conference, 8-12 October 2009.<br />
:(Russian Israeli writer Israel Shamir is a Jewish convert to the Greek Orthodox [[Church of Jerusalem]]. Arguing for the veracity of the Septuagint over the Masoretic text, he states that there is an urgent need for a distinctly Christian [[Old Testament]] in Hebrew; he recommends reconstruction of the Hebrew source of the Septuagint, as a means of witnessing to the Jews today from a truly Christian Hebrew Bible)<br />
* ''[http://www.presstv.ir/detail/158212.html Greek bibles, much older than thought].'' Press TV (Israel). Sat Jan 1, 2011 7:17PM.<br />
: (Cambridge University researchers suggest that early Jewry used a Greek version of the Bible in synagogues much longer than previously thought: ''"Studying a fragment of manuscript kept in Cairo Genizah, a special vaulted room in Cairo's Ben-Ezra Synagogue, the team found that in some places the Jewish community continued to use Greek bibles almost until living memory."'')<br />
<br />
[[el:Μετάφραση των Εβδομήκοντα]]<br />
[[ro:Septuaginta]]</div>Fr Levhttps://orthodoxwiki.org/index.php?title=Septuagint&diff=120122Septuagint2014-10-17T13:09:52Z<p>Fr Lev: </p>
<hr />
<div>{{OldTestament}}<br />
The '''Septuagint''' (a name derived from the Latin word for "seventy", also referred to as the '''LXX''') originally referred to a 3rd century B.C. translation of the [[Pentateuch]] into [[Koine Greek]]. By the time of [[Justin Martyr]] (+ c. 160), the term has come to refer to the other scriptural and related texts translated from Hebrew and Aramaic into Greek in the next century. It is the basis of the canonical [[Old Testament]] of the [[Orthodox Church]]. <br />
<br />
==History==<br />
The earliest extant version of the Old Testament is the translation executed in Alexandria in the third century before the Christian era; this version became known as the '''Septuagint''' and more recently, the ''Alexandrian'' version. <br />
<br />
It was commissioned at the behest of the Egyptian King, Ptolemy, who wished to expand the celebrated library of Alexandria to include the wisdom of all the ancient religions of the world. Because Greek was the language of Alexandria, the Scriptures therefore had to be translated into that language. <br />
<br />
The earliest writer who gives an account of the Septuagint version is Aristobulus, a Jewish author who lived at the commencement of the second century B.C. In his ''Letter of Aristeas'', he explains that the version of "the Law into Greek" was completed under the reign of Ptolemy Philadelphus, and that Demetrius Phalerus had been employed about it. Since it is documented that Demetrius Phalerus died at the beginning of the reign of Ptolemy Philadelphus, it has been reasonably inferred that Aristobulus was a witness that the work of translation had been commenced under Ptolemy Soter. <br />
<br />
Ptolemy contacted the chief priest, Eleazar, in Jerusalem and asked him to send translators. Six were chosen from each of the twelve tribes of Israel, giving us the commonly accepted number of seventy-two. (Other accounts have the number at seventy or seventy-five.) Only the Torah (the first five books) was translated initially, but eventually other translations (and even compositions) were added to the collection. By the time of our [[Lord]], the Septuagint was the Bible in use by most Hellenistic Jews.<br />
<br />
<br />
Thus, when the [[Apostles]] quote the Jewish Scripture in their own writings, the overwhelmingly dominant source for their wording comes directly from the Septuagint (LXX). Given that the spread of the [[Gospel]] was most successful among the Gentiles and Hellenistic Jews, it made sense that the LXX would be the Bible for the early Church. Following in the footsteps of those first generations of Christians, the [[Orthodox Church]] continues to regard the LXX as its only canonical text of the [[Old Testament]]. There are a number of differences between the canon of the LXX and that of [[Roman Catholic Church]] and [[Protestantism|Protestant Christians]], based on differences in translation tradition or doctrine.<br />
<br />
==Differences with other Christian Canons==<br />
The differences with Rome are fairly small and have never been a subject of much contention between the Orthodox and that communion. The canonical lists are essentially the same in content (some of the names are different) but for the following items: The Latin canon does not include [[I Esdras]] (though it uses that name for what the Orthodox call [[II Esdras]]); there are only 150 [[Psalms]] in the Latin canon, while the LXX has 151 (and the Psalms are numbered and divided differently between the two canons, because the modern Latin canon is based on the Hebrew Masoretic Text, though the [[Vulgate]] used the Septuagintal Psalm numbering); the [[Epistle of Jeremiah]] is a separate book in the LXX, while it is included as part of Baruch for the Latins; and the Latins do not include either [[III Maccabees|III]] or [[IV Maccabees]]. Traditionally, Roman Catholics used the numbering of the Latin Vulgate, which follows the Septuagint. However, since the Second Vatican Council, Roman Catholic publications, including Catholic Bibles and liturgical texts, have used the numbering found in the Masoretic Text.<br />
<br />
The differences with the Protestant canon are based on the 16th century misunderstanding of Martin Luther. When he was translating the Old Testament into German, he mistakenly believed that the oldest source for the Old Testament would be in Hebrew, so he found and used the so-called Masoretic Text (MT), a 9th century Jewish canon compiled largely in reaction to Christian claims that the Old Testament Scriptures belonged to the Church. The MT is thus also the basis for the Old Testament text of the 17th century Authorized Version in English (the "King James Version"). There are multiple differences between the LXX and MT. The MT lacks the following texts: [[I Esdras]], the portion of [[II Esdras]] (which the MT simply calls "Ezra") called the "[[Prayer of Manasseh]]," [[Tobit]], [[Judith]], portions of [[Book of Esther|Esther]], [[Wisdom of Solomon]], [[Wisdom of Sirach]] (Ecclesiasticus), [[Baruch]], the [[Epistle of Jeremiah]], the so-called "additions to Daniel" (The [[Prayer of the Three Holy Children|Song of the Three Children]], [[Susanna (Book of Daniel)|Susanna]], and [[Bel and the Dragon]]), the 151st Psalm, and all four Maccabees books. The Psalms are also numbered and divided up differently.<br />
<br />
== Variations with the Masoretic Text (MT) ==<br />
There are multiple internal variations between the LXX and the MT. The texts read differently in many places, giving a much more [[Christology|Christological]] tone to the LXX which was deliberately avoided when the Masoretes were putting together their anti-Christian canon. These differences in wording are the evidence that the Apostles were using the LXX. Here follow several examples of radical differences in wording:<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="2"<br />
|-<br />
! !! LXX !! MT<br />
|-<br />
! Gen. 4:7<br />
| Hast thou not sinned if thou hast brought it rightly, but not rightly divided it? Be still, to thee shall be his submission, and thou shalt rule over him. || If thou doest well, shalt thou not be accepted? And if thou doest not well, sin lieth at the door. And unto thee shall be his desire, and thou shalt rule over him.<br />
|-<br />
! Gen. 4:13<br />
| And Cain said to the Lord God, My crime is too great for me to be forgiven. || And Cain said unto the Lord, My punishment is greater than I can bear.<br />
|-<br />
! Exodus 21:16/17<br />
| He that reviles his father or his mother shall surely die. || And he that curseth his father, or his mother, shall surely be put to death.<br />
|-<br />
! Psalm 39/40:6<br />
| Sacrifice and offering Thou hast not desired, but a body Thou hast prepared for me... || Sacrifice and offering thou didst not desire, mine ears has thou opened...<br />
|}<br />
<br />
==Different Translations of the Septuagint in English==<br />
The Septuagint has been translated a few times into English, the first one (though excluding the Apocrypha) being ''The Holy Bible containing the Old and New Covenant'' of Charles Thomson in 1808; his translation was later revised and enlarged by C. A. Muses in 1954 under the title ''The Septuagint Bible''. The Thomson's Translation of the Old Covenant is a direct translation of the Greek Septuagint version of the Old Testament into English, rare for its time. The work took 19 years to complete and was originally published in 1808.<br />
Lancelot Brenton's ''The Septuagint version of the Old Testament: according to the Vatican text, translated into English : with the principal various readings of the Alexandrine copy, and a table of comparative chronology'' was published in 1844 and for most of the time since its publication it has been the only one readily available, and has continually been in print. The creator of the ''World English Bible'', Michael Paul Johnson, has produced a version of Brenton's translation in American English, entitled ''LXX2012: Septuagint in English 2012''.<br />
<br />
The ''[[Orthodox Study Bible]]'' was released in early 2008 with a new translation of the Septuagint based on the Greek text of Alfred Rahlfs ''Septuaginta'', and with reference to the Brenton translation. Thomas Nelson Publishers granted use of the New King James Version text in the places where the translation of the LXX would match that of the Hebrew Masoretic text. This edition includes the New Testament as well, which also uses the New King James Version. It also includes extensive commentary from an Eastern Orthodox perspective.<ref> http://orthodoxstudybible.com/index.html</ref><br />
''The Eastern / Greek Orthodox Bible'' (EOB) is an extensive revision and correction of Brenton’s translation. Its language and syntax have been modernized and simplified. It also includes extensive introductory material and footnotes featuring significant inter-LXX and LXX/MT variants.<br />
''The New English Translation of the Septuagint and the Other Greek Translations Traditionally Included Under that Title'' (NETS), published in 2007 and revised in 2009, is a major scholarly translation based on the critical texts available at the time from Gottingen and Rahlfs semi-critical ''Septuaginta''.<br />
Kevin Mayhew Publishers has printed the translation by Peter King, SJ, in four volumes (''The Pentateuch'' 2010, ''The Historical Books'' 2012, ''The Wisdom Literature'' 2008, and ''The Prophets'' 2013), which are now available (along with King's translation of the New Testament) as ''The Bible''. King's work, however, is difficult to obtain in the US.<br />
<br />
==Dead Sea Scrolls==<br />
With the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls in the mid twentieth century many examples have been recovered of the Old Testament in Hebrew from the time of Christ and the Holy Apostles and earlier. Scholarship during the past half century based upon these Dead Sea discoveries has revealed a close agreement between the LXX and pre-Masoretic Hebrew texts. In a review of some of this scholarship, Hershal Shanks<ref> Hershal Shanks, ''4QSama - The Difficult Life of a Dead Sea Scroll'', Biblical Archaeology Review, Vol 33 No 3, May/June 2007, pp66-70.</ref> notes that ''”…many Hebrew texts [are available] that were the base text for Septuagintal translations…”''. Further he notes that what ''”…texts like 4QSama show is that the Septuagintal translations are really quite reliable”'' and ''”…gives new authority to the Greek translations against the Masoretic text”''. Quoting Frank Moore Cross (a co-author of the book under review), Hershal continues ''”We could scarcely hope to find closer agreement between the Old Greek [Septuagintal] tradition and 4QSama than actually is found in our fragments”''.<br />
<br />
The scholarship based upon the new information provided in the Dead Sea Scroll thus supports the millennial old tradition on use of the Septuagint by the Orthodox Church.<br />
<br />
==Reference==<br />
<references/><br />
<br />
== External links ==<br />
* [http://orthodoxstudybible.com The Orthodox Study Bible page] - contains the Septuagint Old Testament using the NKJV as a base text<br />
* [http://www.kalvesmaki.com/LXX/ The Septuagint Online] - Compiled by Joel Kalvesmaki, Editor in Byzantine Studies at Dumbarton Oaks and convert to Orthodoxy 1993.<br />
* [http://www.lxx.org/ The Orthodox Study Bible Old Testament Project Website]<br />
* [http://www.ccel.org/bible/brenton/ The Septuagint LXX: Greek and English] by Sir Lancelot C.L. Brenton<br />
* [http://www.ecclesia.org/truth/septuagint-hyperlinked.html Septuagint, Brenton's Edition] (omits "deuterocanonical"/"apocryphal" books)<br />
* [http://spindleworks.com/septuagint/septuagint.htm The Septuagint], compiled from the [http://unbound.biola.edu/ Unbound] website by Henry Sikkema in 1999 (omits "deuterocanonical"/"apocryphal" books)<br />
* [http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/nets/ New English Translation of the Septuagint]. It has been released at San Diego, November 19, 2007 by Oxford University Press. [http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/nets/edition/ Provisional edition] online. This project is being carried out under the aegis of The International Organization for Septuagint and Cognate Studies (IOSCS). An international team of more than thirty scholars is working on the entire corpus of the Greek Jewish Scriptures. It is the first such English version in 160 years. Called the New English Translation of the Septuagint (NETS), the text reflects both the wealth of manuscript evidence that has been brought to light since the 19th century and, of course, current English idiom. (Note however, that this project is using the NRSV(1989) version as its English base of referral).<br />
* "[http://www.orthodox-church.info/eob/ The Eastern Orthodox Bible]" - a new translation rather than a revision of another work, dedicated to the recently reposed Archbishop Vsevolod of the (canonical) Ukrainian Orthodox Church in the USA.<br />
* [http://www.orthodoxengland.org.uk/pdf/kjvsept.pdf The KJV Septuagint] - translated from the Septuagint edition published by the Orthodox Church of Greece's ''Apostoliki Diakonia'', using the King James Version as a template. Scheduled to be published by St. Innocent Press in 2013, this will be the only English translation to date using an approved ecclesiastical text of the Septuagint.<br />
* [http://www.peterpapoutsis.com/ Peter Papoutsis]'s translation of the Septuagint<br />
* R. Grant Jones. [http://www.geocities.com/heartland/pines/7224/Rick/Septuagint/spindex.htm Notes on The Septuagint].<br />
'''Church Fathers'''<br><br />
* [[Clement of Alexandria]]. ''[http://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/anf02.vi.iv.i.xxii.html Chapter XXII.—On the Greek Translation of the Old Testament].'' In: THE STROMATA (MISCELLANIES), BOOK I.<br />
* [[Justin Martyr]]. ''[http://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/anf01.viii.vi.xiii.html Chapter XIII.—History of the Septuagint].'' In: Hortatory Address to the Greeks. <br />
<br />
===Institutes===<br />
* [http://www.twu.ca/sites/septuagint/ Septuagint Institute] (Trinity Western University, Canada). In 2005 the Septuagint Studies department moved from the University of Toronto to TWU, forming the new Septuagint Institute (SI). The SI complements TWU's already established Dead Sea Scrolls Institute (DSSI), founded in 1995, and together they form North America's new hub of Septuagint research.<br />
* [http://adw-goe.de/en/research/research-projects-within-the-academies-programme/septuaginta-unternehmen/ Septuaginta-Unternehmens Institute] in Gottingen, Germany. The Septuaginta-Unternehmen is a special research institute that was founded in 1908 in Göttingen under the auspices of the Göttingen Academy of Sciences. Its purpose was to conduct sound scientific investigation into the Septuagint and to trace the history of evolution of the Septuagint text, on the basis of the mass of manuscript data, and ultimately to establish a text which could be claimed to be for all intents and purposes identical with the Septuagint in its pristine form, a proto-Septuagint.([http://www.humboldt-stiftung.de/de/netzwerk/veranstalt/hoersaal/doc/muraoka.pdf 1]) The institute made Göttingen the nerve centre of Septuagint studies. The first director of the Institute, '''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alfred_Rahlfs Alfred Rahlfs]''', published ''Septuaginta, 2 volume edition in 1935'' (Septuagint in Greek). Rahlf's critical edition of the Septuagint for the book of Genesis rests on a foundation of some 140 manuscripts (nine pre-dating the fourth century CE), 10 daughter-versions, plus biblical citations in Greek and Latin literature. However, his two-volume, semi-critical edition ''Septuaginta'' has been supplanted by the fully critical Göttingen ''Septuaginta Vetus Testamentum Graecum'', in 23 volumes covering approximately two-thirds of the LXX text, along with a supplementary series.<br />
* [http://www.hexapla.org/ The HEXAPLA Institute]. Its purpose is to publish a new critical edition of the fragments of Origen's [[Hexapla]], focusing on the later development of Septuagint tradition.<br />
* [http://www.theo.kuleuven.be/lxxtc/en/ Centre for Septuagint Studies and Textual Criticism]. Catholic University of Leuven, Belgium.<br />
<br />
==See also== <br />
*[[Aristobulus of Paneas]], the earliest write to give an account of the Septuagint version.<br />
*[[Deuterocanon]] (Apocrypha)<br />
*[[Hermeneutics]]<br />
*[[Holy Scripture]]<br />
*[[Simeon the God-receiver]]<br />
*[[Byzantine Creation Era]]<br />
<br />
[[Category:Church History]]<br />
[[Category:Judaism]]<br />
[[Category:Scripture]]<br />
[[Category:Texts]]<br />
<br />
==Further reading==<br />
* H. Orlinsky. ''"The Septuagint and its Hebrew Text."'' In: '''The Cambridge History of Judaism: Vol. II, The Hellenistic Age'''. Eds. W. Davies and L. Finkelstein. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.<br />
* Dr. Natalio Fernández Marcos. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=8MbvEZ4bgdwC&source=gbs_navlinks_s The Septuagint in Context: Introduction to the Greek Versions of the Bible].'' Transl. 2nd revised and expanded Spanish edition, by W. G. E. Watson. Leiden: BRILL, 2000. 394 pp. ISBN 9789004115743<br />
* Prof. Dr. Carsten Peter Thiede. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=q18JiQSnBksC&source=gbs_navlinks_s The Dead Sea Scrolls and the Jewish Origins of Christianity].'' Palgrave Macmillan, 2003. 256 pp. ISBN 9781403961433 (''See discussion of Septuagint'')<br />
* Prof. Dr. Jennifer Mary Dines. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=Qv8Riv3QIbQC&source=gbs_navlinks_s The Septuagint].'' Ed. Michael Anthony Knibb. Continuum International Publishing Group, 2004. 196 pp. ISBN 9780567084644<br />
* Prof. Dr. Karen Jobes and Dr. Moises Silva. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=NSt_AAAAMAAJ&source=gbs_navlinks_s Invitation to the Septuagint].'' 2nd ed. Baker Academic, 2000. 351 pp. ISBN 9780801022357<br />
* Prof. Dr. Tim McLay. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=41rx-TDIF9gC&source=gbs_navlinks_s The Use of the Septuagint in New Testament Research].'' Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2003. 207 pp. ISBN 9780802860910<br />
* Prof Dr. Wolfgang Kraus, R. Glenn Wooden. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=M-oXuG_2wLIC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_navlinks_s Septuagint Research: Issues and Challenges in the Study of the Greek Jewish Scriptures].'' Society of Biblical Literature, 2006. 414 pp. ISBN 9781589832046<br />
'''Articles'''<br />
* [http://www.israelshamir.net/Biography.htm Israel Adam Shamir]. ''[http://www.israelshamir.net/English/Bible_to_Hebrew.htm Translating the Bible into Hebrew].'' A Talk at Rhodes Conference, 8-12 October 2009.<br />
:(Russian Israeli writer Israel Shamir is a Jewish convert to the Greek Orthodox [[Church of Jerusalem]]. Arguing for the veracity of the Septuagint over the Masoretic text, he states that there is an urgent need for a distinctly Christian [[Old Testament]] in Hebrew; he recommends reconstruction of the Hebrew source of the Septuagint, as a means of witnessing to the Jews today from a truly Christian Hebrew Bible)<br />
* ''[http://www.presstv.ir/detail/158212.html Greek bibles, much older than thought].'' Press TV (Israel). Sat Jan 1, 2011 7:17PM.<br />
: (Cambridge University researchers suggest that early Jewry used a Greek version of the Bible in synagogues much longer than previously thought: ''"Studying a fragment of manuscript kept in Cairo Genizah, a special vaulted room in Cairo's Ben-Ezra Synagogue, the team found that in some places the Jewish community continued to use Greek bibles almost until living memory."'')<br />
<br />
[[el:Μετάφραση των Εβδομήκοντα]]<br />
[[ro:Septuaginta]]</div>Fr Levhttps://orthodoxwiki.org/index.php?title=Septuagint&diff=120121Septuagint2014-10-17T13:07:21Z<p>Fr Lev: /* Different Translations of the Septuagint in English */</p>
<hr />
<div>{{OldTestament}}<br />
The '''Septuagint''' (a name derived from the Latin word for "seventy", also referred to as the '''LXX''') originally referred to a 3rd century B.C. translation of the [[Pentateuch]] into [[Koine Greek]]. By the time of [[Justin Martyr]] (+ c. 160), the term has come to refer to the other scriptural and related texts translated from Hebrew and Aramaic into Greek in the next century. It is the canonical [[Old Testament]] of the [[Orthodox Church]]. <br />
<br />
==History==<br />
The earliest extant version of the Old Testament is the translation executed in Alexandria in the third century before the Christian era; this version became known as the '''Septuagint''' and more recently, the ''Alexandrian'' version. <br />
<br />
It was commissioned at the behest of the Egyptian King, Ptolemy, who wished to expand the celebrated library of Alexandria to include the wisdom of all the ancient religions of the world. Because Greek was the language of Alexandria, the Scriptures therefore had to be translated into that language. <br />
<br />
The earliest writer who gives an account of the Septuagint version is Aristobulus, a Jewish author who lived at the commencement of the second century B.C. In his ''Letter of Aristeas'', he explains that the version of "the Law into Greek" was completed under the reign of Ptolemy Philadelphus, and that Demetrius Phalerus had been employed about it. Since it is documented that Demetrius Phalerus died at the beginning of the reign of Ptolemy Philadelphus, it has been reasonably inferred that Aristobulus was a witness that the work of translation had been commenced under Ptolemy Soter. <br />
<br />
Ptolemy contacted the chief priest, Eleazar, in Jerusalem and asked him to send translators. Six were chosen from each of the twelve tribes of Israel, giving us the commonly accepted number of seventy-two. (Other accounts have the number at seventy or seventy-five.) Only the Torah (the first five books) was translated initially, but eventually other translations (and even compositions) were added to the collection. By the time of our [[Lord]], the Septuagint was the Bible in use by most Hellenistic Jews.<br />
<br />
<br />
Thus, when the [[Apostles]] quote the Jewish Scripture in their own writings, the overwhelmingly dominant source for their wording comes directly from the Septuagint (LXX). Given that the spread of the [[Gospel]] was most successful among the Gentiles and Hellenistic Jews, it made sense that the LXX would be the Bible for the early Church. Following in the footsteps of those first generations of Christians, the [[Orthodox Church]] continues to regard the LXX as its only canonical text of the [[Old Testament]]. There are a number of differences between the canon of the LXX and that of [[Roman Catholic Church]] and [[Protestantism|Protestant Christians]], based on differences in translation tradition or doctrine.<br />
<br />
==Differences with other Christian Canons==<br />
The differences with Rome are fairly small and have never been a subject of much contention between the Orthodox and that communion. The canonical lists are essentially the same in content (some of the names are different) but for the following items: The Latin canon does not include [[I Esdras]] (though it uses that name for what the Orthodox call [[II Esdras]]); there are only 150 [[Psalms]] in the Latin canon, while the LXX has 151 (and the Psalms are numbered and divided differently between the two canons, because the modern Latin canon is based on the Hebrew Masoretic Text, though the [[Vulgate]] used the Septuagintal Psalm numbering); the [[Epistle of Jeremiah]] is a separate book in the LXX, while it is included as part of Baruch for the Latins; and the Latins do not include either [[III Maccabees|III]] or [[IV Maccabees]]. Traditionally, Roman Catholics used the numbering of the Latin Vulgate, which follows the Septuagint. However, since the Second Vatican Council, Roman Catholic publications, including Catholic Bibles and liturgical texts, have used the numbering found in the Masoretic Text.<br />
<br />
The differences with the Protestant canon are based on the 16th century misunderstanding of Martin Luther. When he was translating the Old Testament into German, he mistakenly believed that the oldest source for the Old Testament would be in Hebrew, so he found and used the so-called Masoretic Text (MT), a 9th century Jewish canon compiled largely in reaction to Christian claims that the Old Testament Scriptures belonged to the Church. The MT is thus also the basis for the Old Testament text of the 17th century Authorized Version in English (the "King James Version"). There are multiple differences between the LXX and MT. The MT lacks the following texts: [[I Esdras]], the portion of [[II Esdras]] (which the MT simply calls "Ezra") called the "[[Prayer of Manasseh]]," [[Tobit]], [[Judith]], portions of [[Book of Esther|Esther]], [[Wisdom of Solomon]], [[Wisdom of Sirach]] (Ecclesiasticus), [[Baruch]], the [[Epistle of Jeremiah]], the so-called "additions to Daniel" (The [[Prayer of the Three Holy Children|Song of the Three Children]], [[Susanna (Book of Daniel)|Susanna]], and [[Bel and the Dragon]]), the 151st Psalm, and all four Maccabees books. The Psalms are also numbered and divided up differently.<br />
<br />
== Variations with the Masoretic Text (MT) ==<br />
There are multiple internal variations between the LXX and the MT. The texts read differently in many places, giving a much more [[Christology|Christological]] tone to the LXX which was deliberately avoided when the Masoretes were putting together their anti-Christian canon. These differences in wording are the evidence that the Apostles were using the LXX. Here follow several examples of radical differences in wording:<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="2"<br />
|-<br />
! !! LXX !! MT<br />
|-<br />
! Gen. 4:7<br />
| Hast thou not sinned if thou hast brought it rightly, but not rightly divided it? Be still, to thee shall be his submission, and thou shalt rule over him. || If thou doest well, shalt thou not be accepted? And if thou doest not well, sin lieth at the door. And unto thee shall be his desire, and thou shalt rule over him.<br />
|-<br />
! Gen. 4:13<br />
| And Cain said to the Lord God, My crime is too great for me to be forgiven. || And Cain said unto the Lord, My punishment is greater than I can bear.<br />
|-<br />
! Exodus 21:16/17<br />
| He that reviles his father or his mother shall surely die. || And he that curseth his father, or his mother, shall surely be put to death.<br />
|-<br />
! Psalm 39/40:6<br />
| Sacrifice and offering Thou hast not desired, but a body Thou hast prepared for me... || Sacrifice and offering thou didst not desire, mine ears has thou opened...<br />
|}<br />
<br />
==Different Translations of the Septuagint in English==<br />
The Septuagint has been translated a few times into English, the first one (though excluding the Apocrypha) being ''The Holy Bible containing the Old and New Covenant'' of Charles Thomson in 1808; his translation was later revised and enlarged by C. A. Muses in 1954 under the title ''The Septuagint Bible''. The Thomson's Translation of the Old Covenant is a direct translation of the Greek Septuagint version of the Old Testament into English, rare for its time. The work took 19 years to complete and was originally published in 1808.<br />
Lancelot Brenton's ''The Septuagint version of the Old Testament: according to the Vatican text, translated into English : with the principal various readings of the Alexandrine copy, and a table of comparative chronology'' was published in 1844 and for most of the time since its publication it has been the only one readily available, and has continually been in print. The creator of the ''World English Bible'', Michael Paul Johnson, has produced a version of Brenton's translation in American English, entitled ''LXX2012: Septuagint in English 2012''.<br />
<br />
The ''[[Orthodox Study Bible]]'' was released in early 2008 with a new translation of the Septuagint based on the Greek text of Alfred Rahlfs ''Septuaginta'', and with reference to the Brenton translation. Thomas Nelson Publishers granted use of the New King James Version text in the places where the translation of the LXX would match that of the Hebrew Masoretic text. This edition includes the New Testament as well, which also uses the New King James Version. It also includes extensive commentary from an Eastern Orthodox perspective.<ref> http://orthodoxstudybible.com/index.html</ref><br />
''The Eastern / Greek Orthodox Bible'' (EOB) is an extensive revision and correction of Brenton’s translation. Its language and syntax have been modernized and simplified. It also includes extensive introductory material and footnotes featuring significant inter-LXX and LXX/MT variants.<br />
''The New English Translation of the Septuagint and the Other Greek Translations Traditionally Included Under that Title'' (NETS), published in 2007 and revised in 2009, is a major scholarly translation based on the critical texts available at the time from Gottingen and Rahlfs semi-critical ''Septuaginta''.<br />
Kevin Mayhew Publishers has printed the translation by Peter King, SJ, in four volumes (''The Pentateuch'' 2010, ''The Historical Books'' 2012, ''The Wisdom Literature'' 2008, and ''The Prophets'' 2013), which are now available (along with King's translation of the New Testament) as ''The Bible''. King's work, however, is difficult to obtain in the US.<br />
<br />
==Dead Sea Scrolls==<br />
With the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls in the mid twentieth century many examples have been recovered of the Old Testament in Hebrew from the time of Christ and the Holy Apostles and earlier. Scholarship during the past half century based upon these Dead Sea discoveries has revealed a close agreement between the LXX and pre-Masoretic Hebrew texts. In a review of some of this scholarship, Hershal Shanks<ref> Hershal Shanks, ''4QSama - The Difficult Life of a Dead Sea Scroll'', Biblical Archaeology Review, Vol 33 No 3, May/June 2007, pp66-70.</ref> notes that ''”…many Hebrew texts [are available] that were the base text for Septuagintal translations…”''. Further he notes that what ''”…texts like 4QSama show is that the Septuagintal translations are really quite reliable”'' and ''”…gives new authority to the Greek translations against the Masoretic text”''. Quoting Frank Moore Cross (a co-author of the book under review), Hershal continues ''”We could scarcely hope to find closer agreement between the Old Greek [Septuagintal] tradition and 4QSama than actually is found in our fragments”''.<br />
<br />
The scholarship based upon the new information provided in the Dead Sea Scroll thus supports the millennial old tradition on use of the Septuagint by the Orthodox Church.<br />
<br />
==Reference==<br />
<references/><br />
<br />
== External links ==<br />
* [http://orthodoxstudybible.com The Orthodox Study Bible page] - contains the Septuagint Old Testament using the NKJV as a base text<br />
* [http://www.kalvesmaki.com/LXX/ The Septuagint Online] - Compiled by Joel Kalvesmaki, Editor in Byzantine Studies at Dumbarton Oaks and convert to Orthodoxy 1993.<br />
* [http://www.lxx.org/ The Orthodox Study Bible Old Testament Project Website]<br />
* [http://www.ccel.org/bible/brenton/ The Septuagint LXX: Greek and English] by Sir Lancelot C.L. Brenton<br />
* [http://www.ecclesia.org/truth/septuagint-hyperlinked.html Septuagint, Brenton's Edition] (omits "deuterocanonical"/"apocryphal" books)<br />
* [http://spindleworks.com/septuagint/septuagint.htm The Septuagint], compiled from the [http://unbound.biola.edu/ Unbound] website by Henry Sikkema in 1999 (omits "deuterocanonical"/"apocryphal" books)<br />
* [http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/nets/ New English Translation of the Septuagint]. It has been released at San Diego, November 19, 2007 by Oxford University Press. [http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/nets/edition/ Provisional edition] online. This project is being carried out under the aegis of The International Organization for Septuagint and Cognate Studies (IOSCS). An international team of more than thirty scholars is working on the entire corpus of the Greek Jewish Scriptures. It is the first such English version in 160 years. Called the New English Translation of the Septuagint (NETS), the text reflects both the wealth of manuscript evidence that has been brought to light since the 19th century and, of course, current English idiom. (Note however, that this project is using the NRSV(1989) version as its English base of referral).<br />
* "[http://www.orthodox-church.info/eob/ The Eastern Orthodox Bible]" - a new translation rather than a revision of another work, dedicated to the recently reposed Archbishop Vsevolod of the (canonical) Ukrainian Orthodox Church in the USA.<br />
* [http://www.orthodoxengland.org.uk/pdf/kjvsept.pdf The KJV Septuagint] - translated from the Septuagint edition published by the Orthodox Church of Greece's ''Apostoliki Diakonia'', using the King James Version as a template. Scheduled to be published by St. Innocent Press in 2013, this will be the only English translation to date using an approved ecclesiastical text of the Septuagint.<br />
* [http://www.peterpapoutsis.com/ Peter Papoutsis]'s translation of the Septuagint<br />
* R. Grant Jones. [http://www.geocities.com/heartland/pines/7224/Rick/Septuagint/spindex.htm Notes on The Septuagint].<br />
'''Church Fathers'''<br><br />
* [[Clement of Alexandria]]. ''[http://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/anf02.vi.iv.i.xxii.html Chapter XXII.—On the Greek Translation of the Old Testament].'' In: THE STROMATA (MISCELLANIES), BOOK I.<br />
* [[Justin Martyr]]. ''[http://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/anf01.viii.vi.xiii.html Chapter XIII.—History of the Septuagint].'' In: Hortatory Address to the Greeks. <br />
<br />
===Institutes===<br />
* [http://www.twu.ca/sites/septuagint/ Septuagint Institute] (Trinity Western University, Canada). In 2005 the Septuagint Studies department moved from the University of Toronto to TWU, forming the new Septuagint Institute (SI). The SI complements TWU's already established Dead Sea Scrolls Institute (DSSI), founded in 1995, and together they form North America's new hub of Septuagint research.<br />
* [http://adw-goe.de/en/research/research-projects-within-the-academies-programme/septuaginta-unternehmen/ Septuaginta-Unternehmens Institute] in Gottingen, Germany. The Septuaginta-Unternehmen is a special research institute that was founded in 1908 in Göttingen under the auspices of the Göttingen Academy of Sciences. Its purpose was to conduct sound scientific investigation into the Septuagint and to trace the history of evolution of the Septuagint text, on the basis of the mass of manuscript data, and ultimately to establish a text which could be claimed to be for all intents and purposes identical with the Septuagint in its pristine form, a proto-Septuagint.([http://www.humboldt-stiftung.de/de/netzwerk/veranstalt/hoersaal/doc/muraoka.pdf 1]) The institute made Göttingen the nerve centre of Septuagint studies. The first director of the Institute, '''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alfred_Rahlfs Alfred Rahlfs]''', published ''Septuaginta, 2 volume edition in 1935'' (Septuagint in Greek). Rahlf's critical edition of the Septuagint for the book of Genesis rests on a foundation of some 140 manuscripts (nine pre-dating the fourth century CE), 10 daughter-versions, plus biblical citations in Greek and Latin literature. However, his two-volume, semi-critical edition ''Septuaginta'' has been supplanted by the fully critical Göttingen ''Septuaginta Vetus Testamentum Graecum'', in 23 volumes covering approximately two-thirds of the LXX text, along with a supplementary series.<br />
* [http://www.hexapla.org/ The HEXAPLA Institute]. Its purpose is to publish a new critical edition of the fragments of Origen's [[Hexapla]], focusing on the later development of Septuagint tradition.<br />
* [http://www.theo.kuleuven.be/lxxtc/en/ Centre for Septuagint Studies and Textual Criticism]. Catholic University of Leuven, Belgium.<br />
<br />
==See also== <br />
*[[Aristobulus of Paneas]], the earliest write to give an account of the Septuagint version.<br />
*[[Deuterocanon]] (Apocrypha)<br />
*[[Hermeneutics]]<br />
*[[Holy Scripture]]<br />
*[[Simeon the God-receiver]]<br />
*[[Byzantine Creation Era]]<br />
<br />
[[Category:Church History]]<br />
[[Category:Judaism]]<br />
[[Category:Scripture]]<br />
[[Category:Texts]]<br />
<br />
==Further reading==<br />
* H. Orlinsky. ''"The Septuagint and its Hebrew Text."'' In: '''The Cambridge History of Judaism: Vol. II, The Hellenistic Age'''. Eds. W. Davies and L. Finkelstein. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.<br />
* Dr. Natalio Fernández Marcos. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=8MbvEZ4bgdwC&source=gbs_navlinks_s The Septuagint in Context: Introduction to the Greek Versions of the Bible].'' Transl. 2nd revised and expanded Spanish edition, by W. G. E. Watson. Leiden: BRILL, 2000. 394 pp. ISBN 9789004115743<br />
* Prof. Dr. Carsten Peter Thiede. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=q18JiQSnBksC&source=gbs_navlinks_s The Dead Sea Scrolls and the Jewish Origins of Christianity].'' Palgrave Macmillan, 2003. 256 pp. ISBN 9781403961433 (''See discussion of Septuagint'')<br />
* Prof. Dr. Jennifer Mary Dines. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=Qv8Riv3QIbQC&source=gbs_navlinks_s The Septuagint].'' Ed. Michael Anthony Knibb. Continuum International Publishing Group, 2004. 196 pp. ISBN 9780567084644<br />
* Prof. Dr. Karen Jobes and Dr. Moises Silva. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=NSt_AAAAMAAJ&source=gbs_navlinks_s Invitation to the Septuagint].'' 2nd ed. Baker Academic, 2000. 351 pp. ISBN 9780801022357<br />
* Prof. Dr. Tim McLay. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=41rx-TDIF9gC&source=gbs_navlinks_s The Use of the Septuagint in New Testament Research].'' Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2003. 207 pp. ISBN 9780802860910<br />
* Prof Dr. Wolfgang Kraus, R. Glenn Wooden. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=M-oXuG_2wLIC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_navlinks_s Septuagint Research: Issues and Challenges in the Study of the Greek Jewish Scriptures].'' Society of Biblical Literature, 2006. 414 pp. ISBN 9781589832046<br />
'''Articles'''<br />
* [http://www.israelshamir.net/Biography.htm Israel Adam Shamir]. ''[http://www.israelshamir.net/English/Bible_to_Hebrew.htm Translating the Bible into Hebrew].'' A Talk at Rhodes Conference, 8-12 October 2009.<br />
:(Russian Israeli writer Israel Shamir is a Jewish convert to the Greek Orthodox [[Church of Jerusalem]]. Arguing for the veracity of the Septuagint over the Masoretic text, he states that there is an urgent need for a distinctly Christian [[Old Testament]] in Hebrew; he recommends reconstruction of the Hebrew source of the Septuagint, as a means of witnessing to the Jews today from a truly Christian Hebrew Bible)<br />
* ''[http://www.presstv.ir/detail/158212.html Greek bibles, much older than thought].'' Press TV (Israel). Sat Jan 1, 2011 7:17PM.<br />
: (Cambridge University researchers suggest that early Jewry used a Greek version of the Bible in synagogues much longer than previously thought: ''"Studying a fragment of manuscript kept in Cairo Genizah, a special vaulted room in Cairo's Ben-Ezra Synagogue, the team found that in some places the Jewish community continued to use Greek bibles almost until living memory."'')<br />
<br />
[[el:Μετάφραση των Εβδομήκοντα]]<br />
[[ro:Septuaginta]]</div>Fr Levhttps://orthodoxwiki.org/index.php?title=Septuagint&diff=120116Septuagint2014-10-16T14:17:57Z<p>Fr Lev: /* Different Translations of the Septuagint in English */</p>
<hr />
<div>{{OldTestament}}<br />
The '''Septuagint''' (a name derived from the Latin word for "seventy", also referred to as the '''LXX''') originally referred to a 3rd century B.C. translation of the [[Pentateuch]] into [[Koine Greek]]. By the time of [[Justin Martyr]] (+ c. 160), the term has come to refer to the other scriptural and related texts translated from Hebrew and Aramaic into Greek in the next century. It is the canonical [[Old Testament]] of the [[Orthodox Church]]. <br />
<br />
==History==<br />
The earliest extant version of the Old Testament is the translation executed in Alexandria in the third century before the Christian era; this version became known as the '''Septuagint''' and more recently, the ''Alexandrian'' version. <br />
<br />
It was commissioned at the behest of the Egyptian King, Ptolemy, who wished to expand the celebrated library of Alexandria to include the wisdom of all the ancient religions of the world. Because Greek was the language of Alexandria, the Scriptures therefore had to be translated into that language. <br />
<br />
The earliest writer who gives an account of the Septuagint version is Aristobulus, a Jewish author who lived at the commencement of the second century B.C. In his ''Letter of Aristeas'', he explains that the version of "the Law into Greek" was completed under the reign of Ptolemy Philadelphus, and that Demetrius Phalerus had been employed about it. Since it is documented that Demetrius Phalerus died at the beginning of the reign of Ptolemy Philadelphus, it has been reasonably inferred that Aristobulus was a witness that the work of translation had been commenced under Ptolemy Soter. <br />
<br />
Ptolemy contacted the chief priest, Eleazar, in Jerusalem and asked him to send translators. Six were chosen from each of the twelve tribes of Israel, giving us the commonly accepted number of seventy-two. (Other accounts have the number at seventy or seventy-five.) Only the Torah (the first five books) was translated initially, but eventually other translations (and even compositions) were added to the collection. By the time of our [[Lord]], the Septuagint was the Bible in use by most Hellenistic Jews.<br />
<br />
<br />
Thus, when the [[Apostles]] quote the Jewish Scripture in their own writings, the overwhelmingly dominant source for their wording comes directly from the Septuagint (LXX). Given that the spread of the [[Gospel]] was most successful among the Gentiles and Hellenistic Jews, it made sense that the LXX would be the Bible for the early Church. Following in the footsteps of those first generations of Christians, the [[Orthodox Church]] continues to regard the LXX as its only canonical text of the [[Old Testament]]. There are a number of differences between the canon of the LXX and that of [[Roman Catholic Church]] and [[Protestantism|Protestant Christians]], based on differences in translation tradition or doctrine.<br />
<br />
==Differences with other Christian Canons==<br />
The differences with Rome are fairly small and have never been a subject of much contention between the Orthodox and that communion. The canonical lists are essentially the same in content (some of the names are different) but for the following items: The Latin canon does not include [[I Esdras]] (though it uses that name for what the Orthodox call [[II Esdras]]); there are only 150 [[Psalms]] in the Latin canon, while the LXX has 151 (and the Psalms are numbered and divided differently between the two canons, because the modern Latin canon is based on the Hebrew Masoretic Text, though the [[Vulgate]] used the Septuagintal Psalm numbering); the [[Epistle of Jeremiah]] is a separate book in the LXX, while it is included as part of Baruch for the Latins; and the Latins do not include either [[III Maccabees|III]] or [[IV Maccabees]]. Traditionally, Roman Catholics used the numbering of the Latin Vulgate, which follows the Septuagint. However, since the Second Vatican Council, Roman Catholic publications, including Catholic Bibles and liturgical texts, have used the numbering found in the Masoretic Text.<br />
<br />
The differences with the Protestant canon are based on the 16th century misunderstanding of Martin Luther. When he was translating the Old Testament into German, he mistakenly believed that the oldest source for the Old Testament would be in Hebrew, so he found and used the so-called Masoretic Text (MT), a 9th century Jewish canon compiled largely in reaction to Christian claims that the Old Testament Scriptures belonged to the Church. The MT is thus also the basis for the Old Testament text of the 17th century Authorized Version in English (the "King James Version"). There are multiple differences between the LXX and MT. The MT lacks the following texts: [[I Esdras]], the portion of [[II Esdras]] (which the MT simply calls "Ezra") called the "[[Prayer of Manasseh]]," [[Tobit]], [[Judith]], portions of [[Book of Esther|Esther]], [[Wisdom of Solomon]], [[Wisdom of Sirach]] (Ecclesiasticus), [[Baruch]], the [[Epistle of Jeremiah]], the so-called "additions to Daniel" (The [[Prayer of the Three Holy Children|Song of the Three Children]], [[Susanna (Book of Daniel)|Susanna]], and [[Bel and the Dragon]]), the 151st Psalm, and all four Maccabees books. The Psalms are also numbered and divided up differently.<br />
<br />
== Variations with the Masoretic Text (MT) ==<br />
There are multiple internal variations between the LXX and the MT. The texts read differently in many places, giving a much more [[Christology|Christological]] tone to the LXX which was deliberately avoided when the Masoretes were putting together their anti-Christian canon. These differences in wording are the evidence that the Apostles were using the LXX. Here follow several examples of radical differences in wording:<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="2"<br />
|-<br />
! !! LXX !! MT<br />
|-<br />
! Gen. 4:7<br />
| Hast thou not sinned if thou hast brought it rightly, but not rightly divided it? Be still, to thee shall be his submission, and thou shalt rule over him. || If thou doest well, shalt thou not be accepted? And if thou doest not well, sin lieth at the door. And unto thee shall be his desire, and thou shalt rule over him.<br />
|-<br />
! Gen. 4:13<br />
| And Cain said to the Lord God, My crime is too great for me to be forgiven. || And Cain said unto the Lord, My punishment is greater than I can bear.<br />
|-<br />
! Exodus 21:16/17<br />
| He that reviles his father or his mother shall surely die. || And he that curseth his father, or his mother, shall surely be put to death.<br />
|-<br />
! Psalm 39/40:6<br />
| Sacrifice and offering Thou hast not desired, but a body Thou hast prepared for me... || Sacrifice and offering thou didst not desire, mine ears has thou opened...<br />
|}<br />
<br />
==Different Translations of the Septuagint in English==<br />
The Septuagint has been translated a few times into English, the first one (though excluding the Apocrypha) being ''The Holy Bible containing the Old and New Covenant'' of Charles Thomson in 1808; his translation was later revised and enlarged by C. A. Muses in 1954 under the title ''The Septuagint Bible''. The Thomson's Translation of the Old Covenant is a direct translation of the Greek Septuagint version of the Old Testament into English, rare for its time. The work took 19 years to complete and was originally published in 1808.<br />
Lancelot Brenton's ''The Septuagint version of the Old Testament: according to the Vatican text, translated into English : with the principal various readings of the Alexandrine copy, and a table of comparative chronology'' was published in 1844 and for most of the time since its publication it has been the only one readily available, and has continually been in print. The creator of the ''World English Bible'', Michael Paul Johnson, has produced a version of Brenton's translation in American English, entitled ''LXX2012: Septuagint in English 2012''.<br />
<br />
The ''[[Orthodox Study Bible]]'' was released in early 2008 with a new translation of the Septuagint based on the Greek text of Alfred Rahlfs ''Septuaginta'', and with reference to the Brenton translation. Thomas Nelson Publishers granted use of the New King James Version text in the places where the translation of the LXX would match that of the Hebrew Masoretic text. This edition includes the New Testament as well, which also uses the New King James Version. It also includes extensive commentary from an Eastern Orthodox perspective.<ref> http://orthodoxstudybible.com/index.html</ref><br />
''The Eastern / Greek Orthodox Bible'' (EOB) is an extensive revision and correction of Brenton’s translation. Its language and syntax have been modernized and simplified. It also includes extensive introductory material and footnotes featuring significant inter-LXX and LXX/MT variants.<br />
''The New English Translation of the Septuagint and the Other Greek Translations Traditionally Included Under that Title'' (NETS), published in 2007 and revised in 2009, is a major scholarly translation based on the critical texts available at the time from Gottingen and Rahlfs semi-critical ''Septuaginta''.<br />
Kevin Mayhew Publishers has printed the translation by Peter King, SJ, in four volumes (''The Pentateuch'' 2010, ''The Historical Books'' 2012, ''The Wisdom Literature'' 2008, and ''The Prophets'' 2013), which are now available (along with King's translation of the New Testament) as ''The Bible'' =.<br />
<br />
==Dead Sea Scrolls==<br />
With the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls in the mid twentieth century many examples have been recovered of the Old Testament in Hebrew from the time of Christ and the Holy Apostles and earlier. Scholarship during the past half century based upon these Dead Sea discoveries has revealed a close agreement between the LXX and pre-Masoretic Hebrew texts. In a review of some of this scholarship, Hershal Shanks<ref> Hershal Shanks, ''4QSama - The Difficult Life of a Dead Sea Scroll'', Biblical Archaeology Review, Vol 33 No 3, May/June 2007, pp66-70.</ref> notes that ''”…many Hebrew texts [are available] that were the base text for Septuagintal translations…”''. Further he notes that what ''”…texts like 4QSama show is that the Septuagintal translations are really quite reliable”'' and ''”…gives new authority to the Greek translations against the Masoretic text”''. Quoting Frank Moore Cross (a co-author of the book under review), Hershal continues ''”We could scarcely hope to find closer agreement between the Old Greek [Septuagintal] tradition and 4QSama than actually is found in our fragments”''.<br />
<br />
The scholarship based upon the new information provided in the Dead Sea Scroll thus supports the millennial old tradition on use of the Septuagint by the Orthodox Church.<br />
<br />
==Reference==<br />
<references/><br />
<br />
== External links ==<br />
* [http://orthodoxstudybible.com The Orthodox Study Bible page] - contains the Septuagint Old Testament using the NKJV as a base text<br />
* [http://www.kalvesmaki.com/LXX/ The Septuagint Online] - Compiled by Joel Kalvesmaki, Editor in Byzantine Studies at Dumbarton Oaks and convert to Orthodoxy 1993.<br />
* [http://www.lxx.org/ The Orthodox Study Bible Old Testament Project Website]<br />
* [http://www.ccel.org/bible/brenton/ The Septuagint LXX: Greek and English] by Sir Lancelot C.L. Brenton<br />
* [http://www.ecclesia.org/truth/septuagint-hyperlinked.html Septuagint, Brenton's Edition] (omits "deuterocanonical"/"apocryphal" books)<br />
* [http://spindleworks.com/septuagint/septuagint.htm The Septuagint], compiled from the [http://unbound.biola.edu/ Unbound] website by Henry Sikkema in 1999 (omits "deuterocanonical"/"apocryphal" books)<br />
* [http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/nets/ New English Translation of the Septuagint]. It has been released at San Diego, November 19, 2007 by Oxford University Press. [http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/nets/edition/ Provisional edition] online. This project is being carried out under the aegis of The International Organization for Septuagint and Cognate Studies (IOSCS). An international team of more than thirty scholars is working on the entire corpus of the Greek Jewish Scriptures. It is the first such English version in 160 years. Called the New English Translation of the Septuagint (NETS), the text reflects both the wealth of manuscript evidence that has been brought to light since the 19th century and, of course, current English idiom. (Note however, that this project is using the NRSV(1989) version as its English base of referral).<br />
* "[http://www.orthodox-church.info/eob/ The Eastern Orthodox Bible]" - a new translation rather than a revision of another work, dedicated to the recently reposed Archbishop Vsevolod of the (canonical) Ukrainian Orthodox Church in the USA.<br />
* [http://www.orthodoxengland.org.uk/pdf/kjvsept.pdf The KJV Septuagint] - translated from the Septuagint edition published by the Orthodox Church of Greece's ''Apostoliki Diakonia'', using the King James Version as a template. Scheduled to be published by St. Innocent Press in 2013, this will be the only English translation to date using an approved ecclesiastical text of the Septuagint.<br />
* [http://www.peterpapoutsis.com/ Peter Papoutsis]'s translation of the Septuagint<br />
* R. Grant Jones. [http://www.geocities.com/heartland/pines/7224/Rick/Septuagint/spindex.htm Notes on The Septuagint].<br />
'''Church Fathers'''<br><br />
* [[Clement of Alexandria]]. ''[http://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/anf02.vi.iv.i.xxii.html Chapter XXII.—On the Greek Translation of the Old Testament].'' In: THE STROMATA (MISCELLANIES), BOOK I.<br />
* [[Justin Martyr]]. ''[http://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/anf01.viii.vi.xiii.html Chapter XIII.—History of the Septuagint].'' In: Hortatory Address to the Greeks. <br />
<br />
===Institutes===<br />
* [http://www.twu.ca/sites/septuagint/ Septuagint Institute] (Trinity Western University, Canada). In 2005 the Septuagint Studies department moved from the University of Toronto to TWU, forming the new Septuagint Institute (SI). The SI complements TWU's already established Dead Sea Scrolls Institute (DSSI), founded in 1995, and together they form North America's new hub of Septuagint research.<br />
* [http://adw-goe.de/en/research/research-projects-within-the-academies-programme/septuaginta-unternehmen/ Septuaginta-Unternehmens Institute] in Gottingen, Germany. The Septuaginta-Unternehmen is a special research institute that was founded in 1908 in Göttingen under the auspices of the Göttingen Academy of Sciences. Its purpose was to conduct sound scientific investigation into the Septuagint and to trace the history of evolution of the Septuagint text, on the basis of the mass of manuscript data, and ultimately to establish a text which could be claimed to be for all intents and purposes identical with the Septuagint in its pristine form, a proto-Septuagint.([http://www.humboldt-stiftung.de/de/netzwerk/veranstalt/hoersaal/doc/muraoka.pdf 1]) The institute made Göttingen the nerve centre of Septuagint studies. The first director of the Institute, '''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alfred_Rahlfs Alfred Rahlfs]''', published ''Septuaginta, 2 volume edition in 1935'' (Septuagint in Greek). Rahlf's critical edition of the Septuagint for the book of Genesis rests on a foundation of some 140 manuscripts (nine pre-dating the fourth century CE), 10 daughter-versions, plus biblical citations in Greek and Latin literature. However, his two-volume, semi-critical edition ''Septuaginta'' has been supplanted by the fully critical Göttingen ''Septuaginta Vetus Testamentum Graecum'', in 23 volumes covering approximately two-thirds of the LXX text, along with a supplementary series.<br />
* [http://www.hexapla.org/ The HEXAPLA Institute]. Its purpose is to publish a new critical edition of the fragments of Origen's [[Hexapla]], focusing on the later development of Septuagint tradition.<br />
* [http://www.theo.kuleuven.be/lxxtc/en/ Centre for Septuagint Studies and Textual Criticism]. Catholic University of Leuven, Belgium.<br />
<br />
==See also== <br />
*[[Aristobulus of Paneas]], the earliest write to give an account of the Septuagint version.<br />
*[[Deuterocanon]] (Apocrypha)<br />
*[[Hermeneutics]]<br />
*[[Holy Scripture]]<br />
*[[Simeon the God-receiver]]<br />
*[[Byzantine Creation Era]]<br />
<br />
[[Category:Church History]]<br />
[[Category:Judaism]]<br />
[[Category:Scripture]]<br />
[[Category:Texts]]<br />
<br />
==Further reading==<br />
* H. Orlinsky. ''"The Septuagint and its Hebrew Text."'' In: '''The Cambridge History of Judaism: Vol. II, The Hellenistic Age'''. Eds. W. Davies and L. Finkelstein. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.<br />
* Dr. Natalio Fernández Marcos. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=8MbvEZ4bgdwC&source=gbs_navlinks_s The Septuagint in Context: Introduction to the Greek Versions of the Bible].'' Transl. 2nd revised and expanded Spanish edition, by W. G. E. Watson. Leiden: BRILL, 2000. 394 pp. ISBN 9789004115743<br />
* Prof. Dr. Carsten Peter Thiede. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=q18JiQSnBksC&source=gbs_navlinks_s The Dead Sea Scrolls and the Jewish Origins of Christianity].'' Palgrave Macmillan, 2003. 256 pp. ISBN 9781403961433 (''See discussion of Septuagint'')<br />
* Prof. Dr. Jennifer Mary Dines. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=Qv8Riv3QIbQC&source=gbs_navlinks_s The Septuagint].'' Ed. Michael Anthony Knibb. Continuum International Publishing Group, 2004. 196 pp. ISBN 9780567084644<br />
* Prof. Dr. Karen Jobes and Dr. Moises Silva. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=NSt_AAAAMAAJ&source=gbs_navlinks_s Invitation to the Septuagint].'' 2nd ed. Baker Academic, 2000. 351 pp. ISBN 9780801022357<br />
* Prof. Dr. Tim McLay. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=41rx-TDIF9gC&source=gbs_navlinks_s The Use of the Septuagint in New Testament Research].'' Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2003. 207 pp. ISBN 9780802860910<br />
* Prof Dr. Wolfgang Kraus, R. Glenn Wooden. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=M-oXuG_2wLIC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_navlinks_s Septuagint Research: Issues and Challenges in the Study of the Greek Jewish Scriptures].'' Society of Biblical Literature, 2006. 414 pp. ISBN 9781589832046<br />
'''Articles'''<br />
* [http://www.israelshamir.net/Biography.htm Israel Adam Shamir]. ''[http://www.israelshamir.net/English/Bible_to_Hebrew.htm Translating the Bible into Hebrew].'' A Talk at Rhodes Conference, 8-12 October 2009.<br />
:(Russian Israeli writer Israel Shamir is a Jewish convert to the Greek Orthodox [[Church of Jerusalem]]. Arguing for the veracity of the Septuagint over the Masoretic text, he states that there is an urgent need for a distinctly Christian [[Old Testament]] in Hebrew; he recommends reconstruction of the Hebrew source of the Septuagint, as a means of witnessing to the Jews today from a truly Christian Hebrew Bible)<br />
* ''[http://www.presstv.ir/detail/158212.html Greek bibles, much older than thought].'' Press TV (Israel). Sat Jan 1, 2011 7:17PM.<br />
: (Cambridge University researchers suggest that early Jewry used a Greek version of the Bible in synagogues much longer than previously thought: ''"Studying a fragment of manuscript kept in Cairo Genizah, a special vaulted room in Cairo's Ben-Ezra Synagogue, the team found that in some places the Jewish community continued to use Greek bibles almost until living memory."'')<br />
<br />
[[el:Μετάφραση των Εβδομήκοντα]]<br />
[[ro:Septuaginta]]</div>Fr Levhttps://orthodoxwiki.org/index.php?title=Septuagint&diff=120115Septuagint2014-10-16T13:38:22Z<p>Fr Lev: </p>
<hr />
<div>{{OldTestament}}<br />
The '''Septuagint''' (a name derived from the Latin word for "seventy", also referred to as the '''LXX''') originally referred to a 3rd century B.C. translation of the [[Pentateuch]] into [[Koine Greek]]. By the time of [[Justin Martyr]] (+ c. 160), the term has come to refer to the other scriptural and related texts translated from Hebrew and Aramaic into Greek in the next century. It is the canonical [[Old Testament]] of the [[Orthodox Church]]. <br />
<br />
==History==<br />
The earliest extant version of the Old Testament is the translation executed in Alexandria in the third century before the Christian era; this version became known as the '''Septuagint''' and more recently, the ''Alexandrian'' version. <br />
<br />
It was commissioned at the behest of the Egyptian King, Ptolemy, who wished to expand the celebrated library of Alexandria to include the wisdom of all the ancient religions of the world. Because Greek was the language of Alexandria, the Scriptures therefore had to be translated into that language. <br />
<br />
The earliest writer who gives an account of the Septuagint version is Aristobulus, a Jewish author who lived at the commencement of the second century B.C. In his ''Letter of Aristeas'', he explains that the version of "the Law into Greek" was completed under the reign of Ptolemy Philadelphus, and that Demetrius Phalerus had been employed about it. Since it is documented that Demetrius Phalerus died at the beginning of the reign of Ptolemy Philadelphus, it has been reasonably inferred that Aristobulus was a witness that the work of translation had been commenced under Ptolemy Soter. <br />
<br />
Ptolemy contacted the chief priest, Eleazar, in Jerusalem and asked him to send translators. Six were chosen from each of the twelve tribes of Israel, giving us the commonly accepted number of seventy-two. (Other accounts have the number at seventy or seventy-five.) Only the Torah (the first five books) was translated initially, but eventually other translations (and even compositions) were added to the collection. By the time of our [[Lord]], the Septuagint was the Bible in use by most Hellenistic Jews.<br />
<br />
<br />
Thus, when the [[Apostles]] quote the Jewish Scripture in their own writings, the overwhelmingly dominant source for their wording comes directly from the Septuagint (LXX). Given that the spread of the [[Gospel]] was most successful among the Gentiles and Hellenistic Jews, it made sense that the LXX would be the Bible for the early Church. Following in the footsteps of those first generations of Christians, the [[Orthodox Church]] continues to regard the LXX as its only canonical text of the [[Old Testament]]. There are a number of differences between the canon of the LXX and that of [[Roman Catholic Church]] and [[Protestantism|Protestant Christians]], based on differences in translation tradition or doctrine.<br />
<br />
==Differences with other Christian Canons==<br />
The differences with Rome are fairly small and have never been a subject of much contention between the Orthodox and that communion. The canonical lists are essentially the same in content (some of the names are different) but for the following items: The Latin canon does not include [[I Esdras]] (though it uses that name for what the Orthodox call [[II Esdras]]); there are only 150 [[Psalms]] in the Latin canon, while the LXX has 151 (and the Psalms are numbered and divided differently between the two canons, because the modern Latin canon is based on the Hebrew Masoretic Text, though the [[Vulgate]] used the Septuagintal Psalm numbering); the [[Epistle of Jeremiah]] is a separate book in the LXX, while it is included as part of Baruch for the Latins; and the Latins do not include either [[III Maccabees|III]] or [[IV Maccabees]]. Traditionally, Roman Catholics used the numbering of the Latin Vulgate, which follows the Septuagint. However, since the Second Vatican Council, Roman Catholic publications, including Catholic Bibles and liturgical texts, have used the numbering found in the Masoretic Text.<br />
<br />
The differences with the Protestant canon are based on the 16th century misunderstanding of Martin Luther. When he was translating the Old Testament into German, he mistakenly believed that the oldest source for the Old Testament would be in Hebrew, so he found and used the so-called Masoretic Text (MT), a 9th century Jewish canon compiled largely in reaction to Christian claims that the Old Testament Scriptures belonged to the Church. The MT is thus also the basis for the Old Testament text of the 17th century Authorized Version in English (the "King James Version"). There are multiple differences between the LXX and MT. The MT lacks the following texts: [[I Esdras]], the portion of [[II Esdras]] (which the MT simply calls "Ezra") called the "[[Prayer of Manasseh]]," [[Tobit]], [[Judith]], portions of [[Book of Esther|Esther]], [[Wisdom of Solomon]], [[Wisdom of Sirach]] (Ecclesiasticus), [[Baruch]], the [[Epistle of Jeremiah]], the so-called "additions to Daniel" (The [[Prayer of the Three Holy Children|Song of the Three Children]], [[Susanna (Book of Daniel)|Susanna]], and [[Bel and the Dragon]]), the 151st Psalm, and all four Maccabees books. The Psalms are also numbered and divided up differently.<br />
<br />
== Variations with the Masoretic Text (MT) ==<br />
There are multiple internal variations between the LXX and the MT. The texts read differently in many places, giving a much more [[Christology|Christological]] tone to the LXX which was deliberately avoided when the Masoretes were putting together their anti-Christian canon. These differences in wording are the evidence that the Apostles were using the LXX. Here follow several examples of radical differences in wording:<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="2"<br />
|-<br />
! !! LXX !! MT<br />
|-<br />
! Gen. 4:7<br />
| Hast thou not sinned if thou hast brought it rightly, but not rightly divided it? Be still, to thee shall be his submission, and thou shalt rule over him. || If thou doest well, shalt thou not be accepted? And if thou doest not well, sin lieth at the door. And unto thee shall be his desire, and thou shalt rule over him.<br />
|-<br />
! Gen. 4:13<br />
| And Cain said to the Lord God, My crime is too great for me to be forgiven. || And Cain said unto the Lord, My punishment is greater than I can bear.<br />
|-<br />
! Exodus 21:16/17<br />
| He that reviles his father or his mother shall surely die. || And he that curseth his father, or his mother, shall surely be put to death.<br />
|-<br />
! Psalm 39/40:6<br />
| Sacrifice and offering Thou hast not desired, but a body Thou hast prepared for me... || Sacrifice and offering thou didst not desire, mine ears has thou opened...<br />
|}<br />
<br />
==Different Translations of the Septuagint in English==<br />
The Septuagint has been translated a few times into English, the first one (though excluding the Apocrypha) being that of Charles Thomson in 1808; his translation was later revised and enlarged by C. A. Muses in 1954. The Thomson's Translation of the Old Covenant is a direct translation of the Greek Septuagint version of the Old Testament into English, rare for its time. The work took 19 years to complete and was originally published in 1808.<br />
The Brenton's English Translation of the Septuagint was published in 1851 and for most of the time since its publication it has been the only one readily available, and has continually been in print. There is a translation of the Septuagint based on Brenton's English Translation of the Septuagint, called LXX2012: Septuagint in English 2012 that is being developed by the creator of the World English Bible, Michael Paul Johnson.<br />
The Orthodox Study Bible was released in early 2008 with a new translation of the Septuagint based on the Alfred Rahlfs edition of the Greek text. To this base they brought two additional major sources. First the Brenton translation of the Septuagint from 1851. Second, Thomas Nelson Publishers granted use of the New King James Version text in the places where the translation of the LXX would match that of the Hebrew Masoretic text. This edition includes the New Testament as well, which also uses the New King James Version. It also includes extensive commentary from an Eastern Orthodox perspective.<ref> http://orthodoxstudybible.com/index.html</ref><br />
The Eastern / Greek Orthodox Bible (EOB) is an extensive revision and correction of Brenton’s translation which was primarily based on Codex Vaticanus. Its language and syntax have been modernized and simplified. It also includes extensive introductory material and footnotes featuring significant inter-LXX and LXX/MT variants.<br />
<br />
==Dead Sea Scrolls==<br />
With the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls in the mid twentieth century many examples have been recovered of the Old Testament in Hebrew from the time of Christ and the Holy Apostles and earlier. Scholarship during the past half century based upon these Dead Sea discoveries has revealed a close agreement between the LXX and pre-Masoretic Hebrew texts. In a review of some of this scholarship, Hershal Shanks<ref> Hershal Shanks, ''4QSama - The Difficult Life of a Dead Sea Scroll'', Biblical Archaeology Review, Vol 33 No 3, May/June 2007, pp66-70.</ref> notes that ''”…many Hebrew texts [are available] that were the base text for Septuagintal translations…”''. Further he notes that what ''”…texts like 4QSama show is that the Septuagintal translations are really quite reliable”'' and ''”…gives new authority to the Greek translations against the Masoretic text”''. Quoting Frank Moore Cross (a co-author of the book under review), Hershal continues ''”We could scarcely hope to find closer agreement between the Old Greek [Septuagintal] tradition and 4QSama than actually is found in our fragments”''.<br />
<br />
The scholarship based upon the new information provided in the Dead Sea Scroll thus supports the millennial old tradition on use of the Septuagint by the Orthodox Church.<br />
<br />
==Reference==<br />
<references/><br />
<br />
== External links ==<br />
* [http://orthodoxstudybible.com The Orthodox Study Bible page] - contains the Septuagint Old Testament using the NKJV as a base text<br />
* [http://www.kalvesmaki.com/LXX/ The Septuagint Online] - Compiled by Joel Kalvesmaki, Editor in Byzantine Studies at Dumbarton Oaks and convert to Orthodoxy 1993.<br />
* [http://www.lxx.org/ The Orthodox Study Bible Old Testament Project Website]<br />
* [http://www.ccel.org/bible/brenton/ The Septuagint LXX: Greek and English] by Sir Lancelot C.L. Brenton<br />
* [http://www.ecclesia.org/truth/septuagint-hyperlinked.html Septuagint, Brenton's Edition] (omits "deuterocanonical"/"apocryphal" books)<br />
* [http://spindleworks.com/septuagint/septuagint.htm The Septuagint], compiled from the [http://unbound.biola.edu/ Unbound] website by Henry Sikkema in 1999 (omits "deuterocanonical"/"apocryphal" books)<br />
* [http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/nets/ New English Translation of the Septuagint]. It has been released at San Diego, November 19, 2007 by Oxford University Press. [http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/nets/edition/ Provisional edition] online. This project is being carried out under the aegis of The International Organization for Septuagint and Cognate Studies (IOSCS). An international team of more than thirty scholars is working on the entire corpus of the Greek Jewish Scriptures. It is the first such English version in 160 years. Called the New English Translation of the Septuagint (NETS), the text reflects both the wealth of manuscript evidence that has been brought to light since the 19th century and, of course, current English idiom. (Note however, that this project is using the NRSV(1989) version as its English base of referral).<br />
* "[http://www.orthodox-church.info/eob/ The Eastern Orthodox Bible]" - a new translation rather than a revision of another work, dedicated to the recently reposed Archbishop Vsevolod of the (canonical) Ukrainian Orthodox Church in the USA.<br />
* [http://www.orthodoxengland.org.uk/pdf/kjvsept.pdf The KJV Septuagint] - translated from the Septuagint edition published by the Orthodox Church of Greece's ''Apostoliki Diakonia'', using the King James Version as a template. Scheduled to be published by St. Innocent Press in 2013, this will be the only English translation to date using an approved ecclesiastical text of the Septuagint.<br />
* [http://www.peterpapoutsis.com/ Peter Papoutsis]'s translation of the Septuagint<br />
* R. Grant Jones. [http://www.geocities.com/heartland/pines/7224/Rick/Septuagint/spindex.htm Notes on The Septuagint].<br />
'''Church Fathers'''<br><br />
* [[Clement of Alexandria]]. ''[http://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/anf02.vi.iv.i.xxii.html Chapter XXII.—On the Greek Translation of the Old Testament].'' In: THE STROMATA (MISCELLANIES), BOOK I.<br />
* [[Justin Martyr]]. ''[http://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/anf01.viii.vi.xiii.html Chapter XIII.—History of the Septuagint].'' In: Hortatory Address to the Greeks. <br />
<br />
===Institutes===<br />
* [http://www.twu.ca/sites/septuagint/ Septuagint Institute] (Trinity Western University, Canada). In 2005 the Septuagint Studies department moved from the University of Toronto to TWU, forming the new Septuagint Institute (SI). The SI complements TWU's already established Dead Sea Scrolls Institute (DSSI), founded in 1995, and together they form North America's new hub of Septuagint research.<br />
* [http://adw-goe.de/en/research/research-projects-within-the-academies-programme/septuaginta-unternehmen/ Septuaginta-Unternehmens Institute] in Gottingen, Germany. The Septuaginta-Unternehmen is a special research institute that was founded in 1908 in Göttingen under the auspices of the Göttingen Academy of Sciences. Its purpose was to conduct sound scientific investigation into the Septuagint and to trace the history of evolution of the Septuagint text, on the basis of the mass of manuscript data, and ultimately to establish a text which could be claimed to be for all intents and purposes identical with the Septuagint in its pristine form, a proto-Septuagint.([http://www.humboldt-stiftung.de/de/netzwerk/veranstalt/hoersaal/doc/muraoka.pdf 1]) The institute made Göttingen the nerve centre of Septuagint studies. The first director of the Institute, '''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alfred_Rahlfs Alfred Rahlfs]''', published ''Septuaginta, 2 volume edition in 1935'' (Septuagint in Greek). Rahlf's critical edition of the Septuagint for the book of Genesis rests on a foundation of some 140 manuscripts (nine pre-dating the fourth century CE), 10 daughter-versions, plus biblical citations in Greek and Latin literature. However, his two-volume, semi-critical edition ''Septuaginta'' has been supplanted by the fully critical Göttingen ''Septuaginta Vetus Testamentum Graecum'', in 23 volumes covering approximately two-thirds of the LXX text, along with a supplementary series.<br />
* [http://www.hexapla.org/ The HEXAPLA Institute]. Its purpose is to publish a new critical edition of the fragments of Origen's [[Hexapla]], focusing on the later development of Septuagint tradition.<br />
* [http://www.theo.kuleuven.be/lxxtc/en/ Centre for Septuagint Studies and Textual Criticism]. Catholic University of Leuven, Belgium.<br />
<br />
==See also== <br />
*[[Aristobulus of Paneas]], the earliest write to give an account of the Septuagint version.<br />
*[[Deuterocanon]] (Apocrypha)<br />
*[[Hermeneutics]]<br />
*[[Holy Scripture]]<br />
*[[Simeon the God-receiver]]<br />
*[[Byzantine Creation Era]]<br />
<br />
[[Category:Church History]]<br />
[[Category:Judaism]]<br />
[[Category:Scripture]]<br />
[[Category:Texts]]<br />
<br />
==Further reading==<br />
* H. Orlinsky. ''"The Septuagint and its Hebrew Text."'' In: '''The Cambridge History of Judaism: Vol. II, The Hellenistic Age'''. Eds. W. Davies and L. Finkelstein. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.<br />
* Dr. Natalio Fernández Marcos. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=8MbvEZ4bgdwC&source=gbs_navlinks_s The Septuagint in Context: Introduction to the Greek Versions of the Bible].'' Transl. 2nd revised and expanded Spanish edition, by W. G. E. Watson. Leiden: BRILL, 2000. 394 pp. ISBN 9789004115743<br />
* Prof. Dr. Carsten Peter Thiede. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=q18JiQSnBksC&source=gbs_navlinks_s The Dead Sea Scrolls and the Jewish Origins of Christianity].'' Palgrave Macmillan, 2003. 256 pp. ISBN 9781403961433 (''See discussion of Septuagint'')<br />
* Prof. Dr. Jennifer Mary Dines. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=Qv8Riv3QIbQC&source=gbs_navlinks_s The Septuagint].'' Ed. Michael Anthony Knibb. Continuum International Publishing Group, 2004. 196 pp. ISBN 9780567084644<br />
* Prof. Dr. Karen Jobes and Dr. Moises Silva. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=NSt_AAAAMAAJ&source=gbs_navlinks_s Invitation to the Septuagint].'' 2nd ed. Baker Academic, 2000. 351 pp. ISBN 9780801022357<br />
* Prof. Dr. Tim McLay. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=41rx-TDIF9gC&source=gbs_navlinks_s The Use of the Septuagint in New Testament Research].'' Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2003. 207 pp. ISBN 9780802860910<br />
* Prof Dr. Wolfgang Kraus, R. Glenn Wooden. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=M-oXuG_2wLIC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_navlinks_s Septuagint Research: Issues and Challenges in the Study of the Greek Jewish Scriptures].'' Society of Biblical Literature, 2006. 414 pp. ISBN 9781589832046<br />
'''Articles'''<br />
* [http://www.israelshamir.net/Biography.htm Israel Adam Shamir]. ''[http://www.israelshamir.net/English/Bible_to_Hebrew.htm Translating the Bible into Hebrew].'' A Talk at Rhodes Conference, 8-12 October 2009.<br />
:(Russian Israeli writer Israel Shamir is a Jewish convert to the Greek Orthodox [[Church of Jerusalem]]. Arguing for the veracity of the Septuagint over the Masoretic text, he states that there is an urgent need for a distinctly Christian [[Old Testament]] in Hebrew; he recommends reconstruction of the Hebrew source of the Septuagint, as a means of witnessing to the Jews today from a truly Christian Hebrew Bible)<br />
* ''[http://www.presstv.ir/detail/158212.html Greek bibles, much older than thought].'' Press TV (Israel). Sat Jan 1, 2011 7:17PM.<br />
: (Cambridge University researchers suggest that early Jewry used a Greek version of the Bible in synagogues much longer than previously thought: ''"Studying a fragment of manuscript kept in Cairo Genizah, a special vaulted room in Cairo's Ben-Ezra Synagogue, the team found that in some places the Jewish community continued to use Greek bibles almost until living memory."'')<br />
<br />
[[el:Μετάφραση των Εβδομήκοντα]]<br />
[[ro:Septuaginta]]</div>Fr Levhttps://orthodoxwiki.org/index.php?title=Septuagint&diff=120106Septuagint2014-10-15T21:32:56Z<p>Fr Lev: /* Institutes */</p>
<hr />
<div>{{OldTestament}}<br />
The '''Septuagint''' (a name derived from the Latin word for "seventy", also referred to as the '''LXX''') is a 3rd century B.C. translation of the [[Old Testament|Hebrew Scriptures]] into [[Koine Greek]]. It is the canonical [[Old Testament]] of the [[Orthodox Church]].<br />
<br />
==History==<br />
The earliest extant version of the Old Testament is the translation executed in Alexandria in the third century before the Christian era; this version became known as the '''Septuagint''' and more recently, the ''Alexandrian'' version. <br />
<br />
It was commissioned at the behest of the Egyptian King, Ptolemy, who wished to expand the celebrated library of Alexandria to include the wisdom of all the ancient religions of the world. Because Greek was the language of Alexandria, the Scriptures therefore had to be translated into that language. <br />
<br />
The earliest writer who gives an account of the Septuagint version is Aristobulus, a Jewish author who lived at the commencement of the second century B.C. In his ''Letter of Aristeas'', he explains that the version of "the Law into Greek" was completed under the reign of Ptolemy Philadelphus, and that Demetrius Phalerus had been employed about it. Since it is documented that Demetrius Phalerus died at the beginning of the reign of Ptolemy Philadelphus, it has been reasonably inferred that Aristobulus was a witness that the work of translation had been commenced under Ptolemy Soter. <br />
<br />
Ptolemy contacted the chief priest, Eleazar, in Jerusalem and asked him to send translators. Six were chosen from each of the twelve tribes of Israel, giving us the commonly accepted number of seventy-two. (Other accounts have the number at seventy or seventy-five.) Only the Torah (the first five books) was translated initially, but eventually other translations (and even compositions) were added to the collection. By the time of our [[Lord]], the Septuagint was the Bible in use by most Hellenistic Jews.<br />
<br />
<br />
Thus, when the [[Apostles]] quote the Jewish Scripture in their own writings, the overwhelmingly dominant source for their wording comes directly from the Septuagint (LXX). Given that the spread of the [[Gospel]] was most successful among the Gentiles and Hellenistic Jews, it made sense that the LXX would be the Bible for the early Church. Following in the footsteps of those first generations of Christians, the [[Orthodox Church]] continues to regard the LXX as its only canonical text of the [[Old Testament]]. There are a number of differences between the canon of the LXX and that of [[Roman Catholic Church]] and [[Protestantism|Protestant Christians]], based on differences in translation tradition or doctrine.<br />
<br />
==Differences with other Christian Canons==<br />
The differences with Rome are fairly small and have never been a subject of much contention between the Orthodox and that communion. The canonical lists are essentially the same in content (some of the names are different) but for the following items: The Latin canon does not include [[I Esdras]] (though it uses that name for what the Orthodox call [[II Esdras]]); there are only 150 [[Psalms]] in the Latin canon, while the LXX has 151 (and the Psalms are numbered and divided differently between the two canons, because the modern Latin canon is based on the Hebrew Masoretic Text, though the [[Vulgate]] used the Septuagintal Psalm numbering); the [[Epistle of Jeremiah]] is a separate book in the LXX, while it is included as part of Baruch for the Latins; and the Latins do not include either [[III Maccabees|III]] or [[IV Maccabees]]. Traditionally, Roman Catholics used the numbering of the Latin Vulgate, which follows the Septuagint. However, since the Second Vatican Council, Roman Catholic publications, including Catholic Bibles and liturgical texts, have used the numbering found in the Masoretic Text.<br />
<br />
The differences with the Protestant canon are based on the 16th century misunderstanding of Martin Luther. When he was translating the Old Testament into German, he mistakenly believed that the oldest source for the Old Testament would be in Hebrew, so he found and used the so-called Masoretic Text (MT), a 9th century Jewish canon compiled largely in reaction to Christian claims that the Old Testament Scriptures belonged to the Church. The MT is thus also the basis for the Old Testament text of the 17th century Authorized Version in English (the "King James Version"). There are multiple differences between the LXX and MT. The MT lacks the following texts: [[I Esdras]], the portion of [[II Esdras]] (which the MT simply calls "Ezra") called the "[[Prayer of Manasseh]]," [[Tobit]], [[Judith]], portions of [[Book of Esther|Esther]], [[Wisdom of Solomon]], [[Wisdom of Sirach]] (Ecclesiasticus), [[Baruch]], the [[Epistle of Jeremiah]], the so-called "additions to Daniel" (The [[Prayer of the Three Holy Children|Song of the Three Children]], [[Susanna (Book of Daniel)|Susanna]], and [[Bel and the Dragon]]), the 151st Psalm, and all four Maccabees books. The Psalms are also numbered and divided up differently.<br />
<br />
== Variations with the Masoretic Text (MT) ==<br />
There are multiple internal variations between the LXX and the MT. The texts read differently in many places, giving a much more [[Christology|Christological]] tone to the LXX which was deliberately avoided when the Masoretes were putting together their anti-Christian canon. These differences in wording are the evidence that the Apostles were using the LXX. Here follow several examples of radical differences in wording:<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="2"<br />
|-<br />
! !! LXX !! MT<br />
|-<br />
! Gen. 4:7<br />
| Hast thou not sinned if thou hast brought it rightly, but not rightly divided it? Be still, to thee shall be his submission, and thou shalt rule over him. || If thou doest well, shalt thou not be accepted? And if thou doest not well, sin lieth at the door. And unto thee shall be his desire, and thou shalt rule over him.<br />
|-<br />
! Gen. 4:13<br />
| And Cain said to the Lord God, My crime is too great for me to be forgiven. || And Cain said unto the Lord, My punishment is greater than I can bear.<br />
|-<br />
! Exodus 21:16/17<br />
| He that reviles his father or his mother shall surely die. || And he that curseth his father, or his mother, shall surely be put to death.<br />
|-<br />
! Psalm 39/40:6<br />
| Sacrifice and offering Thou hast not desired, but a body Thou hast prepared for me... || Sacrifice and offering thou didst not desire, mine ears has thou opened...<br />
|}<br />
<br />
==Different Translations of the Septuagint in English==<br />
The Septuagint has been translated a few times into English, the first one (though excluding the Apocrypha) being that of Charles Thomson in 1808; his translation was later revised and enlarged by C. A. Muses in 1954. The Thomson's Translation of the Old Covenant is a direct translation of the Greek Septuagint version of the Old Testament into English, rare for its time. The work took 19 years to complete and was originally published in 1808.<br />
The Brenton's English Translation of the Septuagint was published in 1851 and for most of the time since its publication it has been the only one readily available, and has continually been in print. There is a translation of the Septuagint based on Brenton's English Translation of the Septuagint, called LXX2012: Septuagint in English 2012 that is being developed by the creator of the World English Bible, Michael Paul Johnson.<br />
The Orthodox Study Bible was released in early 2008 with a new translation of the Septuagint based on the Alfred Rahlfs edition of the Greek text. To this base they brought two additional major sources. First the Brenton translation of the Septuagint from 1851. Second, Thomas Nelson Publishers granted use of the New King James Version text in the places where the translation of the LXX would match that of the Hebrew Masoretic text. This edition includes the New Testament as well, which also uses the New King James Version. It also includes extensive commentary from an Eastern Orthodox perspective.<ref> http://orthodoxstudybible.com/index.html</ref><br />
The Eastern / Greek Orthodox Bible (EOB) is an extensive revision and correction of Brenton’s translation which was primarily based on Codex Vaticanus. Its language and syntax have been modernized and simplified. It also includes extensive introductory material and footnotes featuring significant inter-LXX and LXX/MT variants.<br />
<br />
==Dead Sea Scrolls==<br />
With the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls in the mid twentieth century many examples have been recovered of the Old Testament in Hebrew from the time of Christ and the Holy Apostles and earlier. Scholarship during the past half century based upon these Dead Sea discoveries has revealed a close agreement between the LXX and pre-Masoretic Hebrew texts. In a review of some of this scholarship, Hershal Shanks<ref> Hershal Shanks, ''4QSama - The Difficult Life of a Dead Sea Scroll'', Biblical Archaeology Review, Vol 33 No 3, May/June 2007, pp66-70.</ref> notes that ''”…many Hebrew texts [are available] that were the base text for Septuagintal translations…”''. Further he notes that what ''”…texts like 4QSama show is that the Septuagintal translations are really quite reliable”'' and ''”…gives new authority to the Greek translations against the Masoretic text”''. Quoting Frank Moore Cross (a co-author of the book under review), Hershal continues ''”We could scarcely hope to find closer agreement between the Old Greek [Septuagintal] tradition and 4QSama than actually is found in our fragments”''.<br />
<br />
The scholarship based upon the new information provided in the Dead Sea Scroll thus supports the millennial old tradition on use of the Septuagint by the Orthodox Church.<br />
<br />
==Reference==<br />
<references/><br />
<br />
== External links ==<br />
* [http://orthodoxstudybible.com The Orthodox Study Bible page] - contains the Septuagint Old Testament using the NKJV as a base text<br />
* [http://www.kalvesmaki.com/LXX/ The Septuagint Online] - Compiled by Joel Kalvesmaki, Editor in Byzantine Studies at Dumbarton Oaks and convert to Orthodoxy 1993.<br />
* [http://www.lxx.org/ The Orthodox Study Bible Old Testament Project Website]<br />
* [http://www.ccel.org/bible/brenton/ The Septuagint LXX: Greek and English] by Sir Lancelot C.L. Brenton<br />
* [http://www.ecclesia.org/truth/septuagint-hyperlinked.html Septuagint, Brenton's Edition] (omits "deuterocanonical"/"apocryphal" books)<br />
* [http://spindleworks.com/septuagint/septuagint.htm The Septuagint], compiled from the [http://unbound.biola.edu/ Unbound] website by Henry Sikkema in 1999 (omits "deuterocanonical"/"apocryphal" books)<br />
* [http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/nets/ New English Translation of the Septuagint]. It has been released at San Diego, November 19, 2007 by Oxford University Press. [http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/nets/edition/ Provisional edition] online. This project is being carried out under the aegis of The International Organization for Septuagint and Cognate Studies (IOSCS). An international team of more than thirty scholars is working on the entire corpus of the Greek Jewish Scriptures. It is the first such English version in 160 years. Called the New English Translation of the Septuagint (NETS), the text reflects both the wealth of manuscript evidence that has been brought to light since the 19th century and, of course, current English idiom. (Note however, that this project is using the NRSV(1989) version as its English base of referral).<br />
* "[http://www.orthodox-church.info/eob/ The Eastern Orthodox Bible]" - a new translation rather than a revision of another work, dedicated to the recently reposed Archbishop Vsevolod of the (canonical) Ukrainian Orthodox Church in the USA.<br />
* [http://www.orthodoxengland.org.uk/pdf/kjvsept.pdf The KJV Septuagint] - translated from the Septuagint edition published by the Orthodox Church of Greece's ''Apostoliki Diakonia'', using the King James Version as a template. Scheduled to be published by St. Innocent Press in 2013, this will be the only English translation to date using an approved ecclesiastical text of the Septuagint.<br />
* [http://www.peterpapoutsis.com/ Peter Papoutsis]'s translation of the Septuagint<br />
* R. Grant Jones. [http://www.geocities.com/heartland/pines/7224/Rick/Septuagint/spindex.htm Notes on The Septuagint].<br />
'''Church Fathers'''<br><br />
* [[Clement of Alexandria]]. ''[http://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/anf02.vi.iv.i.xxii.html Chapter XXII.—On the Greek Translation of the Old Testament].'' In: THE STROMATA (MISCELLANIES), BOOK I.<br />
* [[Justin Martyr]]. ''[http://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/anf01.viii.vi.xiii.html Chapter XIII.—History of the Septuagint].'' In: Hortatory Address to the Greeks. <br />
<br />
===Institutes===<br />
* [http://www.twu.ca/sites/septuagint/ Septuagint Institute] (Trinity Western University, Canada). In 2005 the Septuagint Studies department moved from the University of Toronto to TWU, forming the new Septuagint Institute (SI). The SI complements TWU's already established Dead Sea Scrolls Institute (DSSI), founded in 1995, and together they form North America's new hub of Septuagint research.<br />
* [http://adw-goe.de/en/research/research-projects-within-the-academies-programme/septuaginta-unternehmen/ Septuaginta-Unternehmens Institute] in Gottingen, Germany. The Septuaginta-Unternehmen is a special research institute that was founded in 1908 in Göttingen under the auspices of the Göttingen Academy of Sciences. Its purpose was to conduct sound scientific investigation into the Septuagint and to trace the history of evolution of the Septuagint text, on the basis of the mass of manuscript data, and ultimately to establish a text which could be claimed to be for all intents and purposes identical with the Septuagint in its pristine form, a proto-Septuagint.([http://www.humboldt-stiftung.de/de/netzwerk/veranstalt/hoersaal/doc/muraoka.pdf 1]) The institute made Göttingen the nerve centre of Septuagint studies. The first director of the Institute, '''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alfred_Rahlfs Alfred Rahlfs]''', published ''Septuaginta, 2 volume edition in 1935'' (Septuagint in Greek). Rahlf's critical edition of the Septuagint for the book of Genesis rests on a foundation of some 140 manuscripts (nine pre-dating the fourth century CE), 10 daughter-versions, plus biblical citations in Greek and Latin literature. However, his two-volume, semi-critical edition ''Septuaginta'' has been supplanted by the fully critical Göttingen ''Septuaginta Vetus Testamentum Graecum'', in 23 volumes covering approximately two-thirds of the LXX text, along with a supplementary series.<br />
* [http://www.hexapla.org/ The HEXAPLA Institute]. Its purpose is to publish a new critical edition of the fragments of Origen's [[Hexapla]], focusing on the later development of Septuagint tradition.<br />
* [http://www.theo.kuleuven.be/lxxtc/en/ Centre for Septuagint Studies and Textual Criticism]. Catholic University of Leuven, Belgium.<br />
<br />
==See also== <br />
*[[Aristobulus of Paneas]], the earliest write to give an account of the Septuagint version.<br />
*[[Deuterocanon]] (Apocrypha)<br />
*[[Hermeneutics]]<br />
*[[Holy Scripture]]<br />
*[[Simeon the God-receiver]]<br />
*[[Byzantine Creation Era]]<br />
<br />
[[Category:Church History]]<br />
[[Category:Judaism]]<br />
[[Category:Scripture]]<br />
[[Category:Texts]]<br />
<br />
==Further reading==<br />
* H. Orlinsky. ''"The Septuagint and its Hebrew Text."'' In: '''The Cambridge History of Judaism: Vol. II, The Hellenistic Age'''. Eds. W. Davies and L. Finkelstein. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.<br />
* Dr. Natalio Fernández Marcos. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=8MbvEZ4bgdwC&source=gbs_navlinks_s The Septuagint in Context: Introduction to the Greek Versions of the Bible].'' Transl. 2nd revised and expanded Spanish edition, by W. G. E. Watson. Leiden: BRILL, 2000. 394 pp. ISBN 9789004115743<br />
* Prof. Dr. Carsten Peter Thiede. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=q18JiQSnBksC&source=gbs_navlinks_s The Dead Sea Scrolls and the Jewish Origins of Christianity].'' Palgrave Macmillan, 2003. 256 pp. ISBN 9781403961433 (''See discussion of Septuagint'')<br />
* Prof. Dr. Jennifer Mary Dines. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=Qv8Riv3QIbQC&source=gbs_navlinks_s The Septuagint].'' Ed. Michael Anthony Knibb. Continuum International Publishing Group, 2004. 196 pp. ISBN 9780567084644<br />
* Prof. Dr. Karen Jobes and Dr. Moises Silva. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=NSt_AAAAMAAJ&source=gbs_navlinks_s Invitation to the Septuagint].'' 2nd ed. Baker Academic, 2000. 351 pp. ISBN 9780801022357<br />
* Prof. Dr. Tim McLay. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=41rx-TDIF9gC&source=gbs_navlinks_s The Use of the Septuagint in New Testament Research].'' Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2003. 207 pp. ISBN 9780802860910<br />
* Prof Dr. Wolfgang Kraus, R. Glenn Wooden. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=M-oXuG_2wLIC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_navlinks_s Septuagint Research: Issues and Challenges in the Study of the Greek Jewish Scriptures].'' Society of Biblical Literature, 2006. 414 pp. ISBN 9781589832046<br />
'''Articles'''<br />
* [http://www.israelshamir.net/Biography.htm Israel Adam Shamir]. ''[http://www.israelshamir.net/English/Bible_to_Hebrew.htm Translating the Bible into Hebrew].'' A Talk at Rhodes Conference, 8-12 October 2009.<br />
:(Russian Israeli writer Israel Shamir is a Jewish convert to the Greek Orthodox [[Church of Jerusalem]]. Arguing for the veracity of the Septuagint over the Masoretic text, he states that there is an urgent need for a distinctly Christian [[Old Testament]] in Hebrew; he recommends reconstruction of the Hebrew source of the Septuagint, as a means of witnessing to the Jews today from a truly Christian Hebrew Bible)<br />
* ''[http://www.presstv.ir/detail/158212.html Greek bibles, much older than thought].'' Press TV (Israel). Sat Jan 1, 2011 7:17PM.<br />
: (Cambridge University researchers suggest that early Jewry used a Greek version of the Bible in synagogues much longer than previously thought: ''"Studying a fragment of manuscript kept in Cairo Genizah, a special vaulted room in Cairo's Ben-Ezra Synagogue, the team found that in some places the Jewish community continued to use Greek bibles almost until living memory."'')<br />
<br />
[[el:Μετάφραση των Εβδομήκοντα]]<br />
[[ro:Septuaginta]]</div>Fr Levhttps://orthodoxwiki.org/index.php?title=Septuagint&diff=120105Septuagint2014-10-15T21:26:47Z<p>Fr Lev: /* Institutes */</p>
<hr />
<div>{{OldTestament}}<br />
The '''Septuagint''' (a name derived from the Latin word for "seventy", also referred to as the '''LXX''') is a 3rd century B.C. translation of the [[Old Testament|Hebrew Scriptures]] into [[Koine Greek]]. It is the canonical [[Old Testament]] of the [[Orthodox Church]].<br />
<br />
==History==<br />
The earliest extant version of the Old Testament is the translation executed in Alexandria in the third century before the Christian era; this version became known as the '''Septuagint''' and more recently, the ''Alexandrian'' version. <br />
<br />
It was commissioned at the behest of the Egyptian King, Ptolemy, who wished to expand the celebrated library of Alexandria to include the wisdom of all the ancient religions of the world. Because Greek was the language of Alexandria, the Scriptures therefore had to be translated into that language. <br />
<br />
The earliest writer who gives an account of the Septuagint version is Aristobulus, a Jewish author who lived at the commencement of the second century B.C. In his ''Letter of Aristeas'', he explains that the version of "the Law into Greek" was completed under the reign of Ptolemy Philadelphus, and that Demetrius Phalerus had been employed about it. Since it is documented that Demetrius Phalerus died at the beginning of the reign of Ptolemy Philadelphus, it has been reasonably inferred that Aristobulus was a witness that the work of translation had been commenced under Ptolemy Soter. <br />
<br />
Ptolemy contacted the chief priest, Eleazar, in Jerusalem and asked him to send translators. Six were chosen from each of the twelve tribes of Israel, giving us the commonly accepted number of seventy-two. (Other accounts have the number at seventy or seventy-five.) Only the Torah (the first five books) was translated initially, but eventually other translations (and even compositions) were added to the collection. By the time of our [[Lord]], the Septuagint was the Bible in use by most Hellenistic Jews.<br />
<br />
<br />
Thus, when the [[Apostles]] quote the Jewish Scripture in their own writings, the overwhelmingly dominant source for their wording comes directly from the Septuagint (LXX). Given that the spread of the [[Gospel]] was most successful among the Gentiles and Hellenistic Jews, it made sense that the LXX would be the Bible for the early Church. Following in the footsteps of those first generations of Christians, the [[Orthodox Church]] continues to regard the LXX as its only canonical text of the [[Old Testament]]. There are a number of differences between the canon of the LXX and that of [[Roman Catholic Church]] and [[Protestantism|Protestant Christians]], based on differences in translation tradition or doctrine.<br />
<br />
==Differences with other Christian Canons==<br />
The differences with Rome are fairly small and have never been a subject of much contention between the Orthodox and that communion. The canonical lists are essentially the same in content (some of the names are different) but for the following items: The Latin canon does not include [[I Esdras]] (though it uses that name for what the Orthodox call [[II Esdras]]); there are only 150 [[Psalms]] in the Latin canon, while the LXX has 151 (and the Psalms are numbered and divided differently between the two canons, because the modern Latin canon is based on the Hebrew Masoretic Text, though the [[Vulgate]] used the Septuagintal Psalm numbering); the [[Epistle of Jeremiah]] is a separate book in the LXX, while it is included as part of Baruch for the Latins; and the Latins do not include either [[III Maccabees|III]] or [[IV Maccabees]]. Traditionally, Roman Catholics used the numbering of the Latin Vulgate, which follows the Septuagint. However, since the Second Vatican Council, Roman Catholic publications, including Catholic Bibles and liturgical texts, have used the numbering found in the Masoretic Text.<br />
<br />
The differences with the Protestant canon are based on the 16th century misunderstanding of Martin Luther. When he was translating the Old Testament into German, he mistakenly believed that the oldest source for the Old Testament would be in Hebrew, so he found and used the so-called Masoretic Text (MT), a 9th century Jewish canon compiled largely in reaction to Christian claims that the Old Testament Scriptures belonged to the Church. The MT is thus also the basis for the Old Testament text of the 17th century Authorized Version in English (the "King James Version"). There are multiple differences between the LXX and MT. The MT lacks the following texts: [[I Esdras]], the portion of [[II Esdras]] (which the MT simply calls "Ezra") called the "[[Prayer of Manasseh]]," [[Tobit]], [[Judith]], portions of [[Book of Esther|Esther]], [[Wisdom of Solomon]], [[Wisdom of Sirach]] (Ecclesiasticus), [[Baruch]], the [[Epistle of Jeremiah]], the so-called "additions to Daniel" (The [[Prayer of the Three Holy Children|Song of the Three Children]], [[Susanna (Book of Daniel)|Susanna]], and [[Bel and the Dragon]]), the 151st Psalm, and all four Maccabees books. The Psalms are also numbered and divided up differently.<br />
<br />
== Variations with the Masoretic Text (MT) ==<br />
There are multiple internal variations between the LXX and the MT. The texts read differently in many places, giving a much more [[Christology|Christological]] tone to the LXX which was deliberately avoided when the Masoretes were putting together their anti-Christian canon. These differences in wording are the evidence that the Apostles were using the LXX. Here follow several examples of radical differences in wording:<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="2"<br />
|-<br />
! !! LXX !! MT<br />
|-<br />
! Gen. 4:7<br />
| Hast thou not sinned if thou hast brought it rightly, but not rightly divided it? Be still, to thee shall be his submission, and thou shalt rule over him. || If thou doest well, shalt thou not be accepted? And if thou doest not well, sin lieth at the door. And unto thee shall be his desire, and thou shalt rule over him.<br />
|-<br />
! Gen. 4:13<br />
| And Cain said to the Lord God, My crime is too great for me to be forgiven. || And Cain said unto the Lord, My punishment is greater than I can bear.<br />
|-<br />
! Exodus 21:16/17<br />
| He that reviles his father or his mother shall surely die. || And he that curseth his father, or his mother, shall surely be put to death.<br />
|-<br />
! Psalm 39/40:6<br />
| Sacrifice and offering Thou hast not desired, but a body Thou hast prepared for me... || Sacrifice and offering thou didst not desire, mine ears has thou opened...<br />
|}<br />
<br />
==Different Translations of the Septuagint in English==<br />
The Septuagint has been translated a few times into English, the first one (though excluding the Apocrypha) being that of Charles Thomson in 1808; his translation was later revised and enlarged by C. A. Muses in 1954. The Thomson's Translation of the Old Covenant is a direct translation of the Greek Septuagint version of the Old Testament into English, rare for its time. The work took 19 years to complete and was originally published in 1808.<br />
The Brenton's English Translation of the Septuagint was published in 1851 and for most of the time since its publication it has been the only one readily available, and has continually been in print. There is a translation of the Septuagint based on Brenton's English Translation of the Septuagint, called LXX2012: Septuagint in English 2012 that is being developed by the creator of the World English Bible, Michael Paul Johnson.<br />
The Orthodox Study Bible was released in early 2008 with a new translation of the Septuagint based on the Alfred Rahlfs edition of the Greek text. To this base they brought two additional major sources. First the Brenton translation of the Septuagint from 1851. Second, Thomas Nelson Publishers granted use of the New King James Version text in the places where the translation of the LXX would match that of the Hebrew Masoretic text. This edition includes the New Testament as well, which also uses the New King James Version. It also includes extensive commentary from an Eastern Orthodox perspective.<ref> http://orthodoxstudybible.com/index.html</ref><br />
The Eastern / Greek Orthodox Bible (EOB) is an extensive revision and correction of Brenton’s translation which was primarily based on Codex Vaticanus. Its language and syntax have been modernized and simplified. It also includes extensive introductory material and footnotes featuring significant inter-LXX and LXX/MT variants.<br />
<br />
==Dead Sea Scrolls==<br />
With the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls in the mid twentieth century many examples have been recovered of the Old Testament in Hebrew from the time of Christ and the Holy Apostles and earlier. Scholarship during the past half century based upon these Dead Sea discoveries has revealed a close agreement between the LXX and pre-Masoretic Hebrew texts. In a review of some of this scholarship, Hershal Shanks<ref> Hershal Shanks, ''4QSama - The Difficult Life of a Dead Sea Scroll'', Biblical Archaeology Review, Vol 33 No 3, May/June 2007, pp66-70.</ref> notes that ''”…many Hebrew texts [are available] that were the base text for Septuagintal translations…”''. Further he notes that what ''”…texts like 4QSama show is that the Septuagintal translations are really quite reliable”'' and ''”…gives new authority to the Greek translations against the Masoretic text”''. Quoting Frank Moore Cross (a co-author of the book under review), Hershal continues ''”We could scarcely hope to find closer agreement between the Old Greek [Septuagintal] tradition and 4QSama than actually is found in our fragments”''.<br />
<br />
The scholarship based upon the new information provided in the Dead Sea Scroll thus supports the millennial old tradition on use of the Septuagint by the Orthodox Church.<br />
<br />
==Reference==<br />
<references/><br />
<br />
== External links ==<br />
* [http://orthodoxstudybible.com The Orthodox Study Bible page] - contains the Septuagint Old Testament using the NKJV as a base text<br />
* [http://www.kalvesmaki.com/LXX/ The Septuagint Online] - Compiled by Joel Kalvesmaki, Editor in Byzantine Studies at Dumbarton Oaks and convert to Orthodoxy 1993.<br />
* [http://www.lxx.org/ The Orthodox Study Bible Old Testament Project Website]<br />
* [http://www.ccel.org/bible/brenton/ The Septuagint LXX: Greek and English] by Sir Lancelot C.L. Brenton<br />
* [http://www.ecclesia.org/truth/septuagint-hyperlinked.html Septuagint, Brenton's Edition] (omits "deuterocanonical"/"apocryphal" books)<br />
* [http://spindleworks.com/septuagint/septuagint.htm The Septuagint], compiled from the [http://unbound.biola.edu/ Unbound] website by Henry Sikkema in 1999 (omits "deuterocanonical"/"apocryphal" books)<br />
* [http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/nets/ New English Translation of the Septuagint]. It has been released at San Diego, November 19, 2007 by Oxford University Press. [http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/nets/edition/ Provisional edition] online. This project is being carried out under the aegis of The International Organization for Septuagint and Cognate Studies (IOSCS). An international team of more than thirty scholars is working on the entire corpus of the Greek Jewish Scriptures. It is the first such English version in 160 years. Called the New English Translation of the Septuagint (NETS), the text reflects both the wealth of manuscript evidence that has been brought to light since the 19th century and, of course, current English idiom. (Note however, that this project is using the NRSV(1989) version as its English base of referral).<br />
* "[http://www.orthodox-church.info/eob/ The Eastern Orthodox Bible]" - a new translation rather than a revision of another work, dedicated to the recently reposed Archbishop Vsevolod of the (canonical) Ukrainian Orthodox Church in the USA.<br />
* [http://www.orthodoxengland.org.uk/pdf/kjvsept.pdf The KJV Septuagint] - translated from the Septuagint edition published by the Orthodox Church of Greece's ''Apostoliki Diakonia'', using the King James Version as a template. Scheduled to be published by St. Innocent Press in 2013, this will be the only English translation to date using an approved ecclesiastical text of the Septuagint.<br />
* [http://www.peterpapoutsis.com/ Peter Papoutsis]'s translation of the Septuagint<br />
* R. Grant Jones. [http://www.geocities.com/heartland/pines/7224/Rick/Septuagint/spindex.htm Notes on The Septuagint].<br />
'''Church Fathers'''<br><br />
* [[Clement of Alexandria]]. ''[http://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/anf02.vi.iv.i.xxii.html Chapter XXII.—On the Greek Translation of the Old Testament].'' In: THE STROMATA (MISCELLANIES), BOOK I.<br />
* [[Justin Martyr]]. ''[http://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/anf01.viii.vi.xiii.html Chapter XIII.—History of the Septuagint].'' In: Hortatory Address to the Greeks. <br />
<br />
===Institutes===<br />
* [http://www.twu.ca/sites/septuagint/ Septuagint Institute] (Trinity Western University, Canada). In 2005 the Septuagint Studies department moved from the University of Toronto to TWU, forming the new Septuagint Institute (SI). The SI complements TWU's already established Dead Sea Scrolls Institute (DSSI), founded in 1995, and together they form North America's new hub of Septuagint research.<br />
* [http://adw-goe.de/en/research/research-projects-within-the-academies-programme/septuaginta-unternehmen/ Septuaginta-Unternehmens Institute] in Gottingen, Germany. The Septuaginta-Unternehmen is a special research institute that was founded in 1908 in Göttingen under the auspices of the Göttingen Academy of Sciences. Its purpose was to conduct sound scientific investigation into the Septuagint and to trace the history of evolution of the Septuagint text, on the basis of the mass of manuscript data, and ultimately to establish a text which could be claimed to be for all intents and purposes identical with the Septuagint in its pristine form, a proto-Septuagint.([http://www.humboldt-stiftung.de/de/netzwerk/veranstalt/hoersaal/doc/muraoka.pdf 1]) The institute made Göttingen the nerve centre of Septuagint studies. The first director of the Institute, '''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alfred_Rahlfs Alfred Rahlfs]''', published ''Septuaginta, 2 volume edition in 1935'' (Septuagint in Greek). Rahlf's semi-critical edition of the Septuagint for the book of Genesis rests on a foundation of some 140 manuscripts (nine pre-dating the fourth century CE), ten daughter-versions, plus biblical citations in Greek and Latin literature. It has been supplanted by the fully critical Göttingen ''Septuaginta Vetus Testamentum Graecum'', in 23 volumes covering approximately two-thirds of the LXX text, along with a supplementary series.<br />
* [http://www.hexapla.org/ The HEXAPLA Institute]. Its purpose is to publish a new critical edition of the fragments of Origen's [[Hexapla]], focusing on the later development of Septuagint tradition.<br />
* [http://www.theo.kuleuven.be/lxxtc/en/ Centre for Septuagint Studies and Textual Criticism]. Catholic University of Leuven, Belgium.<br />
<br />
==See also== <br />
*[[Aristobulus of Paneas]], the earliest write to give an account of the Septuagint version.<br />
*[[Deuterocanon]] (Apocrypha)<br />
*[[Hermeneutics]]<br />
*[[Holy Scripture]]<br />
*[[Simeon the God-receiver]]<br />
*[[Byzantine Creation Era]]<br />
<br />
[[Category:Church History]]<br />
[[Category:Judaism]]<br />
[[Category:Scripture]]<br />
[[Category:Texts]]<br />
<br />
==Further reading==<br />
* H. Orlinsky. ''"The Septuagint and its Hebrew Text."'' In: '''The Cambridge History of Judaism: Vol. II, The Hellenistic Age'''. Eds. W. Davies and L. Finkelstein. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.<br />
* Dr. Natalio Fernández Marcos. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=8MbvEZ4bgdwC&source=gbs_navlinks_s The Septuagint in Context: Introduction to the Greek Versions of the Bible].'' Transl. 2nd revised and expanded Spanish edition, by W. G. E. Watson. Leiden: BRILL, 2000. 394 pp. ISBN 9789004115743<br />
* Prof. Dr. Carsten Peter Thiede. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=q18JiQSnBksC&source=gbs_navlinks_s The Dead Sea Scrolls and the Jewish Origins of Christianity].'' Palgrave Macmillan, 2003. 256 pp. ISBN 9781403961433 (''See discussion of Septuagint'')<br />
* Prof. Dr. Jennifer Mary Dines. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=Qv8Riv3QIbQC&source=gbs_navlinks_s The Septuagint].'' Ed. Michael Anthony Knibb. Continuum International Publishing Group, 2004. 196 pp. ISBN 9780567084644<br />
* Prof. Dr. Karen Jobes and Dr. Moises Silva. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=NSt_AAAAMAAJ&source=gbs_navlinks_s Invitation to the Septuagint].'' 2nd ed. Baker Academic, 2000. 351 pp. ISBN 9780801022357<br />
* Prof. Dr. Tim McLay. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=41rx-TDIF9gC&source=gbs_navlinks_s The Use of the Septuagint in New Testament Research].'' Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2003. 207 pp. ISBN 9780802860910<br />
* Prof Dr. Wolfgang Kraus, R. Glenn Wooden. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=M-oXuG_2wLIC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_navlinks_s Septuagint Research: Issues and Challenges in the Study of the Greek Jewish Scriptures].'' Society of Biblical Literature, 2006. 414 pp. ISBN 9781589832046<br />
'''Articles'''<br />
* [http://www.israelshamir.net/Biography.htm Israel Adam Shamir]. ''[http://www.israelshamir.net/English/Bible_to_Hebrew.htm Translating the Bible into Hebrew].'' A Talk at Rhodes Conference, 8-12 October 2009.<br />
:(Russian Israeli writer Israel Shamir is a Jewish convert to the Greek Orthodox [[Church of Jerusalem]]. Arguing for the veracity of the Septuagint over the Masoretic text, he states that there is an urgent need for a distinctly Christian [[Old Testament]] in Hebrew; he recommends reconstruction of the Hebrew source of the Septuagint, as a means of witnessing to the Jews today from a truly Christian Hebrew Bible)<br />
* ''[http://www.presstv.ir/detail/158212.html Greek bibles, much older than thought].'' Press TV (Israel). Sat Jan 1, 2011 7:17PM.<br />
: (Cambridge University researchers suggest that early Jewry used a Greek version of the Bible in synagogues much longer than previously thought: ''"Studying a fragment of manuscript kept in Cairo Genizah, a special vaulted room in Cairo's Ben-Ezra Synagogue, the team found that in some places the Jewish community continued to use Greek bibles almost until living memory."'')<br />
<br />
[[el:Μετάφραση των Εβδομήκοντα]]<br />
[[ro:Septuaginta]]</div>Fr Levhttps://orthodoxwiki.org/index.php?title=Septuagint&diff=120104Septuagint2014-10-15T21:25:39Z<p>Fr Lev: /* Institutes */</p>
<hr />
<div>{{OldTestament}}<br />
The '''Septuagint''' (a name derived from the Latin word for "seventy", also referred to as the '''LXX''') is a 3rd century B.C. translation of the [[Old Testament|Hebrew Scriptures]] into [[Koine Greek]]. It is the canonical [[Old Testament]] of the [[Orthodox Church]].<br />
<br />
==History==<br />
The earliest extant version of the Old Testament is the translation executed in Alexandria in the third century before the Christian era; this version became known as the '''Septuagint''' and more recently, the ''Alexandrian'' version. <br />
<br />
It was commissioned at the behest of the Egyptian King, Ptolemy, who wished to expand the celebrated library of Alexandria to include the wisdom of all the ancient religions of the world. Because Greek was the language of Alexandria, the Scriptures therefore had to be translated into that language. <br />
<br />
The earliest writer who gives an account of the Septuagint version is Aristobulus, a Jewish author who lived at the commencement of the second century B.C. In his ''Letter of Aristeas'', he explains that the version of "the Law into Greek" was completed under the reign of Ptolemy Philadelphus, and that Demetrius Phalerus had been employed about it. Since it is documented that Demetrius Phalerus died at the beginning of the reign of Ptolemy Philadelphus, it has been reasonably inferred that Aristobulus was a witness that the work of translation had been commenced under Ptolemy Soter. <br />
<br />
Ptolemy contacted the chief priest, Eleazar, in Jerusalem and asked him to send translators. Six were chosen from each of the twelve tribes of Israel, giving us the commonly accepted number of seventy-two. (Other accounts have the number at seventy or seventy-five.) Only the Torah (the first five books) was translated initially, but eventually other translations (and even compositions) were added to the collection. By the time of our [[Lord]], the Septuagint was the Bible in use by most Hellenistic Jews.<br />
<br />
<br />
Thus, when the [[Apostles]] quote the Jewish Scripture in their own writings, the overwhelmingly dominant source for their wording comes directly from the Septuagint (LXX). Given that the spread of the [[Gospel]] was most successful among the Gentiles and Hellenistic Jews, it made sense that the LXX would be the Bible for the early Church. Following in the footsteps of those first generations of Christians, the [[Orthodox Church]] continues to regard the LXX as its only canonical text of the [[Old Testament]]. There are a number of differences between the canon of the LXX and that of [[Roman Catholic Church]] and [[Protestantism|Protestant Christians]], based on differences in translation tradition or doctrine.<br />
<br />
==Differences with other Christian Canons==<br />
The differences with Rome are fairly small and have never been a subject of much contention between the Orthodox and that communion. The canonical lists are essentially the same in content (some of the names are different) but for the following items: The Latin canon does not include [[I Esdras]] (though it uses that name for what the Orthodox call [[II Esdras]]); there are only 150 [[Psalms]] in the Latin canon, while the LXX has 151 (and the Psalms are numbered and divided differently between the two canons, because the modern Latin canon is based on the Hebrew Masoretic Text, though the [[Vulgate]] used the Septuagintal Psalm numbering); the [[Epistle of Jeremiah]] is a separate book in the LXX, while it is included as part of Baruch for the Latins; and the Latins do not include either [[III Maccabees|III]] or [[IV Maccabees]]. Traditionally, Roman Catholics used the numbering of the Latin Vulgate, which follows the Septuagint. However, since the Second Vatican Council, Roman Catholic publications, including Catholic Bibles and liturgical texts, have used the numbering found in the Masoretic Text.<br />
<br />
The differences with the Protestant canon are based on the 16th century misunderstanding of Martin Luther. When he was translating the Old Testament into German, he mistakenly believed that the oldest source for the Old Testament would be in Hebrew, so he found and used the so-called Masoretic Text (MT), a 9th century Jewish canon compiled largely in reaction to Christian claims that the Old Testament Scriptures belonged to the Church. The MT is thus also the basis for the Old Testament text of the 17th century Authorized Version in English (the "King James Version"). There are multiple differences between the LXX and MT. The MT lacks the following texts: [[I Esdras]], the portion of [[II Esdras]] (which the MT simply calls "Ezra") called the "[[Prayer of Manasseh]]," [[Tobit]], [[Judith]], portions of [[Book of Esther|Esther]], [[Wisdom of Solomon]], [[Wisdom of Sirach]] (Ecclesiasticus), [[Baruch]], the [[Epistle of Jeremiah]], the so-called "additions to Daniel" (The [[Prayer of the Three Holy Children|Song of the Three Children]], [[Susanna (Book of Daniel)|Susanna]], and [[Bel and the Dragon]]), the 151st Psalm, and all four Maccabees books. The Psalms are also numbered and divided up differently.<br />
<br />
== Variations with the Masoretic Text (MT) ==<br />
There are multiple internal variations between the LXX and the MT. The texts read differently in many places, giving a much more [[Christology|Christological]] tone to the LXX which was deliberately avoided when the Masoretes were putting together their anti-Christian canon. These differences in wording are the evidence that the Apostles were using the LXX. Here follow several examples of radical differences in wording:<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="2"<br />
|-<br />
! !! LXX !! MT<br />
|-<br />
! Gen. 4:7<br />
| Hast thou not sinned if thou hast brought it rightly, but not rightly divided it? Be still, to thee shall be his submission, and thou shalt rule over him. || If thou doest well, shalt thou not be accepted? And if thou doest not well, sin lieth at the door. And unto thee shall be his desire, and thou shalt rule over him.<br />
|-<br />
! Gen. 4:13<br />
| And Cain said to the Lord God, My crime is too great for me to be forgiven. || And Cain said unto the Lord, My punishment is greater than I can bear.<br />
|-<br />
! Exodus 21:16/17<br />
| He that reviles his father or his mother shall surely die. || And he that curseth his father, or his mother, shall surely be put to death.<br />
|-<br />
! Psalm 39/40:6<br />
| Sacrifice and offering Thou hast not desired, but a body Thou hast prepared for me... || Sacrifice and offering thou didst not desire, mine ears has thou opened...<br />
|}<br />
<br />
==Different Translations of the Septuagint in English==<br />
The Septuagint has been translated a few times into English, the first one (though excluding the Apocrypha) being that of Charles Thomson in 1808; his translation was later revised and enlarged by C. A. Muses in 1954. The Thomson's Translation of the Old Covenant is a direct translation of the Greek Septuagint version of the Old Testament into English, rare for its time. The work took 19 years to complete and was originally published in 1808.<br />
The Brenton's English Translation of the Septuagint was published in 1851 and for most of the time since its publication it has been the only one readily available, and has continually been in print. There is a translation of the Septuagint based on Brenton's English Translation of the Septuagint, called LXX2012: Septuagint in English 2012 that is being developed by the creator of the World English Bible, Michael Paul Johnson.<br />
The Orthodox Study Bible was released in early 2008 with a new translation of the Septuagint based on the Alfred Rahlfs edition of the Greek text. To this base they brought two additional major sources. First the Brenton translation of the Septuagint from 1851. Second, Thomas Nelson Publishers granted use of the New King James Version text in the places where the translation of the LXX would match that of the Hebrew Masoretic text. This edition includes the New Testament as well, which also uses the New King James Version. It also includes extensive commentary from an Eastern Orthodox perspective.<ref> http://orthodoxstudybible.com/index.html</ref><br />
The Eastern / Greek Orthodox Bible (EOB) is an extensive revision and correction of Brenton’s translation which was primarily based on Codex Vaticanus. Its language and syntax have been modernized and simplified. It also includes extensive introductory material and footnotes featuring significant inter-LXX and LXX/MT variants.<br />
<br />
==Dead Sea Scrolls==<br />
With the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls in the mid twentieth century many examples have been recovered of the Old Testament in Hebrew from the time of Christ and the Holy Apostles and earlier. Scholarship during the past half century based upon these Dead Sea discoveries has revealed a close agreement between the LXX and pre-Masoretic Hebrew texts. In a review of some of this scholarship, Hershal Shanks<ref> Hershal Shanks, ''4QSama - The Difficult Life of a Dead Sea Scroll'', Biblical Archaeology Review, Vol 33 No 3, May/June 2007, pp66-70.</ref> notes that ''”…many Hebrew texts [are available] that were the base text for Septuagintal translations…”''. Further he notes that what ''”…texts like 4QSama show is that the Septuagintal translations are really quite reliable”'' and ''”…gives new authority to the Greek translations against the Masoretic text”''. Quoting Frank Moore Cross (a co-author of the book under review), Hershal continues ''”We could scarcely hope to find closer agreement between the Old Greek [Septuagintal] tradition and 4QSama than actually is found in our fragments”''.<br />
<br />
The scholarship based upon the new information provided in the Dead Sea Scroll thus supports the millennial old tradition on use of the Septuagint by the Orthodox Church.<br />
<br />
==Reference==<br />
<references/><br />
<br />
== External links ==<br />
* [http://orthodoxstudybible.com The Orthodox Study Bible page] - contains the Septuagint Old Testament using the NKJV as a base text<br />
* [http://www.kalvesmaki.com/LXX/ The Septuagint Online] - Compiled by Joel Kalvesmaki, Editor in Byzantine Studies at Dumbarton Oaks and convert to Orthodoxy 1993.<br />
* [http://www.lxx.org/ The Orthodox Study Bible Old Testament Project Website]<br />
* [http://www.ccel.org/bible/brenton/ The Septuagint LXX: Greek and English] by Sir Lancelot C.L. Brenton<br />
* [http://www.ecclesia.org/truth/septuagint-hyperlinked.html Septuagint, Brenton's Edition] (omits "deuterocanonical"/"apocryphal" books)<br />
* [http://spindleworks.com/septuagint/septuagint.htm The Septuagint], compiled from the [http://unbound.biola.edu/ Unbound] website by Henry Sikkema in 1999 (omits "deuterocanonical"/"apocryphal" books)<br />
* [http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/nets/ New English Translation of the Septuagint]. It has been released at San Diego, November 19, 2007 by Oxford University Press. [http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/nets/edition/ Provisional edition] online. This project is being carried out under the aegis of The International Organization for Septuagint and Cognate Studies (IOSCS). An international team of more than thirty scholars is working on the entire corpus of the Greek Jewish Scriptures. It is the first such English version in 160 years. Called the New English Translation of the Septuagint (NETS), the text reflects both the wealth of manuscript evidence that has been brought to light since the 19th century and, of course, current English idiom. (Note however, that this project is using the NRSV(1989) version as its English base of referral).<br />
* "[http://www.orthodox-church.info/eob/ The Eastern Orthodox Bible]" - a new translation rather than a revision of another work, dedicated to the recently reposed Archbishop Vsevolod of the (canonical) Ukrainian Orthodox Church in the USA.<br />
* [http://www.orthodoxengland.org.uk/pdf/kjvsept.pdf The KJV Septuagint] - translated from the Septuagint edition published by the Orthodox Church of Greece's ''Apostoliki Diakonia'', using the King James Version as a template. Scheduled to be published by St. Innocent Press in 2013, this will be the only English translation to date using an approved ecclesiastical text of the Septuagint.<br />
* [http://www.peterpapoutsis.com/ Peter Papoutsis]'s translation of the Septuagint<br />
* R. Grant Jones. [http://www.geocities.com/heartland/pines/7224/Rick/Septuagint/spindex.htm Notes on The Septuagint].<br />
'''Church Fathers'''<br><br />
* [[Clement of Alexandria]]. ''[http://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/anf02.vi.iv.i.xxii.html Chapter XXII.—On the Greek Translation of the Old Testament].'' In: THE STROMATA (MISCELLANIES), BOOK I.<br />
* [[Justin Martyr]]. ''[http://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/anf01.viii.vi.xiii.html Chapter XIII.—History of the Septuagint].'' In: Hortatory Address to the Greeks. <br />
<br />
===Institutes===<br />
* [http://www.twu.ca/sites/septuagint/ Septuagint Institute] (Trinity Western University, Canada). In 2005 the Septuagint Studies department moved from the University of Toronto to TWU, forming the new Septuagint Institute (SI). The SI complements TWU's already established Dead Sea Scrolls Institute (DSSI), founded in 1995, and together they form North America's new hub of Septuagint research.<br />
* [http://adw-goe.de/en/research/research-projects-within-the-academies-programme/septuaginta-unternehmen/ Septuaginta-Unternehmens Institute] in Gottingen, Germany. The Septuaginta-Unternehmen is a special research institute that was founded in 1908 in Göttingen under the auspices of the Göttingen Academy of Sciences. Its purpose was to conduct sound scientific investigation into the Septuagint and to trace the history of evolution of the Septuagint text, on the basis of the mass of manuscript data, and ultimately to establish a text which could be claimed to be for all intents and purposes identical with the Septuagint in its pristine form, a proto-Septuagint.([http://www.humboldt-stiftung.de/de/netzwerk/veranstalt/hoersaal/doc/muraoka.pdf 1]) The institute made Göttingen the nerve centre of Septuagint studies. The first director of the Institute, '''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alfred_Rahlfs Alfred Rahlfs]''', published ''Septuaginta, 2 volume edition in 1935'' (Septuagint in Greek). Rahlf's semi-critical edition of the Septuagint for the book of Genesis rests on a foundation of some 140 manuscripts (nine pre-dating the fourth century CE), ten daughter-versions, plus biblical citations in Greek and Latin literature. It has been supplanted by the fully critical ''Göttingen Septuagint'', in 23 volumes covering approximately two-thirds of the LXX text, along with a supplementary series.<br />
* [http://www.hexapla.org/ The HEXAPLA Institute]. Its purpose is to publish a new critical edition of the fragments of Origen's [[Hexapla]], focusing on the later development of Septuagint tradition.<br />
* [http://www.theo.kuleuven.be/lxxtc/en/ Centre for Septuagint Studies and Textual Criticism]. Catholic University of Leuven, Belgium.<br />
<br />
==See also== <br />
*[[Aristobulus of Paneas]], the earliest write to give an account of the Septuagint version.<br />
*[[Deuterocanon]] (Apocrypha)<br />
*[[Hermeneutics]]<br />
*[[Holy Scripture]]<br />
*[[Simeon the God-receiver]]<br />
*[[Byzantine Creation Era]]<br />
<br />
[[Category:Church History]]<br />
[[Category:Judaism]]<br />
[[Category:Scripture]]<br />
[[Category:Texts]]<br />
<br />
==Further reading==<br />
* H. Orlinsky. ''"The Septuagint and its Hebrew Text."'' In: '''The Cambridge History of Judaism: Vol. II, The Hellenistic Age'''. Eds. W. Davies and L. Finkelstein. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.<br />
* Dr. Natalio Fernández Marcos. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=8MbvEZ4bgdwC&source=gbs_navlinks_s The Septuagint in Context: Introduction to the Greek Versions of the Bible].'' Transl. 2nd revised and expanded Spanish edition, by W. G. E. Watson. Leiden: BRILL, 2000. 394 pp. ISBN 9789004115743<br />
* Prof. Dr. Carsten Peter Thiede. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=q18JiQSnBksC&source=gbs_navlinks_s The Dead Sea Scrolls and the Jewish Origins of Christianity].'' Palgrave Macmillan, 2003. 256 pp. ISBN 9781403961433 (''See discussion of Septuagint'')<br />
* Prof. Dr. Jennifer Mary Dines. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=Qv8Riv3QIbQC&source=gbs_navlinks_s The Septuagint].'' Ed. Michael Anthony Knibb. Continuum International Publishing Group, 2004. 196 pp. ISBN 9780567084644<br />
* Prof. Dr. Karen Jobes and Dr. Moises Silva. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=NSt_AAAAMAAJ&source=gbs_navlinks_s Invitation to the Septuagint].'' 2nd ed. Baker Academic, 2000. 351 pp. ISBN 9780801022357<br />
* Prof. Dr. Tim McLay. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=41rx-TDIF9gC&source=gbs_navlinks_s The Use of the Septuagint in New Testament Research].'' Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2003. 207 pp. ISBN 9780802860910<br />
* Prof Dr. Wolfgang Kraus, R. Glenn Wooden. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=M-oXuG_2wLIC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_navlinks_s Septuagint Research: Issues and Challenges in the Study of the Greek Jewish Scriptures].'' Society of Biblical Literature, 2006. 414 pp. ISBN 9781589832046<br />
'''Articles'''<br />
* [http://www.israelshamir.net/Biography.htm Israel Adam Shamir]. ''[http://www.israelshamir.net/English/Bible_to_Hebrew.htm Translating the Bible into Hebrew].'' A Talk at Rhodes Conference, 8-12 October 2009.<br />
:(Russian Israeli writer Israel Shamir is a Jewish convert to the Greek Orthodox [[Church of Jerusalem]]. Arguing for the veracity of the Septuagint over the Masoretic text, he states that there is an urgent need for a distinctly Christian [[Old Testament]] in Hebrew; he recommends reconstruction of the Hebrew source of the Septuagint, as a means of witnessing to the Jews today from a truly Christian Hebrew Bible)<br />
* ''[http://www.presstv.ir/detail/158212.html Greek bibles, much older than thought].'' Press TV (Israel). Sat Jan 1, 2011 7:17PM.<br />
: (Cambridge University researchers suggest that early Jewry used a Greek version of the Bible in synagogues much longer than previously thought: ''"Studying a fragment of manuscript kept in Cairo Genizah, a special vaulted room in Cairo's Ben-Ezra Synagogue, the team found that in some places the Jewish community continued to use Greek bibles almost until living memory."'')<br />
<br />
[[el:Μετάφραση των Εβδομήκοντα]]<br />
[[ro:Septuaginta]]</div>Fr Levhttps://orthodoxwiki.org/index.php?title=Septuagint&diff=120103Septuagint2014-10-15T21:19:55Z<p>Fr Lev: /* Institutes */</p>
<hr />
<div>{{OldTestament}}<br />
The '''Septuagint''' (a name derived from the Latin word for "seventy", also referred to as the '''LXX''') is a 3rd century B.C. translation of the [[Old Testament|Hebrew Scriptures]] into [[Koine Greek]]. It is the canonical [[Old Testament]] of the [[Orthodox Church]].<br />
<br />
==History==<br />
The earliest extant version of the Old Testament is the translation executed in Alexandria in the third century before the Christian era; this version became known as the '''Septuagint''' and more recently, the ''Alexandrian'' version. <br />
<br />
It was commissioned at the behest of the Egyptian King, Ptolemy, who wished to expand the celebrated library of Alexandria to include the wisdom of all the ancient religions of the world. Because Greek was the language of Alexandria, the Scriptures therefore had to be translated into that language. <br />
<br />
The earliest writer who gives an account of the Septuagint version is Aristobulus, a Jewish author who lived at the commencement of the second century B.C. In his ''Letter of Aristeas'', he explains that the version of "the Law into Greek" was completed under the reign of Ptolemy Philadelphus, and that Demetrius Phalerus had been employed about it. Since it is documented that Demetrius Phalerus died at the beginning of the reign of Ptolemy Philadelphus, it has been reasonably inferred that Aristobulus was a witness that the work of translation had been commenced under Ptolemy Soter. <br />
<br />
Ptolemy contacted the chief priest, Eleazar, in Jerusalem and asked him to send translators. Six were chosen from each of the twelve tribes of Israel, giving us the commonly accepted number of seventy-two. (Other accounts have the number at seventy or seventy-five.) Only the Torah (the first five books) was translated initially, but eventually other translations (and even compositions) were added to the collection. By the time of our [[Lord]], the Septuagint was the Bible in use by most Hellenistic Jews.<br />
<br />
<br />
Thus, when the [[Apostles]] quote the Jewish Scripture in their own writings, the overwhelmingly dominant source for their wording comes directly from the Septuagint (LXX). Given that the spread of the [[Gospel]] was most successful among the Gentiles and Hellenistic Jews, it made sense that the LXX would be the Bible for the early Church. Following in the footsteps of those first generations of Christians, the [[Orthodox Church]] continues to regard the LXX as its only canonical text of the [[Old Testament]]. There are a number of differences between the canon of the LXX and that of [[Roman Catholic Church]] and [[Protestantism|Protestant Christians]], based on differences in translation tradition or doctrine.<br />
<br />
==Differences with other Christian Canons==<br />
The differences with Rome are fairly small and have never been a subject of much contention between the Orthodox and that communion. The canonical lists are essentially the same in content (some of the names are different) but for the following items: The Latin canon does not include [[I Esdras]] (though it uses that name for what the Orthodox call [[II Esdras]]); there are only 150 [[Psalms]] in the Latin canon, while the LXX has 151 (and the Psalms are numbered and divided differently between the two canons, because the modern Latin canon is based on the Hebrew Masoretic Text, though the [[Vulgate]] used the Septuagintal Psalm numbering); the [[Epistle of Jeremiah]] is a separate book in the LXX, while it is included as part of Baruch for the Latins; and the Latins do not include either [[III Maccabees|III]] or [[IV Maccabees]]. Traditionally, Roman Catholics used the numbering of the Latin Vulgate, which follows the Septuagint. However, since the Second Vatican Council, Roman Catholic publications, including Catholic Bibles and liturgical texts, have used the numbering found in the Masoretic Text.<br />
<br />
The differences with the Protestant canon are based on the 16th century misunderstanding of Martin Luther. When he was translating the Old Testament into German, he mistakenly believed that the oldest source for the Old Testament would be in Hebrew, so he found and used the so-called Masoretic Text (MT), a 9th century Jewish canon compiled largely in reaction to Christian claims that the Old Testament Scriptures belonged to the Church. The MT is thus also the basis for the Old Testament text of the 17th century Authorized Version in English (the "King James Version"). There are multiple differences between the LXX and MT. The MT lacks the following texts: [[I Esdras]], the portion of [[II Esdras]] (which the MT simply calls "Ezra") called the "[[Prayer of Manasseh]]," [[Tobit]], [[Judith]], portions of [[Book of Esther|Esther]], [[Wisdom of Solomon]], [[Wisdom of Sirach]] (Ecclesiasticus), [[Baruch]], the [[Epistle of Jeremiah]], the so-called "additions to Daniel" (The [[Prayer of the Three Holy Children|Song of the Three Children]], [[Susanna (Book of Daniel)|Susanna]], and [[Bel and the Dragon]]), the 151st Psalm, and all four Maccabees books. The Psalms are also numbered and divided up differently.<br />
<br />
== Variations with the Masoretic Text (MT) ==<br />
There are multiple internal variations between the LXX and the MT. The texts read differently in many places, giving a much more [[Christology|Christological]] tone to the LXX which was deliberately avoided when the Masoretes were putting together their anti-Christian canon. These differences in wording are the evidence that the Apostles were using the LXX. Here follow several examples of radical differences in wording:<br />
<br />
{| border="1" cellpadding="2"<br />
|-<br />
! !! LXX !! MT<br />
|-<br />
! Gen. 4:7<br />
| Hast thou not sinned if thou hast brought it rightly, but not rightly divided it? Be still, to thee shall be his submission, and thou shalt rule over him. || If thou doest well, shalt thou not be accepted? And if thou doest not well, sin lieth at the door. And unto thee shall be his desire, and thou shalt rule over him.<br />
|-<br />
! Gen. 4:13<br />
| And Cain said to the Lord God, My crime is too great for me to be forgiven. || And Cain said unto the Lord, My punishment is greater than I can bear.<br />
|-<br />
! Exodus 21:16/17<br />
| He that reviles his father or his mother shall surely die. || And he that curseth his father, or his mother, shall surely be put to death.<br />
|-<br />
! Psalm 39/40:6<br />
| Sacrifice and offering Thou hast not desired, but a body Thou hast prepared for me... || Sacrifice and offering thou didst not desire, mine ears has thou opened...<br />
|}<br />
<br />
==Different Translations of the Septuagint in English==<br />
The Septuagint has been translated a few times into English, the first one (though excluding the Apocrypha) being that of Charles Thomson in 1808; his translation was later revised and enlarged by C. A. Muses in 1954. The Thomson's Translation of the Old Covenant is a direct translation of the Greek Septuagint version of the Old Testament into English, rare for its time. The work took 19 years to complete and was originally published in 1808.<br />
The Brenton's English Translation of the Septuagint was published in 1851 and for most of the time since its publication it has been the only one readily available, and has continually been in print. There is a translation of the Septuagint based on Brenton's English Translation of the Septuagint, called LXX2012: Septuagint in English 2012 that is being developed by the creator of the World English Bible, Michael Paul Johnson.<br />
The Orthodox Study Bible was released in early 2008 with a new translation of the Septuagint based on the Alfred Rahlfs edition of the Greek text. To this base they brought two additional major sources. First the Brenton translation of the Septuagint from 1851. Second, Thomas Nelson Publishers granted use of the New King James Version text in the places where the translation of the LXX would match that of the Hebrew Masoretic text. This edition includes the New Testament as well, which also uses the New King James Version. It also includes extensive commentary from an Eastern Orthodox perspective.<ref> http://orthodoxstudybible.com/index.html</ref><br />
The Eastern / Greek Orthodox Bible (EOB) is an extensive revision and correction of Brenton’s translation which was primarily based on Codex Vaticanus. Its language and syntax have been modernized and simplified. It also includes extensive introductory material and footnotes featuring significant inter-LXX and LXX/MT variants.<br />
<br />
==Dead Sea Scrolls==<br />
With the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls in the mid twentieth century many examples have been recovered of the Old Testament in Hebrew from the time of Christ and the Holy Apostles and earlier. Scholarship during the past half century based upon these Dead Sea discoveries has revealed a close agreement between the LXX and pre-Masoretic Hebrew texts. In a review of some of this scholarship, Hershal Shanks<ref> Hershal Shanks, ''4QSama - The Difficult Life of a Dead Sea Scroll'', Biblical Archaeology Review, Vol 33 No 3, May/June 2007, pp66-70.</ref> notes that ''”…many Hebrew texts [are available] that were the base text for Septuagintal translations…”''. Further he notes that what ''”…texts like 4QSama show is that the Septuagintal translations are really quite reliable”'' and ''”…gives new authority to the Greek translations against the Masoretic text”''. Quoting Frank Moore Cross (a co-author of the book under review), Hershal continues ''”We could scarcely hope to find closer agreement between the Old Greek [Septuagintal] tradition and 4QSama than actually is found in our fragments”''.<br />
<br />
The scholarship based upon the new information provided in the Dead Sea Scroll thus supports the millennial old tradition on use of the Septuagint by the Orthodox Church.<br />
<br />
==Reference==<br />
<references/><br />
<br />
== External links ==<br />
* [http://orthodoxstudybible.com The Orthodox Study Bible page] - contains the Septuagint Old Testament using the NKJV as a base text<br />
* [http://www.kalvesmaki.com/LXX/ The Septuagint Online] - Compiled by Joel Kalvesmaki, Editor in Byzantine Studies at Dumbarton Oaks and convert to Orthodoxy 1993.<br />
* [http://www.lxx.org/ The Orthodox Study Bible Old Testament Project Website]<br />
* [http://www.ccel.org/bible/brenton/ The Septuagint LXX: Greek and English] by Sir Lancelot C.L. Brenton<br />
* [http://www.ecclesia.org/truth/septuagint-hyperlinked.html Septuagint, Brenton's Edition] (omits "deuterocanonical"/"apocryphal" books)<br />
* [http://spindleworks.com/septuagint/septuagint.htm The Septuagint], compiled from the [http://unbound.biola.edu/ Unbound] website by Henry Sikkema in 1999 (omits "deuterocanonical"/"apocryphal" books)<br />
* [http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/nets/ New English Translation of the Septuagint]. It has been released at San Diego, November 19, 2007 by Oxford University Press. [http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/nets/edition/ Provisional edition] online. This project is being carried out under the aegis of The International Organization for Septuagint and Cognate Studies (IOSCS). An international team of more than thirty scholars is working on the entire corpus of the Greek Jewish Scriptures. It is the first such English version in 160 years. Called the New English Translation of the Septuagint (NETS), the text reflects both the wealth of manuscript evidence that has been brought to light since the 19th century and, of course, current English idiom. (Note however, that this project is using the NRSV(1989) version as its English base of referral).<br />
* "[http://www.orthodox-church.info/eob/ The Eastern Orthodox Bible]" - a new translation rather than a revision of another work, dedicated to the recently reposed Archbishop Vsevolod of the (canonical) Ukrainian Orthodox Church in the USA.<br />
* [http://www.orthodoxengland.org.uk/pdf/kjvsept.pdf The KJV Septuagint] - translated from the Septuagint edition published by the Orthodox Church of Greece's ''Apostoliki Diakonia'', using the King James Version as a template. Scheduled to be published by St. Innocent Press in 2013, this will be the only English translation to date using an approved ecclesiastical text of the Septuagint.<br />
* [http://www.peterpapoutsis.com/ Peter Papoutsis]'s translation of the Septuagint<br />
* R. Grant Jones. [http://www.geocities.com/heartland/pines/7224/Rick/Septuagint/spindex.htm Notes on The Septuagint].<br />
'''Church Fathers'''<br><br />
* [[Clement of Alexandria]]. ''[http://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/anf02.vi.iv.i.xxii.html Chapter XXII.—On the Greek Translation of the Old Testament].'' In: THE STROMATA (MISCELLANIES), BOOK I.<br />
* [[Justin Martyr]]. ''[http://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/anf01.viii.vi.xiii.html Chapter XIII.—History of the Septuagint].'' In: Hortatory Address to the Greeks. <br />
<br />
===Institutes===<br />
* [http://www.twu.ca/sites/septuagint/ Septuagint Institute] (Trinity Western University, Canada). In 2005 the Septuagint Studies department moved from the University of Toronto to TWU, forming the new Septuagint Institute (SI). The SI complements TWU's already established Dead Sea Scrolls Institute (DSSI), founded in 1995, and together they form North America's new hub of Septuagint research.<br />
* [http://www.septuaginta-unternehmen.gwdg.de/ Septuaginta-Unternehmens Institute] in Gottingen, Germany (German only at present). The Septuaginta-Unternehmen is a special research institute that was founded in 1908 in Göttingen under the auspices of the Göttingen Academy of Sciences. Its purpose was to conduct sound scientific investigation into the Septuagint and to trace the history of evolution of the Septuagint text, on the basis of the mass of manuscript data, and ultimately to establish a text which could be claimed to be for all intents and purposes identical with the Septuagint in its pristine form, a proto-Septuagint.([http://www.humboldt-stiftung.de/de/netzwerk/veranstalt/hoersaal/doc/muraoka.pdf 1]) The institute made Göttingen the nerve centre of Septuagint studies. The first director of the Institute, '''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alfred_Rahlfs Alfred Rahlfs]''', published ''Septuaginta, 2 volume edition in 1935'' (Septuagint in Greek). Rahlf's semi-critical edition of the Septuagint for the book of Genesis rests on a foundation of some 140 manuscripts (nine pre-dating the fourth century CE), ten daughter-versions, plus biblical citations in Greek and Latin literature. It has been supplanted by the fully critical ''Göttingen Septuagint'', in 67 volumes.<br />
* [http://www.hexapla.org/ The HEXAPLA Institute]. Its purpose is to publish a new critical edition of the fragments of Origen's [[Hexapla]], focusing on the later development of Septuagint tradition.<br />
* [http://www.theo.kuleuven.be/lxxtc/en/ Centre for Septuagint Studies and Textual Criticism]. Catholic University of Leuven, Belgium.<br />
<br />
==See also== <br />
*[[Aristobulus of Paneas]], the earliest write to give an account of the Septuagint version.<br />
*[[Deuterocanon]] (Apocrypha)<br />
*[[Hermeneutics]]<br />
*[[Holy Scripture]]<br />
*[[Simeon the God-receiver]]<br />
*[[Byzantine Creation Era]]<br />
<br />
[[Category:Church History]]<br />
[[Category:Judaism]]<br />
[[Category:Scripture]]<br />
[[Category:Texts]]<br />
<br />
==Further reading==<br />
* H. Orlinsky. ''"The Septuagint and its Hebrew Text."'' In: '''The Cambridge History of Judaism: Vol. II, The Hellenistic Age'''. Eds. W. Davies and L. Finkelstein. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.<br />
* Dr. Natalio Fernández Marcos. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=8MbvEZ4bgdwC&source=gbs_navlinks_s The Septuagint in Context: Introduction to the Greek Versions of the Bible].'' Transl. 2nd revised and expanded Spanish edition, by W. G. E. Watson. Leiden: BRILL, 2000. 394 pp. ISBN 9789004115743<br />
* Prof. Dr. Carsten Peter Thiede. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=q18JiQSnBksC&source=gbs_navlinks_s The Dead Sea Scrolls and the Jewish Origins of Christianity].'' Palgrave Macmillan, 2003. 256 pp. ISBN 9781403961433 (''See discussion of Septuagint'')<br />
* Prof. Dr. Jennifer Mary Dines. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=Qv8Riv3QIbQC&source=gbs_navlinks_s The Septuagint].'' Ed. Michael Anthony Knibb. Continuum International Publishing Group, 2004. 196 pp. ISBN 9780567084644<br />
* Prof. Dr. Karen Jobes and Dr. Moises Silva. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=NSt_AAAAMAAJ&source=gbs_navlinks_s Invitation to the Septuagint].'' 2nd ed. Baker Academic, 2000. 351 pp. ISBN 9780801022357<br />
* Prof. Dr. Tim McLay. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=41rx-TDIF9gC&source=gbs_navlinks_s The Use of the Septuagint in New Testament Research].'' Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2003. 207 pp. ISBN 9780802860910<br />
* Prof Dr. Wolfgang Kraus, R. Glenn Wooden. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=M-oXuG_2wLIC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_navlinks_s Septuagint Research: Issues and Challenges in the Study of the Greek Jewish Scriptures].'' Society of Biblical Literature, 2006. 414 pp. ISBN 9781589832046<br />
'''Articles'''<br />
* [http://www.israelshamir.net/Biography.htm Israel Adam Shamir]. ''[http://www.israelshamir.net/English/Bible_to_Hebrew.htm Translating the Bible into Hebrew].'' A Talk at Rhodes Conference, 8-12 October 2009.<br />
:(Russian Israeli writer Israel Shamir is a Jewish convert to the Greek Orthodox [[Church of Jerusalem]]. Arguing for the veracity of the Septuagint over the Masoretic text, he states that there is an urgent need for a distinctly Christian [[Old Testament]] in Hebrew; he recommends reconstruction of the Hebrew source of the Septuagint, as a means of witnessing to the Jews today from a truly Christian Hebrew Bible)<br />
* ''[http://www.presstv.ir/detail/158212.html Greek bibles, much older than thought].'' Press TV (Israel). Sat Jan 1, 2011 7:17PM.<br />
: (Cambridge University researchers suggest that early Jewry used a Greek version of the Bible in synagogues much longer than previously thought: ''"Studying a fragment of manuscript kept in Cairo Genizah, a special vaulted room in Cairo's Ben-Ezra Synagogue, the team found that in some places the Jewish community continued to use Greek bibles almost until living memory."'')<br />
<br />
[[el:Μετάφραση των Εβδομήκοντα]]<br />
[[ro:Septuaginta]]</div>Fr Levhttps://orthodoxwiki.org/index.php?title=Paul_(Gassios)_of_Chicago&diff=120016Paul (Gassios) of Chicago2014-10-08T12:32:35Z<p>Fr Lev: /* Biography */</p>
<hr />
<div>Archpriest '''Paul Gassios''' is the Administrator of the [[Diocese of the Midwest (OCA)|Diocese of the Midwest]], in the [[Orthodox Church in America]]. On 7 October 2014, he was nominated by the Diocesan Assembly to be bishop of the Diocese.<br />
<br />
==Biography==<br />
Paul Nicholas Gassios was born on [[April 6]], 1953, in Detroit into a Greek Orthodox family from Castanea (near Ioannina, Greece). He was baptised in the Greek Orthodox Church, with Sts Constantine and Helen, Detroit, being his home parish for his first 28 years. He went to Sunday School at that parish, and began serving in the altar at 15, establishing a group of friends with the other altar servers. A defining feature for him was that he couldn't understand the service. He graduated from Cooley High School in 1971 and went to Wayne State University, Detroit, majoring in history. A period of searching led to him being impacted by Christianity, attending a Bible study and adding a second major in psychology. He graduated in 1976 and became a child care worker, working in particular with emotionally and physically abused children. Around 1977, he began to have concerns with the idea that not being Greek or married to a Greek would cause difficulties in being accepted in parish life, and stopped attending church in 1979.<br />
<br />
Returning to Wayne State in 1978, Paul received a Master of Social Work; around 1981, he realised that Bible study couldn't sustain him, and looked for a church, experiencing Lutheran, Presbyterian and pentecostal gatherings. He and his altar server friends still met for coffee, and got into the habit of attending Sunday evening Vespers. One evening around 1983, Fr Michael Matsko spoke on secularism and the Church, making the point that Orthodoxy is about Christ, not simply philosophies or religious viewpoints. Paul started attending Fr Michael's church - an English-language parish - and understanding more about how Orthodox practice is ultimately all about Christ.<br />
<br />
Encouraged by people to attend seminary, he began studies in 1991 at [[St. Vladimir's Orthodox Theological Seminary (Crestwood, New York)|St Vladimir's Seminary]], singing with the Seminary Octet, making the choice to be a celibate, and graduating with a Master of Divinity in 1994. He was ordained a deacon in March, graduated in May, ordained a priest in June and immediately began an 11 year assignment to St Thomas Orthodox Mission, Kokomo, who had been received into the Orthodox Church (from the [[Evangelical Orthodox Church]]) that year. Fr Paul was able to bring worship into line with accepted Orthodox norms while keeping the whole community within the Church.<br />
<br />
In 1995, he began a relationship with [[St. Gregory Palamas Monastery (Hayesville, Ohio)|St Gregory Palamas Monastery]] - staying there for the summer of 1999 and for a year in 2005-06. At the end of May 2006, he moved to St Louis to Archangel Michael Church in St Louis in order to stabilise a parish in decline. A suggestion he made - of merging Archangel Michael with a newly-received parish - has meant that the parish is still continuing. In October, though, he was contacted to be dean of the Cathedral of the Bulgarian Diocese - which, to be closer to the monastery and his sister, he accepted and took up duties on [[January 1]], 2007. Fr Paul's experience at St George's Cathedral gave him an understanding of the breadth of the OCA. As he had previously, he was able to ensure a greater uniformity with Orthodox practice through patience and education.<br />
<br />
In 2010, he was contacted to be considered for the vacant see of [[Diocese of the Midwest (OCA)|Chicago and the Midwest]], and made the shortlist (with Fr Matthias Moriak and Fr David Mahaffey), with Fr [[Matthias (Moriak) of Chicago|Matthias]] ultimately being nominated. He was immediately put forward as an optimal candidate for the [[Bulgarian Diocese (OCA)|Bulgarian Diocese]], but because he felt that his views were not aligned with the views of the diocese, he demanded that there needed to be another candidate. Fr Paul and [[Igumen]] [[Alexander (Golitzin) of Toledo|Alexander Golitzin]] were put forward by the search committee and, to Fr Paul's relief, it was Fr Alexander that was nominated, elected, and consecrated to the episcopacy. Fr Paul submitted a letter to Bp [[Melchisedek (Pleska) of Pittsburgh|Melchisedek]] asking to be removed from future consideration for the episcopacy, declining inquiries from [[Diocese of Alaska (OCA)|Alaska]], the [[Diocese of the South (OCA)|South]] and [[Diocese of Eastern Pennsylvania (OCA)|Eastern PA]]. In the summer of 2013, he contacted Fr Joseph at St Gregory Palamas Monastery regarding moving there; when asked, Bp Alexander (Golitzin) requested that he pause thoughts along that line. Having been told that he would be nominated for the episcopacy of the again-vacant see of the Midwest, Fr Joseph told him to go through with the episcopal search process again.<br />
<br />
He was appointed Administrator of the Diocese of Chicago and the Midwest by the [[Holy Synod]] during 18-21 March 2014, and assumed his duties on [[August 1]]. On [[October 7]], 2014, at the special nominating Assembly, he was nominated to fill the vacant seat of Bishop of Chicago and the Midwest.<br />
<br />
==References==<br />
*[http://www.stnickskenosha.org/blog/getting-to-know-fr-paul-gassios-new-diocesan-administrator Getting to Know Fr. Paul Gassios, New Diocesan Administrator]<br />
*[http://oca.org/news/headline-news/midwest-diocesan-assembly-nominates-archpriest-paul-gassios-for-vacant-chic Midwest Diocesan Assembly nominates Archpriest Paul Gassios for vacant Chicago See]<br />
*[http://www.midwestdiocese.org/news_140619_1.html Archpriest Paul Gassios appointed Diocesan Administrator]</div>Fr Levhttps://orthodoxwiki.org/index.php?title=Talk:Western_Saints_before_the_AD_1054_Schism&diff=120009Talk:Western Saints before the AD 1054 Schism2014-10-06T15:20:28Z<p>Fr Lev: /* Resources */ new section</p>
<hr />
<div>For what reason were several months deleted? And numerous links to existing articles? --[[User:Fr Lev|Fr Lev]] 08:02, October 5, 2014 (PDT)<br />
<br />
== Resources ==<br />
<br />
Here is a good resource for Western Orthodox saints by date. The link goes to August, but one can change the URL for other months: http://orthodoxengland.org.uk/stdaug.htm<br />
<br />
And here is the same sight with saints indexed by name, rather than feast day: http://orthodoxengland.org.uk/saintsa.htm --[[User:Fr Lev|Fr Lev]] 08:20, October 6, 2014 (PDT)</div>Fr Levhttps://orthodoxwiki.org/index.php?title=Western_Saints_before_the_AD_1054_Schism&diff=120008Western Saints before the AD 1054 Schism2014-10-06T15:08:29Z<p>Fr Lev: /* November */</p>
<hr />
<div>''The following compilation is not an approved list of Western saints and may well not be "official." Notes and comments about each of them are welcome. It also includes commemorations recognized in the East, but observed on different dates.''<br />
<br />
== January ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' Eugendus<br />
<br />
'''2.''' Adalard of Corbie<br />
<br />
Auspasius of Auch<br />
<br />
'''3.''' [[Genevieve of Paris]]<br />
<br />
'''4.''' Fereal of Uzes<br />
<br />
Pharaildis<br />
<br />
Rigobert<br />
<br />
'''8.''' Aldric<br />
<br />
Erhard<br />
<br />
Gudula<br />
<br />
Pega of Peakirk <br />
<br />
'''9.''' Adrian of Canterbury<br />
<br />
'''12.''' Biscop<br />
<br />
'''13.''' Berhtwald<br />
<br />
Berno of Cluny<br />
<br />
[[Remigius of Rheims]]<br />
<br />
'''14.''' Mungo (Kentigern)<br />
<br />
'''15.''' Ceolwulf<br />
<br />
Emebert<br />
<br />
'''16.''' Fursey of Cnobheresburg<br />
<br />
'''17.''' Mildgyth<br />
<br />
Sulpitius the Pious<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Deicolus<br />
<br />
'''19.''' Agricius of Tier<br />
<br />
Contentius<br />
<br />
Remigius of Rouen<br />
<br />
'''21.''' Osburh of Coventry<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Praejectus<br />
<br />
Racho of Autun<br />
<br />
'''29.''' Aquilinus of Cologne/Milano<br />
<br />
[[Gildas the Wise]]<br />
<br />
Valerius of Treves<br />
<br />
'''30.''' Aldegonde<br />
<br />
Balthild<br />
<br />
'''31.''' Domitius of Amiens<br />
<br />
Uphia<br />
<br />
== February ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' [[Brigid of Kildare]]<br />
<br />
Severus of Avranches<br />
<br />
Sigebert III<br />
<br />
'''3.''' [[Ansgar]] (Anskar) of Bremen<br />
<br />
[[Laurence of Canterbury]]<br />
<br />
Werburh<br />
<br />
'''4.''' Aldate/Aldatus of Gloucester<br />
<br />
Rimbert<br />
<br />
'''5.''' Adelaide of Vilich<br />
<br />
Bertulf of Renty<br />
<br />
'''6.''' Amandus<br />
<br />
'''8.''' Aelfflaed of Whitby<br />
<br />
Cuthmann of Steyning<br />
<br />
'''9.''' Alto of Altomunster<br />
<br />
Ansbert<br />
<br />
Marius of Avenches<br />
<br />
'''10.''' Autrebertha<br />
<br />
[[Scholastica]]<br />
<br />
'''11.''' [[Blaise of Sebaste]]<br />
<br />
'''12.''' Aethelwold of Lindisfarne<br />
<br />
Benedict of Aniane<br />
<br />
'''13.''' Castor of Karden<br />
<br />
'''15.''' [[Sigfrid of Sweden]]<br />
<br />
'''17.''' Silvin of Auchy<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Angilbert<br />
<br />
[[Colman of Lindisfarne]]<br />
<br />
'''20.''' Eleutherius of Tournai<br />
<br />
'''21.''' Germanus of Granfelden<br />
<br />
'''23.''' Midburh<br />
<br />
'''24.''' Aethelberht of Kent<br />
<br />
Basil of Melrose<br />
<br />
Modest<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Praetextatus/Prix<br />
<br />
'''27.''' Aelfnoth of Stowe<br />
<br />
'''29.''' [[Oswald of Worcester]]<br />
<br />
== March ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' Abdalong of Marseilles<br />
<br />
Albinus of Angers<br />
<br />
[[David of Wales]]<br />
<br />
'''2.''' [[Chad of Lichfield]]<br />
<br />
'''6.''' Baldred/Balthere of Tyninghame<br />
<br />
Billfrith <br />
<br />
Chrodegang of Metz<br />
<br />
'''7.''' Eosterwine of Monkwearmouth<br />
<br />
'''8.''' Felix of Dommac<br />
<br />
'''9.''' Bosa of York<br />
<br />
'''10.''' Agilbert<br />
<br />
Attala<br />
<br />
Himelin<br />
<br />
'''12.''' Aelfheah the Bald<br />
<br />
'''14.''' [[Benedict of Nursia]]<br />
<br />
Matilda<br />
<br />
'''16.''' Heribert of Cologne<br />
<br />
'''17.''' Gertrude of Nivelles<br />
<br />
[[Patrick of Ireland]]<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Eadweard the Martyr<br />
<br />
'''19.''' Alchmund of Derby<br />
<br />
'''20.''' [[Clement of Ireland]]<br />
<br />
[[Cuthbert of Lindisfarne]]<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Humbert<br />
<br />
'''26.''' Ludger of Saxony<br />
<br />
'''27.''' Rupert of Salzburg<br />
<br />
'''28.''' Bereharius<br />
<br />
Guntram<br />
<br />
'''29.''' Eustace<br />
<br />
== April ==<br />
<br />
'''2.''' Aebbe the Younger<br />
<br />
Nicetius of Lyon<br />
<br />
'''3.''' Burgundofara<br />
<br />
'''5.''' Aethelburh of Kent<br />
<br />
'''9.''' Hugh of Champagne<br />
<br />
'''11.''' Guthlac of Crowland<br />
<br />
'''12.''' Erkembode<br />
<br />
'''15.''' Abbo II of Metz<br />
<br />
'''16.''' Padarn<br />
<br />
'''19.''' Alphege of Canterbury<br />
<br />
'''22.''' Aprunculus of Treves<br />
<br />
Opportuna of Montreuil<br />
<br />
'''23.''' Gerald/Gerard of Toul<br />
<br />
'''24.''' Ecgberht of Ripon<br />
<br />
Ivo of Ramsey<br />
<br />
Mellitus of London<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Rusticus of Lyon<br />
<br />
'''26.''' Richarius<br />
<br />
Trudpert<br />
<br />
'''29.''' Adalgar<br />
<br />
Aethelwold of Farne<br />
<br />
Wilfrith the Younger<br />
<br />
'''30.''' Earconwald<br />
<br />
<br />
== May ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' Aredius of Gap<br />
<br />
Bertha of Kent<br />
<br />
Marcouf<br />
<br />
Sigismund of Burgundy<br />
<br />
Theodard of Narbonne<br />
<br />
'''4.''' Arbeo of Freising<br />
<br />
Florian<br />
<br />
'''5.''' Maurontius of Douay<br />
<br />
'''6.''' Eadberht of Lindisfarne<br />
<br />
'''7.''' [[John of Beverly]]<br />
<br />
'''8.''' Desideratus<br />
<br />
Indracht of Glastonbury<br />
<br />
Itta of Metz<br />
<br />
'''9.''' Bienheure<br />
<br />
'''10.''' Solange<br />
<br />
'''11.''' Gangulphus<br />
<br />
Majolus<br />
<br />
'''12.''' Modoald/Romoald<br />
<br />
Rictrude<br />
<br />
'''15.''' Bertha of Bingen<br />
<br />
Rupert of Bingen<br />
<br />
'''16.''' [[Brendan the Navigator]]<br />
<br />
Germerius<br />
<br />
Honoratus<br />
<br />
'''17.''' Rasso of Adechs<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Aelfgifu of Shaftesbury<br />
<br />
'''19.''' Aelfheah of Canterbury<br />
<br />
'''20.''' Aethelberht II of East Anglia<br />
<br />
Austregisilus<br />
<br />
'''21.''' Hospitius<br />
<br />
'''23.''' Desidarius of Vienne<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Aldhelm of Sherbourne<br />
<br />
'''26.''' [[Augustine of Canterbury]]<br />
<br />
'''27.''' [[Bede]] of Jarrow<br />
<br />
'''28.''' [[Germanus of Paris]]<br />
<br />
William of Gellone<br />
<br />
'''29.''' [[Maximinus of Trier]]<br />
<br />
'''30.''' Hubertus<br />
<br />
Walstan<br />
<br />
== June ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' Lullus<br />
<br />
Wigstan<br />
<br />
'''4.''' Clotilde<br />
<br />
Eadfrith of Lindisfarne<br />
<br />
'''6.''' Agobard<br />
<br />
Branwalader of Milton<br />
<br />
Claudius<br />
<br />
'''8.''' Chlodulf of Metz<br />
<br />
Gildard<br />
<br />
Medardus<br />
<br />
'''11.''' Godeberta<br />
<br />
Landry of Paris<br />
<br />
'''13, 14, 15.''' Psalmodius<br />
<br />
'''16.''' Aurelianus<br />
<br />
'''17.''' Athwulf of Thorney<br />
<br />
Botwulf of Thorney<br />
<br />
Colman<br />
<br />
Nectan of Hartland<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Osana<br />
<br />
'''19.''' Deodatus<br />
<br />
'''20.''' Gobain<br />
<br />
'''21.''' Agofredus<br />
<br />
Alban of Mainz<br />
<br />
Gobain<br />
<br />
Leutfridus<br />
<br />
Palladius of Embrun<br />
<br />
'''22.''' [[Alban]] Protomartyr of Britain<br />
<br />
'''23.''' Aethelthryth<br />
<br />
'''24.''' Rumbold<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Amphibalus of St. Albans<br />
<br />
'''26.''' Brannac of Braunton<br />
<br />
'''28.''' [[Augustine of Hippo]]<br />
<br />
== July ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' Gal<br />
<br />
Calais<br />
<br />
'''2.''' Monegundus<br />
<br />
'''4.''' Bertha of Artois<br />
<br />
[[Oda of Canterbury]]<br />
<br />
'''6.''' Modwenna of Burton<br />
<br />
Seaxburh of Ely<br />
<br />
'''7.''' Aethelburh of Faremoutiers<br />
<br />
Haedde<br />
<br />
Willibald<br />
<br />
'''8.''' Colman<br />
<br />
Grimbald<br />
<br />
Kilian<br />
<br />
Urith<br />
<br />
Wihtburh<br />
<br />
'''9.''' Agilulfus of Cologne<br />
<br />
Evorhilda<br />
<br />
Neot<br />
<br />
'''10.''' Amalberga of Temse<br />
<br />
'''13.''' Arn of Wurzburg<br />
<br />
Mildthryth<br />
<br />
'''14.''' Frithona of Canterbury<br />
<br />
'''15.''' Apronia<br />
<br />
Eadgyth of Polesworth<br />
<br />
Swithun<br />
<br />
'''16.''' Fulrad<br />
<br />
Gundulph of Maastricht<br />
<br />
Helier<br />
<br />
Reineldis<br />
<br />
'''17.''' Cynehelm/Kenelm of Mercia<br />
<br />
Marcellina<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Arnulf of Metz<br />
<br />
Eadburh of Bicester<br />
<br />
Frederick of Utrecht<br />
<br />
'''20.''' Ansegisus<br />
<br />
Arilda of Oldbury<br />
<br />
Wilgefortis<br />
<br />
'''21.''' Arbogast<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Glodesind<br />
<br />
'''27.''' Galactorius<br />
<br />
'''28.''' [[Samson of Dol]]<br />
<br />
'''31.''' Sativola of Exeter<br />
<br />
== August ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' Aethelwold of Winchester<br />
<br />
Arcadius of Bourges<br />
<br />
'''5.''' Afla of Augsburg<br />
<br />
[[Oswald of Northumbria]]<br />
<br />
'''11.''' Gaugericus<br />
<br />
'''12.''' Porcarius<br />
<br />
'''13.''' Junian<br />
<br />
[[Radegund]]<br />
<br />
'''15.''' Altfrid<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Fiacre<br />
<br />
'''19.''' Bertulf of Bobbio<br />
<br />
Calminius<br />
<br />
Credan of Bodmin<br />
<br />
Magnus<br />
<br />
Sebaldus<br />
<br />
'''20.''' Oswine of Deira<br />
<br />
Philibert of Jumieges<br />
<br />
'''21.''' Eardwulf of Northumbria<br />
<br />
'''24.''' Audoin<br />
<br />
Gildard of Lurcy-le-Bourg<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Aebbe of Coldingham<br />
<br />
Aredius<br />
<br />
Gines de la Jara<br />
<br />
Gregory of Utrecht<br />
<br />
'''26.''' Bregowine<br />
<br />
'''27.''' [[Caesarius of Arles]]<br />
<br />
Decuman of Watchet<br />
<br />
Lycerius<br />
<br />
Syagrius of Autun<br />
<br />
'''28.''' Rumon<br />
<br />
'''31.''' [[Aidan of Lindisfarne]]<br />
<br />
[[Eanswythe of Folkestone]]<br />
<br />
[[ro:Sfinți occidentali de dinainte de schisma din 1054]]<br />
<br />
== September ==<br />
<br />
'''1. ''' Giles<br />
<br />
'''2. ''' Agricola<br />
<br />
'''3. ''' Aigulphus<br />
<br />
'''4. ''' [[Cuthbert of Lindisfarne|Cuthbert the Wonderworker]]<br />
<br />
'''5. ''' Bertin<br />
<br />
'''6. ''' Chainoaldus<br />
<br />
'''7. ''' Clodoaldus (Cloud)<br />
<br />
'''8. ''' Sergius<br />
<br />
'''9. ''' Omer<br />
<br />
'''10. ''' Salvius<br />
<br />
'''11. ''' Adelphus<br />
<br />
'''12. ''' Sacerdos<br />
<br />
'''13. ''' Maulrilius<br />
<br />
'''14. ''' Cormac<br />
<br />
'''15. ''' Leobinus<br />
<br />
'''16. ''' Edith<br />
<br />
[[Euphemia the Great Martyr|Euphemia]]<br />
<br />
Ninian<br />
<br />
'''17. ''' Rodingus<br />
<br />
'''18. ''' Richardis<br />
<br />
'''19. ''' Januarius<br />
<br />
'''20. ''' Candida<br />
<br />
'''21. ''' Alexander<br />
<br />
'''22. ''' Florentius<br />
<br />
'''23. ''' Linus<br />
<br />
'''24. ''' Geremarus<br />
<br />
'''25. ''' Firminus<br />
<br />
'''26. ''' Vigilius<br />
<br />
'''27. ''' Florentinus and Hilary<br />
<br />
'''28. ''' Faustus<br />
<br />
'''29. ''' Michael the Archangel<br />
<br />
'''30. ''' [[Jerome]]<br />
<br />
== October ==<br />
<br />
'''1. ''' [[Remigius of Rheims]]<br />
<br />
'''2. ''' Leodegarius<br />
<br />
'''3. ''' Menna<br />
<br />
'''4. ''' Aurea<br />
<br />
'''5. ''' Maurus and Placidus<br />
<br />
'''6. ''' Romanus of Auxerre<br />
<br />
'''7. ''' Palladius<br />
<br />
'''8. ''' Benedicta<br />
<br />
'''9. ''' Denis of Paris<br />
<br />
'''10. ''' Clarus<br />
<br />
Gereon & fellow martyrs<br />
<br />
'''11. ''' Agilbert<br />
<br />
'''12. ''' Edwin<br />
<br />
Wilfrid of York<br />
<br />
'''13. ''' Gerald<br />
<br />
'''14. ''' Menehould<br />
<br />
'''15. ''' Bruno<br />
<br />
'''16. ''' Michael the Archangel's appearance at Mont saint-Michel)<br />
<br />
Gaul<br />
<br />
'''17. ''' Translation of St [[Etheldreda of Ely]]<br />
<br />
[[Nothelm]]<br />
<br />
Berarius<br />
<br />
'''18. ''' Monon<br />
<br />
'''19. ''' Frideswide<br />
<br />
'''20. ''' Caprasius<br />
<br />
'''21. ''' Ursula & Martyrs<br />
<br />
'''22. ''' Moderan<br />
<br />
'''23. ''' Romanus<br />
<br />
'''24. ''' Maglorious<br />
<br />
'''25. ''' Crispin & Crispinian<br />
<br />
'''26. ''' [[Cuthbert of Canterbury]]<br />
<br />
'''27. ''' Vincent, Sabina and Christeta<br />
<br />
'''28. ''' Faro<br />
<br />
'''29. ''' Bond<br />
<br />
'''30. ''' Lucanus<br />
<br />
'''31. ''' Quentin<br />
<br />
== November ==<br />
<br />
'''1'''. All Saints’<br />
<br />
'''2'''. All Souls’<br />
<br />
Victorinus<br />
<br />
'''3'''. Guenhael<br />
<br />
'''4'''. Winifred<br />
<br />
'''5'''. Bertilla<br />
<br />
'''6'''. Leonard<br />
<br />
'''7'''. [[Willibrord]]<br />
<br />
'''8'''. Four Crowned Martyrs<br />
<br />
Deusdedit<br />
<br />
'''9'''. Ursinus<br />
<br />
'''10'''. [[Leo the Great]]<br />
<br />
'''11'''. [[Martin of Tours]]<br />
<br />
'''12'''. Martin of Rome<br />
<br />
'''13'''. Brixius<br />
<br />
'''14'''. Erkenwald<br />
<br />
'''15'''. Malo<br />
<br />
'''16'''. Eucherius<br />
<br />
'''17'''. Gregory of Tours<br />
<br />
'''18'''. Odo<br />
<br />
'''19'''. Severinus, Exuperius and Felician<br />
<br />
'''20'''. [[Edmund the Martyr]]<br />
<br />
'''21'''. Columbanus the Younger<br />
<br />
'''22'''. Cecilia<br />
<br />
'''23'''. [[Clement of Rome]]<br />
<br />
'''24'''. Chrysogonus<br />
<br />
'''25'''. Moses of Rome<br />
<br />
'''26'''. [[Linus of Rome]]<br />
<br />
'''27'''. Siffred<br />
<br />
'''28'''. Rufus<br />
<br />
'''29'''. Saturninus<br />
<br />
'''30'''. Trojan<br />
<br />
== December ==<br />
<br />
'''1. ''' Eligius<br />
<br />
'''2. ''' Peter Chrysologous<br />
<br />
'''3. ''' [[Birinus of Dorchester]]<br />
<br />
'''4. ''' Ada<br />
<br />
'''5. ''' Bassus<br />
<br />
'''6. ''' [[Nicholas of Myra]]<br />
<br />
Asella<br />
<br />
'''7. ''' Ambrose of Milan<br />
<br />
'''8. ''' Conception of the Theotokos<br />
<br />
Romaricus<br />
'''9. ''' [[Conception of the Theotokos]]<br />
<br />
'''10. ''' Miltiades<br />
<br />
'''11. ''' [[Damasus I of Rome]]<br />
<br />
'''12. ''' Corentinuus<br />
<br />
'''13. ''' [[Lucy of Syracuse]]<br />
<br />
'''14. ''' Venantius Fortunatus<br />
<br />
'''15. ''' Mamiminus<br />
<br />
'''16. ''' Valentine, Concordius, Navalis and Agricola<br />
<br />
'''17. ''' Sturm<br />
<br />
'''18. ''' Gatian<br />
<br />
'''19. ''' Gregory of Auxerre<br />
<br />
'''20. ''' Ursicinus<br />
<br />
'''21. ''' [[Apostle Thomas|Thomas the Apostle]]<br />
<br />
'''22. ''' Flavian<br />
<br />
'''23. ''' Servulus<br />
<br />
'''24. ''' Gregory of Spoleto<br />
<br />
'''25. ''' [[Nativity|Nativity of Our Lord]]<br />
<br />
'''26. ''' Zosimus<br />
<br />
'''27. ''' Fabiola<br />
<br />
'''28. ''' Antony of Lérins<br />
<br />
'''29. ''' Trophimus<br />
<br />
'''30. ''' Sabinus<br />
<br />
'''31. ''' [[Sylvester I of Rome]]</div>Fr Levhttps://orthodoxwiki.org/index.php?title=Western_Saints_before_the_AD_1054_Schism&diff=120007Western Saints before the AD 1054 Schism2014-10-06T15:06:55Z<p>Fr Lev: /* November */ added link</p>
<hr />
<div>''The following compilation is not an approved list of Western saints and may well not be "official." Notes and comments about each of them are welcome. It also includes commemorations recognized in the East, but observed on different dates.''<br />
<br />
== January ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' Eugendus<br />
<br />
'''2.''' Adalard of Corbie<br />
<br />
Auspasius of Auch<br />
<br />
'''3.''' [[Genevieve of Paris]]<br />
<br />
'''4.''' Fereal of Uzes<br />
<br />
Pharaildis<br />
<br />
Rigobert<br />
<br />
'''8.''' Aldric<br />
<br />
Erhard<br />
<br />
Gudula<br />
<br />
Pega of Peakirk <br />
<br />
'''9.''' Adrian of Canterbury<br />
<br />
'''12.''' Biscop<br />
<br />
'''13.''' Berhtwald<br />
<br />
Berno of Cluny<br />
<br />
[[Remigius of Rheims]]<br />
<br />
'''14.''' Mungo (Kentigern)<br />
<br />
'''15.''' Ceolwulf<br />
<br />
Emebert<br />
<br />
'''16.''' Fursey of Cnobheresburg<br />
<br />
'''17.''' Mildgyth<br />
<br />
Sulpitius the Pious<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Deicolus<br />
<br />
'''19.''' Agricius of Tier<br />
<br />
Contentius<br />
<br />
Remigius of Rouen<br />
<br />
'''21.''' Osburh of Coventry<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Praejectus<br />
<br />
Racho of Autun<br />
<br />
'''29.''' Aquilinus of Cologne/Milano<br />
<br />
[[Gildas the Wise]]<br />
<br />
Valerius of Treves<br />
<br />
'''30.''' Aldegonde<br />
<br />
Balthild<br />
<br />
'''31.''' Domitius of Amiens<br />
<br />
Uphia<br />
<br />
== February ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' [[Brigid of Kildare]]<br />
<br />
Severus of Avranches<br />
<br />
Sigebert III<br />
<br />
'''3.''' [[Ansgar]] (Anskar) of Bremen<br />
<br />
[[Laurence of Canterbury]]<br />
<br />
Werburh<br />
<br />
'''4.''' Aldate/Aldatus of Gloucester<br />
<br />
Rimbert<br />
<br />
'''5.''' Adelaide of Vilich<br />
<br />
Bertulf of Renty<br />
<br />
'''6.''' Amandus<br />
<br />
'''8.''' Aelfflaed of Whitby<br />
<br />
Cuthmann of Steyning<br />
<br />
'''9.''' Alto of Altomunster<br />
<br />
Ansbert<br />
<br />
Marius of Avenches<br />
<br />
'''10.''' Autrebertha<br />
<br />
[[Scholastica]]<br />
<br />
'''11.''' [[Blaise of Sebaste]]<br />
<br />
'''12.''' Aethelwold of Lindisfarne<br />
<br />
Benedict of Aniane<br />
<br />
'''13.''' Castor of Karden<br />
<br />
'''15.''' [[Sigfrid of Sweden]]<br />
<br />
'''17.''' Silvin of Auchy<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Angilbert<br />
<br />
[[Colman of Lindisfarne]]<br />
<br />
'''20.''' Eleutherius of Tournai<br />
<br />
'''21.''' Germanus of Granfelden<br />
<br />
'''23.''' Midburh<br />
<br />
'''24.''' Aethelberht of Kent<br />
<br />
Basil of Melrose<br />
<br />
Modest<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Praetextatus/Prix<br />
<br />
'''27.''' Aelfnoth of Stowe<br />
<br />
'''29.''' [[Oswald of Worcester]]<br />
<br />
== March ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' Abdalong of Marseilles<br />
<br />
Albinus of Angers<br />
<br />
[[David of Wales]]<br />
<br />
'''2.''' [[Chad of Lichfield]]<br />
<br />
'''6.''' Baldred/Balthere of Tyninghame<br />
<br />
Billfrith <br />
<br />
Chrodegang of Metz<br />
<br />
'''7.''' Eosterwine of Monkwearmouth<br />
<br />
'''8.''' Felix of Dommac<br />
<br />
'''9.''' Bosa of York<br />
<br />
'''10.''' Agilbert<br />
<br />
Attala<br />
<br />
Himelin<br />
<br />
'''12.''' Aelfheah the Bald<br />
<br />
'''14.''' [[Benedict of Nursia]]<br />
<br />
Matilda<br />
<br />
'''16.''' Heribert of Cologne<br />
<br />
'''17.''' Gertrude of Nivelles<br />
<br />
[[Patrick of Ireland]]<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Eadweard the Martyr<br />
<br />
'''19.''' Alchmund of Derby<br />
<br />
'''20.''' [[Clement of Ireland]]<br />
<br />
[[Cuthbert of Lindisfarne]]<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Humbert<br />
<br />
'''26.''' Ludger of Saxony<br />
<br />
'''27.''' Rupert of Salzburg<br />
<br />
'''28.''' Bereharius<br />
<br />
Guntram<br />
<br />
'''29.''' Eustace<br />
<br />
== April ==<br />
<br />
'''2.''' Aebbe the Younger<br />
<br />
Nicetius of Lyon<br />
<br />
'''3.''' Burgundofara<br />
<br />
'''5.''' Aethelburh of Kent<br />
<br />
'''9.''' Hugh of Champagne<br />
<br />
'''11.''' Guthlac of Crowland<br />
<br />
'''12.''' Erkembode<br />
<br />
'''15.''' Abbo II of Metz<br />
<br />
'''16.''' Padarn<br />
<br />
'''19.''' Alphege of Canterbury<br />
<br />
'''22.''' Aprunculus of Treves<br />
<br />
Opportuna of Montreuil<br />
<br />
'''23.''' Gerald/Gerard of Toul<br />
<br />
'''24.''' Ecgberht of Ripon<br />
<br />
Ivo of Ramsey<br />
<br />
Mellitus of London<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Rusticus of Lyon<br />
<br />
'''26.''' Richarius<br />
<br />
Trudpert<br />
<br />
'''29.''' Adalgar<br />
<br />
Aethelwold of Farne<br />
<br />
Wilfrith the Younger<br />
<br />
'''30.''' Earconwald<br />
<br />
<br />
== May ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' Aredius of Gap<br />
<br />
Bertha of Kent<br />
<br />
Marcouf<br />
<br />
Sigismund of Burgundy<br />
<br />
Theodard of Narbonne<br />
<br />
'''4.''' Arbeo of Freising<br />
<br />
Florian<br />
<br />
'''5.''' Maurontius of Douay<br />
<br />
'''6.''' Eadberht of Lindisfarne<br />
<br />
'''7.''' [[John of Beverly]]<br />
<br />
'''8.''' Desideratus<br />
<br />
Indracht of Glastonbury<br />
<br />
Itta of Metz<br />
<br />
'''9.''' Bienheure<br />
<br />
'''10.''' Solange<br />
<br />
'''11.''' Gangulphus<br />
<br />
Majolus<br />
<br />
'''12.''' Modoald/Romoald<br />
<br />
Rictrude<br />
<br />
'''15.''' Bertha of Bingen<br />
<br />
Rupert of Bingen<br />
<br />
'''16.''' [[Brendan the Navigator]]<br />
<br />
Germerius<br />
<br />
Honoratus<br />
<br />
'''17.''' Rasso of Adechs<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Aelfgifu of Shaftesbury<br />
<br />
'''19.''' Aelfheah of Canterbury<br />
<br />
'''20.''' Aethelberht II of East Anglia<br />
<br />
Austregisilus<br />
<br />
'''21.''' Hospitius<br />
<br />
'''23.''' Desidarius of Vienne<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Aldhelm of Sherbourne<br />
<br />
'''26.''' [[Augustine of Canterbury]]<br />
<br />
'''27.''' [[Bede]] of Jarrow<br />
<br />
'''28.''' [[Germanus of Paris]]<br />
<br />
William of Gellone<br />
<br />
'''29.''' [[Maximinus of Trier]]<br />
<br />
'''30.''' Hubertus<br />
<br />
Walstan<br />
<br />
== June ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' Lullus<br />
<br />
Wigstan<br />
<br />
'''4.''' Clotilde<br />
<br />
Eadfrith of Lindisfarne<br />
<br />
'''6.''' Agobard<br />
<br />
Branwalader of Milton<br />
<br />
Claudius<br />
<br />
'''8.''' Chlodulf of Metz<br />
<br />
Gildard<br />
<br />
Medardus<br />
<br />
'''11.''' Godeberta<br />
<br />
Landry of Paris<br />
<br />
'''13, 14, 15.''' Psalmodius<br />
<br />
'''16.''' Aurelianus<br />
<br />
'''17.''' Athwulf of Thorney<br />
<br />
Botwulf of Thorney<br />
<br />
Colman<br />
<br />
Nectan of Hartland<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Osana<br />
<br />
'''19.''' Deodatus<br />
<br />
'''20.''' Gobain<br />
<br />
'''21.''' Agofredus<br />
<br />
Alban of Mainz<br />
<br />
Gobain<br />
<br />
Leutfridus<br />
<br />
Palladius of Embrun<br />
<br />
'''22.''' [[Alban]] Protomartyr of Britain<br />
<br />
'''23.''' Aethelthryth<br />
<br />
'''24.''' Rumbold<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Amphibalus of St. Albans<br />
<br />
'''26.''' Brannac of Braunton<br />
<br />
'''28.''' [[Augustine of Hippo]]<br />
<br />
== July ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' Gal<br />
<br />
Calais<br />
<br />
'''2.''' Monegundus<br />
<br />
'''4.''' Bertha of Artois<br />
<br />
[[Oda of Canterbury]]<br />
<br />
'''6.''' Modwenna of Burton<br />
<br />
Seaxburh of Ely<br />
<br />
'''7.''' Aethelburh of Faremoutiers<br />
<br />
Haedde<br />
<br />
Willibald<br />
<br />
'''8.''' Colman<br />
<br />
Grimbald<br />
<br />
Kilian<br />
<br />
Urith<br />
<br />
Wihtburh<br />
<br />
'''9.''' Agilulfus of Cologne<br />
<br />
Evorhilda<br />
<br />
Neot<br />
<br />
'''10.''' Amalberga of Temse<br />
<br />
'''13.''' Arn of Wurzburg<br />
<br />
Mildthryth<br />
<br />
'''14.''' Frithona of Canterbury<br />
<br />
'''15.''' Apronia<br />
<br />
Eadgyth of Polesworth<br />
<br />
Swithun<br />
<br />
'''16.''' Fulrad<br />
<br />
Gundulph of Maastricht<br />
<br />
Helier<br />
<br />
Reineldis<br />
<br />
'''17.''' Cynehelm/Kenelm of Mercia<br />
<br />
Marcellina<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Arnulf of Metz<br />
<br />
Eadburh of Bicester<br />
<br />
Frederick of Utrecht<br />
<br />
'''20.''' Ansegisus<br />
<br />
Arilda of Oldbury<br />
<br />
Wilgefortis<br />
<br />
'''21.''' Arbogast<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Glodesind<br />
<br />
'''27.''' Galactorius<br />
<br />
'''28.''' [[Samson of Dol]]<br />
<br />
'''31.''' Sativola of Exeter<br />
<br />
== August ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' Aethelwold of Winchester<br />
<br />
Arcadius of Bourges<br />
<br />
'''5.''' Afla of Augsburg<br />
<br />
[[Oswald of Northumbria]]<br />
<br />
'''11.''' Gaugericus<br />
<br />
'''12.''' Porcarius<br />
<br />
'''13.''' Junian<br />
<br />
[[Radegund]]<br />
<br />
'''15.''' Altfrid<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Fiacre<br />
<br />
'''19.''' Bertulf of Bobbio<br />
<br />
Calminius<br />
<br />
Credan of Bodmin<br />
<br />
Magnus<br />
<br />
Sebaldus<br />
<br />
'''20.''' Oswine of Deira<br />
<br />
Philibert of Jumieges<br />
<br />
'''21.''' Eardwulf of Northumbria<br />
<br />
'''24.''' Audoin<br />
<br />
Gildard of Lurcy-le-Bourg<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Aebbe of Coldingham<br />
<br />
Aredius<br />
<br />
Gines de la Jara<br />
<br />
Gregory of Utrecht<br />
<br />
'''26.''' Bregowine<br />
<br />
'''27.''' [[Caesarius of Arles]]<br />
<br />
Decuman of Watchet<br />
<br />
Lycerius<br />
<br />
Syagrius of Autun<br />
<br />
'''28.''' Rumon<br />
<br />
'''31.''' [[Aidan of Lindisfarne]]<br />
<br />
[[Eanswythe of Folkestone]]<br />
<br />
[[ro:Sfinți occidentali de dinainte de schisma din 1054]]<br />
<br />
== September ==<br />
<br />
'''1. ''' Giles<br />
<br />
'''2. ''' Agricola<br />
<br />
'''3. ''' Aigulphus<br />
<br />
'''4. ''' [[Cuthbert of Lindisfarne|Cuthbert the Wonderworker]]<br />
<br />
'''5. ''' Bertin<br />
<br />
'''6. ''' Chainoaldus<br />
<br />
'''7. ''' Clodoaldus (Cloud)<br />
<br />
'''8. ''' Sergius<br />
<br />
'''9. ''' Omer<br />
<br />
'''10. ''' Salvius<br />
<br />
'''11. ''' Adelphus<br />
<br />
'''12. ''' Sacerdos<br />
<br />
'''13. ''' Maulrilius<br />
<br />
'''14. ''' Cormac<br />
<br />
'''15. ''' Leobinus<br />
<br />
'''16. ''' Edith<br />
<br />
[[Euphemia the Great Martyr|Euphemia]]<br />
<br />
Ninian<br />
<br />
'''17. ''' Rodingus<br />
<br />
'''18. ''' Richardis<br />
<br />
'''19. ''' Januarius<br />
<br />
'''20. ''' Candida<br />
<br />
'''21. ''' Alexander<br />
<br />
'''22. ''' Florentius<br />
<br />
'''23. ''' Linus<br />
<br />
'''24. ''' Geremarus<br />
<br />
'''25. ''' Firminus<br />
<br />
'''26. ''' Vigilius<br />
<br />
'''27. ''' Florentinus and Hilary<br />
<br />
'''28. ''' Faustus<br />
<br />
'''29. ''' Michael the Archangel<br />
<br />
'''30. ''' [[Jerome]]<br />
<br />
== October ==<br />
<br />
'''1. ''' [[Remigius of Rheims]]<br />
<br />
'''2. ''' Leodegarius<br />
<br />
'''3. ''' Menna<br />
<br />
'''4. ''' Aurea<br />
<br />
'''5. ''' Maurus and Placidus<br />
<br />
'''6. ''' Romanus of Auxerre<br />
<br />
'''7. ''' Palladius<br />
<br />
'''8. ''' Benedicta<br />
<br />
'''9. ''' Denis of Paris<br />
<br />
'''10. ''' Clarus<br />
<br />
Gereon & fellow martyrs<br />
<br />
'''11. ''' Agilbert<br />
<br />
'''12. ''' Edwin<br />
<br />
Wilfrid of York<br />
<br />
'''13. ''' Gerald<br />
<br />
'''14. ''' Menehould<br />
<br />
'''15. ''' Bruno<br />
<br />
'''16. ''' Michael the Archangel's appearance at Mont saint-Michel)<br />
<br />
Gaul<br />
<br />
'''17. ''' Translation of St [[Etheldreda of Ely]]<br />
<br />
[[Nothelm]]<br />
<br />
Berarius<br />
<br />
'''18. ''' Monon<br />
<br />
'''19. ''' Frideswide<br />
<br />
'''20. ''' Caprasius<br />
<br />
'''21. ''' Ursula & Martyrs<br />
<br />
'''22. ''' Moderan<br />
<br />
'''23. ''' Romanus<br />
<br />
'''24. ''' Maglorious<br />
<br />
'''25. ''' Crispin & Crispinian<br />
<br />
'''26. ''' [[Cuthbert of Canterbury]]<br />
<br />
'''27. ''' Vincent, Sabina and Christeta<br />
<br />
'''28. ''' Faro<br />
<br />
'''29. ''' Bond<br />
<br />
'''30. ''' Lucanus<br />
<br />
'''31. ''' Quentin<br />
<br />
== November ==<br />
<br />
'''1'''. All Saints’<br />
<br />
'''2'''. All Souls’<br />
<br />
Victorinus<br />
<br />
'''3'''. Guenhael<br />
<br />
'''4'''. Winifred<br />
<br />
'''5'''. Bertilla<br />
<br />
'''6'''. Leonard<br />
<br />
'''7'''. [[Willibrord]]<br />
<br />
'''8'''. Four Crowned Martyrs<br />
<br />
Deusdedit<br />
<br />
'''9'''. Ursinus<br />
<br />
'''10'''. [[Leo the Great]]<br />
<br />
'''11'''. [[Martin of Tours]]<br />
<br />
'''12'''. martin of Rome<br />
<br />
'''13'''. Brixius<br />
<br />
'''14'''. Erkenwald<br />
<br />
'''15'''. Malo<br />
<br />
'''16'''. Eucherius<br />
<br />
'''17'''. Gregory of Tours<br />
<br />
'''18'''. Odo<br />
<br />
'''19'''. Severinus, Exuperius and Felician<br />
<br />
'''20'''. [[Edmund the Martyr]]<br />
<br />
'''21'''. Columbanus the Younger<br />
<br />
'''22'''. Cecilia<br />
<br />
'''23'''. [[Clement of Rome]]<br />
<br />
'''24'''. Chrysogonus<br />
<br />
'''25'''. Moses of Rome<br />
<br />
'''26'''. [[Linus of Rome]]<br />
<br />
'''27'''. Siffred<br />
<br />
'''28'''. Rufus<br />
<br />
'''29'''. Saturninus<br />
<br />
'''30'''. Trojan<br />
<br />
== December ==<br />
<br />
'''1. ''' Eligius<br />
<br />
'''2. ''' Peter Chrysologous<br />
<br />
'''3. ''' [[Birinus of Dorchester]]<br />
<br />
'''4. ''' Ada<br />
<br />
'''5. ''' Bassus<br />
<br />
'''6. ''' [[Nicholas of Myra]]<br />
<br />
Asella<br />
<br />
'''7. ''' Ambrose of Milan<br />
<br />
'''8. ''' Conception of the Theotokos<br />
<br />
Romaricus<br />
'''9. ''' [[Conception of the Theotokos]]<br />
<br />
'''10. ''' Miltiades<br />
<br />
'''11. ''' [[Damasus I of Rome]]<br />
<br />
'''12. ''' Corentinuus<br />
<br />
'''13. ''' [[Lucy of Syracuse]]<br />
<br />
'''14. ''' Venantius Fortunatus<br />
<br />
'''15. ''' Mamiminus<br />
<br />
'''16. ''' Valentine, Concordius, Navalis and Agricola<br />
<br />
'''17. ''' Sturm<br />
<br />
'''18. ''' Gatian<br />
<br />
'''19. ''' Gregory of Auxerre<br />
<br />
'''20. ''' Ursicinus<br />
<br />
'''21. ''' [[Apostle Thomas|Thomas the Apostle]]<br />
<br />
'''22. ''' Flavian<br />
<br />
'''23. ''' Servulus<br />
<br />
'''24. ''' Gregory of Spoleto<br />
<br />
'''25. ''' [[Nativity|Nativity of Our Lord]]<br />
<br />
'''26. ''' Zosimus<br />
<br />
'''27. ''' Fabiola<br />
<br />
'''28. ''' Antony of Lérins<br />
<br />
'''29. ''' Trophimus<br />
<br />
'''30. ''' Sabinus<br />
<br />
'''31. ''' [[Sylvester I of Rome]]</div>Fr Levhttps://orthodoxwiki.org/index.php?title=Western_Saints_before_the_AD_1054_Schism&diff=120006Western Saints before the AD 1054 Schism2014-10-06T15:05:22Z<p>Fr Lev: /* September */</p>
<hr />
<div>''The following compilation is not an approved list of Western saints and may well not be "official." Notes and comments about each of them are welcome. It also includes commemorations recognized in the East, but observed on different dates.''<br />
<br />
== January ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' Eugendus<br />
<br />
'''2.''' Adalard of Corbie<br />
<br />
Auspasius of Auch<br />
<br />
'''3.''' [[Genevieve of Paris]]<br />
<br />
'''4.''' Fereal of Uzes<br />
<br />
Pharaildis<br />
<br />
Rigobert<br />
<br />
'''8.''' Aldric<br />
<br />
Erhard<br />
<br />
Gudula<br />
<br />
Pega of Peakirk <br />
<br />
'''9.''' Adrian of Canterbury<br />
<br />
'''12.''' Biscop<br />
<br />
'''13.''' Berhtwald<br />
<br />
Berno of Cluny<br />
<br />
[[Remigius of Rheims]]<br />
<br />
'''14.''' Mungo (Kentigern)<br />
<br />
'''15.''' Ceolwulf<br />
<br />
Emebert<br />
<br />
'''16.''' Fursey of Cnobheresburg<br />
<br />
'''17.''' Mildgyth<br />
<br />
Sulpitius the Pious<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Deicolus<br />
<br />
'''19.''' Agricius of Tier<br />
<br />
Contentius<br />
<br />
Remigius of Rouen<br />
<br />
'''21.''' Osburh of Coventry<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Praejectus<br />
<br />
Racho of Autun<br />
<br />
'''29.''' Aquilinus of Cologne/Milano<br />
<br />
[[Gildas the Wise]]<br />
<br />
Valerius of Treves<br />
<br />
'''30.''' Aldegonde<br />
<br />
Balthild<br />
<br />
'''31.''' Domitius of Amiens<br />
<br />
Uphia<br />
<br />
== February ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' [[Brigid of Kildare]]<br />
<br />
Severus of Avranches<br />
<br />
Sigebert III<br />
<br />
'''3.''' [[Ansgar]] (Anskar) of Bremen<br />
<br />
[[Laurence of Canterbury]]<br />
<br />
Werburh<br />
<br />
'''4.''' Aldate/Aldatus of Gloucester<br />
<br />
Rimbert<br />
<br />
'''5.''' Adelaide of Vilich<br />
<br />
Bertulf of Renty<br />
<br />
'''6.''' Amandus<br />
<br />
'''8.''' Aelfflaed of Whitby<br />
<br />
Cuthmann of Steyning<br />
<br />
'''9.''' Alto of Altomunster<br />
<br />
Ansbert<br />
<br />
Marius of Avenches<br />
<br />
'''10.''' Autrebertha<br />
<br />
[[Scholastica]]<br />
<br />
'''11.''' [[Blaise of Sebaste]]<br />
<br />
'''12.''' Aethelwold of Lindisfarne<br />
<br />
Benedict of Aniane<br />
<br />
'''13.''' Castor of Karden<br />
<br />
'''15.''' [[Sigfrid of Sweden]]<br />
<br />
'''17.''' Silvin of Auchy<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Angilbert<br />
<br />
[[Colman of Lindisfarne]]<br />
<br />
'''20.''' Eleutherius of Tournai<br />
<br />
'''21.''' Germanus of Granfelden<br />
<br />
'''23.''' Midburh<br />
<br />
'''24.''' Aethelberht of Kent<br />
<br />
Basil of Melrose<br />
<br />
Modest<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Praetextatus/Prix<br />
<br />
'''27.''' Aelfnoth of Stowe<br />
<br />
'''29.''' [[Oswald of Worcester]]<br />
<br />
== March ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' Abdalong of Marseilles<br />
<br />
Albinus of Angers<br />
<br />
[[David of Wales]]<br />
<br />
'''2.''' [[Chad of Lichfield]]<br />
<br />
'''6.''' Baldred/Balthere of Tyninghame<br />
<br />
Billfrith <br />
<br />
Chrodegang of Metz<br />
<br />
'''7.''' Eosterwine of Monkwearmouth<br />
<br />
'''8.''' Felix of Dommac<br />
<br />
'''9.''' Bosa of York<br />
<br />
'''10.''' Agilbert<br />
<br />
Attala<br />
<br />
Himelin<br />
<br />
'''12.''' Aelfheah the Bald<br />
<br />
'''14.''' [[Benedict of Nursia]]<br />
<br />
Matilda<br />
<br />
'''16.''' Heribert of Cologne<br />
<br />
'''17.''' Gertrude of Nivelles<br />
<br />
[[Patrick of Ireland]]<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Eadweard the Martyr<br />
<br />
'''19.''' Alchmund of Derby<br />
<br />
'''20.''' [[Clement of Ireland]]<br />
<br />
[[Cuthbert of Lindisfarne]]<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Humbert<br />
<br />
'''26.''' Ludger of Saxony<br />
<br />
'''27.''' Rupert of Salzburg<br />
<br />
'''28.''' Bereharius<br />
<br />
Guntram<br />
<br />
'''29.''' Eustace<br />
<br />
== April ==<br />
<br />
'''2.''' Aebbe the Younger<br />
<br />
Nicetius of Lyon<br />
<br />
'''3.''' Burgundofara<br />
<br />
'''5.''' Aethelburh of Kent<br />
<br />
'''9.''' Hugh of Champagne<br />
<br />
'''11.''' Guthlac of Crowland<br />
<br />
'''12.''' Erkembode<br />
<br />
'''15.''' Abbo II of Metz<br />
<br />
'''16.''' Padarn<br />
<br />
'''19.''' Alphege of Canterbury<br />
<br />
'''22.''' Aprunculus of Treves<br />
<br />
Opportuna of Montreuil<br />
<br />
'''23.''' Gerald/Gerard of Toul<br />
<br />
'''24.''' Ecgberht of Ripon<br />
<br />
Ivo of Ramsey<br />
<br />
Mellitus of London<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Rusticus of Lyon<br />
<br />
'''26.''' Richarius<br />
<br />
Trudpert<br />
<br />
'''29.''' Adalgar<br />
<br />
Aethelwold of Farne<br />
<br />
Wilfrith the Younger<br />
<br />
'''30.''' Earconwald<br />
<br />
<br />
== May ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' Aredius of Gap<br />
<br />
Bertha of Kent<br />
<br />
Marcouf<br />
<br />
Sigismund of Burgundy<br />
<br />
Theodard of Narbonne<br />
<br />
'''4.''' Arbeo of Freising<br />
<br />
Florian<br />
<br />
'''5.''' Maurontius of Douay<br />
<br />
'''6.''' Eadberht of Lindisfarne<br />
<br />
'''7.''' [[John of Beverly]]<br />
<br />
'''8.''' Desideratus<br />
<br />
Indracht of Glastonbury<br />
<br />
Itta of Metz<br />
<br />
'''9.''' Bienheure<br />
<br />
'''10.''' Solange<br />
<br />
'''11.''' Gangulphus<br />
<br />
Majolus<br />
<br />
'''12.''' Modoald/Romoald<br />
<br />
Rictrude<br />
<br />
'''15.''' Bertha of Bingen<br />
<br />
Rupert of Bingen<br />
<br />
'''16.''' [[Brendan the Navigator]]<br />
<br />
Germerius<br />
<br />
Honoratus<br />
<br />
'''17.''' Rasso of Adechs<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Aelfgifu of Shaftesbury<br />
<br />
'''19.''' Aelfheah of Canterbury<br />
<br />
'''20.''' Aethelberht II of East Anglia<br />
<br />
Austregisilus<br />
<br />
'''21.''' Hospitius<br />
<br />
'''23.''' Desidarius of Vienne<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Aldhelm of Sherbourne<br />
<br />
'''26.''' [[Augustine of Canterbury]]<br />
<br />
'''27.''' [[Bede]] of Jarrow<br />
<br />
'''28.''' [[Germanus of Paris]]<br />
<br />
William of Gellone<br />
<br />
'''29.''' [[Maximinus of Trier]]<br />
<br />
'''30.''' Hubertus<br />
<br />
Walstan<br />
<br />
== June ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' Lullus<br />
<br />
Wigstan<br />
<br />
'''4.''' Clotilde<br />
<br />
Eadfrith of Lindisfarne<br />
<br />
'''6.''' Agobard<br />
<br />
Branwalader of Milton<br />
<br />
Claudius<br />
<br />
'''8.''' Chlodulf of Metz<br />
<br />
Gildard<br />
<br />
Medardus<br />
<br />
'''11.''' Godeberta<br />
<br />
Landry of Paris<br />
<br />
'''13, 14, 15.''' Psalmodius<br />
<br />
'''16.''' Aurelianus<br />
<br />
'''17.''' Athwulf of Thorney<br />
<br />
Botwulf of Thorney<br />
<br />
Colman<br />
<br />
Nectan of Hartland<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Osana<br />
<br />
'''19.''' Deodatus<br />
<br />
'''20.''' Gobain<br />
<br />
'''21.''' Agofredus<br />
<br />
Alban of Mainz<br />
<br />
Gobain<br />
<br />
Leutfridus<br />
<br />
Palladius of Embrun<br />
<br />
'''22.''' [[Alban]] Protomartyr of Britain<br />
<br />
'''23.''' Aethelthryth<br />
<br />
'''24.''' Rumbold<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Amphibalus of St. Albans<br />
<br />
'''26.''' Brannac of Braunton<br />
<br />
'''28.''' [[Augustine of Hippo]]<br />
<br />
== July ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' Gal<br />
<br />
Calais<br />
<br />
'''2.''' Monegundus<br />
<br />
'''4.''' Bertha of Artois<br />
<br />
[[Oda of Canterbury]]<br />
<br />
'''6.''' Modwenna of Burton<br />
<br />
Seaxburh of Ely<br />
<br />
'''7.''' Aethelburh of Faremoutiers<br />
<br />
Haedde<br />
<br />
Willibald<br />
<br />
'''8.''' Colman<br />
<br />
Grimbald<br />
<br />
Kilian<br />
<br />
Urith<br />
<br />
Wihtburh<br />
<br />
'''9.''' Agilulfus of Cologne<br />
<br />
Evorhilda<br />
<br />
Neot<br />
<br />
'''10.''' Amalberga of Temse<br />
<br />
'''13.''' Arn of Wurzburg<br />
<br />
Mildthryth<br />
<br />
'''14.''' Frithona of Canterbury<br />
<br />
'''15.''' Apronia<br />
<br />
Eadgyth of Polesworth<br />
<br />
Swithun<br />
<br />
'''16.''' Fulrad<br />
<br />
Gundulph of Maastricht<br />
<br />
Helier<br />
<br />
Reineldis<br />
<br />
'''17.''' Cynehelm/Kenelm of Mercia<br />
<br />
Marcellina<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Arnulf of Metz<br />
<br />
Eadburh of Bicester<br />
<br />
Frederick of Utrecht<br />
<br />
'''20.''' Ansegisus<br />
<br />
Arilda of Oldbury<br />
<br />
Wilgefortis<br />
<br />
'''21.''' Arbogast<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Glodesind<br />
<br />
'''27.''' Galactorius<br />
<br />
'''28.''' [[Samson of Dol]]<br />
<br />
'''31.''' Sativola of Exeter<br />
<br />
== August ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' Aethelwold of Winchester<br />
<br />
Arcadius of Bourges<br />
<br />
'''5.''' Afla of Augsburg<br />
<br />
[[Oswald of Northumbria]]<br />
<br />
'''11.''' Gaugericus<br />
<br />
'''12.''' Porcarius<br />
<br />
'''13.''' Junian<br />
<br />
[[Radegund]]<br />
<br />
'''15.''' Altfrid<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Fiacre<br />
<br />
'''19.''' Bertulf of Bobbio<br />
<br />
Calminius<br />
<br />
Credan of Bodmin<br />
<br />
Magnus<br />
<br />
Sebaldus<br />
<br />
'''20.''' Oswine of Deira<br />
<br />
Philibert of Jumieges<br />
<br />
'''21.''' Eardwulf of Northumbria<br />
<br />
'''24.''' Audoin<br />
<br />
Gildard of Lurcy-le-Bourg<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Aebbe of Coldingham<br />
<br />
Aredius<br />
<br />
Gines de la Jara<br />
<br />
Gregory of Utrecht<br />
<br />
'''26.''' Bregowine<br />
<br />
'''27.''' [[Caesarius of Arles]]<br />
<br />
Decuman of Watchet<br />
<br />
Lycerius<br />
<br />
Syagrius of Autun<br />
<br />
'''28.''' Rumon<br />
<br />
'''31.''' [[Aidan of Lindisfarne]]<br />
<br />
[[Eanswythe of Folkestone]]<br />
<br />
[[ro:Sfinți occidentali de dinainte de schisma din 1054]]<br />
<br />
== September ==<br />
<br />
'''1. ''' Giles<br />
<br />
'''2. ''' Agricola<br />
<br />
'''3. ''' Aigulphus<br />
<br />
'''4. ''' [[Cuthbert of Lindisfarne|Cuthbert the Wonderworker]]<br />
<br />
'''5. ''' Bertin<br />
<br />
'''6. ''' Chainoaldus<br />
<br />
'''7. ''' Clodoaldus (Cloud)<br />
<br />
'''8. ''' Sergius<br />
<br />
'''9. ''' Omer<br />
<br />
'''10. ''' Salvius<br />
<br />
'''11. ''' Adelphus<br />
<br />
'''12. ''' Sacerdos<br />
<br />
'''13. ''' Maulrilius<br />
<br />
'''14. ''' Cormac<br />
<br />
'''15. ''' Leobinus<br />
<br />
'''16. ''' Edith<br />
<br />
[[Euphemia the Great Martyr|Euphemia]]<br />
<br />
Ninian<br />
<br />
'''17. ''' Rodingus<br />
<br />
'''18. ''' Richardis<br />
<br />
'''19. ''' Januarius<br />
<br />
'''20. ''' Candida<br />
<br />
'''21. ''' Alexander<br />
<br />
'''22. ''' Florentius<br />
<br />
'''23. ''' Linus<br />
<br />
'''24. ''' Geremarus<br />
<br />
'''25. ''' Firminus<br />
<br />
'''26. ''' Vigilius<br />
<br />
'''27. ''' Florentinus and Hilary<br />
<br />
'''28. ''' Faustus<br />
<br />
'''29. ''' Michael the Archangel<br />
<br />
'''30. ''' [[Jerome]]<br />
<br />
== October ==<br />
<br />
'''1. ''' [[Remigius of Rheims]]<br />
<br />
'''2. ''' Leodegarius<br />
<br />
'''3. ''' Menna<br />
<br />
'''4. ''' Aurea<br />
<br />
'''5. ''' Maurus and Placidus<br />
<br />
'''6. ''' Romanus of Auxerre<br />
<br />
'''7. ''' Palladius<br />
<br />
'''8. ''' Benedicta<br />
<br />
'''9. ''' Denis of Paris<br />
<br />
'''10. ''' Clarus<br />
<br />
Gereon & fellow martyrs<br />
<br />
'''11. ''' Agilbert<br />
<br />
'''12. ''' Edwin<br />
<br />
Wilfrid of York<br />
<br />
'''13. ''' Gerald<br />
<br />
'''14. ''' Menehould<br />
<br />
'''15. ''' Bruno<br />
<br />
'''16. ''' Michael the Archangel's appearance at Mont saint-Michel)<br />
<br />
Gaul<br />
<br />
'''17. ''' Translation of St [[Etheldreda of Ely]]<br />
<br />
[[Nothelm]]<br />
<br />
Berarius<br />
<br />
'''18. ''' Monon<br />
<br />
'''19. ''' Frideswide<br />
<br />
'''20. ''' Caprasius<br />
<br />
'''21. ''' Ursula & Martyrs<br />
<br />
'''22. ''' Moderan<br />
<br />
'''23. ''' Romanus<br />
<br />
'''24. ''' Maglorious<br />
<br />
'''25. ''' Crispin & Crispinian<br />
<br />
'''26. ''' [[Cuthbert of Canterbury]]<br />
<br />
'''27. ''' Vincent, Sabina and Christeta<br />
<br />
'''28. ''' Faro<br />
<br />
'''29. ''' Bond<br />
<br />
'''30. ''' Lucanus<br />
<br />
'''31. ''' Quentin<br />
<br />
== November ==<br />
<br />
'''1'''. All Saints’<br />
<br />
'''2'''. All Souls’<br />
<br />
Victorinus<br />
<br />
'''3'''. Guenhael<br />
<br />
'''4'''. Winifred<br />
<br />
'''5'''. Bertilla<br />
<br />
'''6'''. Leonard<br />
<br />
'''7'''. Willibrord<br />
<br />
'''8'''. Four Crowned Martyrs<br />
<br />
Deusdedit<br />
<br />
'''9'''. Ursinus<br />
<br />
'''10'''. [[Leo the Great]]<br />
<br />
'''11'''. [[Martin of Tours]]<br />
<br />
'''12'''. martin of Rome<br />
<br />
'''13'''. Brixius<br />
<br />
'''14'''. Erkenwald<br />
<br />
'''15'''. Malo<br />
<br />
'''16'''. Eucherius<br />
<br />
'''17'''. Gregory of Tours<br />
<br />
'''18'''. Odo<br />
<br />
'''19'''. Severinus, Exuperius and Felician<br />
<br />
'''20'''. [[Edmund the Martyr]]<br />
<br />
'''21'''. Columbanus the Younger<br />
<br />
'''22'''. Cecilia<br />
<br />
'''23'''. [[Clement of Rome]]<br />
<br />
'''24'''. Chrysogonus<br />
<br />
'''25'''. Moses of Rome<br />
<br />
'''26'''. [[Linus of Rome]]<br />
<br />
'''27'''. Siffred<br />
<br />
'''28'''. Rufus<br />
<br />
'''29'''. Saturninus<br />
<br />
'''30'''. Trojan<br />
<br />
== December ==<br />
<br />
'''1. ''' Eligius<br />
<br />
'''2. ''' Peter Chrysologous<br />
<br />
'''3. ''' [[Birinus of Dorchester]]<br />
<br />
'''4. ''' Ada<br />
<br />
'''5. ''' Bassus<br />
<br />
'''6. ''' [[Nicholas of Myra]]<br />
<br />
Asella<br />
<br />
'''7. ''' Ambrose of Milan<br />
<br />
'''8. ''' Conception of the Theotokos<br />
<br />
Romaricus<br />
'''9. ''' [[Conception of the Theotokos]]<br />
<br />
'''10. ''' Miltiades<br />
<br />
'''11. ''' [[Damasus I of Rome]]<br />
<br />
'''12. ''' Corentinuus<br />
<br />
'''13. ''' [[Lucy of Syracuse]]<br />
<br />
'''14. ''' Venantius Fortunatus<br />
<br />
'''15. ''' Mamiminus<br />
<br />
'''16. ''' Valentine, Concordius, Navalis and Agricola<br />
<br />
'''17. ''' Sturm<br />
<br />
'''18. ''' Gatian<br />
<br />
'''19. ''' Gregory of Auxerre<br />
<br />
'''20. ''' Ursicinus<br />
<br />
'''21. ''' [[Apostle Thomas|Thomas the Apostle]]<br />
<br />
'''22. ''' Flavian<br />
<br />
'''23. ''' Servulus<br />
<br />
'''24. ''' Gregory of Spoleto<br />
<br />
'''25. ''' [[Nativity|Nativity of Our Lord]]<br />
<br />
'''26. ''' Zosimus<br />
<br />
'''27. ''' Fabiola<br />
<br />
'''28. ''' Antony of Lérins<br />
<br />
'''29. ''' Trophimus<br />
<br />
'''30. ''' Sabinus<br />
<br />
'''31. ''' [[Sylvester I of Rome]]</div>Fr Levhttps://orthodoxwiki.org/index.php?title=Western_Saints_before_the_AD_1054_Schism&diff=120005Western Saints before the AD 1054 Schism2014-10-06T14:16:38Z<p>Fr Lev: /* September */ filled out September</p>
<hr />
<div>''The following compilation is not an approved list of Western saints and may well not be "official." Notes and comments about each of them are welcome. It also includes commemorations recognized in the East, but observed on different dates.''<br />
<br />
== January ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' Eugendus<br />
<br />
'''2.''' Adalard of Corbie<br />
<br />
Auspasius of Auch<br />
<br />
'''3.''' [[Genevieve of Paris]]<br />
<br />
'''4.''' Fereal of Uzes<br />
<br />
Pharaildis<br />
<br />
Rigobert<br />
<br />
'''8.''' Aldric<br />
<br />
Erhard<br />
<br />
Gudula<br />
<br />
Pega of Peakirk <br />
<br />
'''9.''' Adrian of Canterbury<br />
<br />
'''12.''' Biscop<br />
<br />
'''13.''' Berhtwald<br />
<br />
Berno of Cluny<br />
<br />
[[Remigius of Rheims]]<br />
<br />
'''14.''' Mungo (Kentigern)<br />
<br />
'''15.''' Ceolwulf<br />
<br />
Emebert<br />
<br />
'''16.''' Fursey of Cnobheresburg<br />
<br />
'''17.''' Mildgyth<br />
<br />
Sulpitius the Pious<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Deicolus<br />
<br />
'''19.''' Agricius of Tier<br />
<br />
Contentius<br />
<br />
Remigius of Rouen<br />
<br />
'''21.''' Osburh of Coventry<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Praejectus<br />
<br />
Racho of Autun<br />
<br />
'''29.''' Aquilinus of Cologne/Milano<br />
<br />
[[Gildas the Wise]]<br />
<br />
Valerius of Treves<br />
<br />
'''30.''' Aldegonde<br />
<br />
Balthild<br />
<br />
'''31.''' Domitius of Amiens<br />
<br />
Uphia<br />
<br />
== February ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' [[Brigid of Kildare]]<br />
<br />
Severus of Avranches<br />
<br />
Sigebert III<br />
<br />
'''3.''' [[Ansgar]] (Anskar) of Bremen<br />
<br />
[[Laurence of Canterbury]]<br />
<br />
Werburh<br />
<br />
'''4.''' Aldate/Aldatus of Gloucester<br />
<br />
Rimbert<br />
<br />
'''5.''' Adelaide of Vilich<br />
<br />
Bertulf of Renty<br />
<br />
'''6.''' Amandus<br />
<br />
'''8.''' Aelfflaed of Whitby<br />
<br />
Cuthmann of Steyning<br />
<br />
'''9.''' Alto of Altomunster<br />
<br />
Ansbert<br />
<br />
Marius of Avenches<br />
<br />
'''10.''' Autrebertha<br />
<br />
[[Scholastica]]<br />
<br />
'''11.''' [[Blaise of Sebaste]]<br />
<br />
'''12.''' Aethelwold of Lindisfarne<br />
<br />
Benedict of Aniane<br />
<br />
'''13.''' Castor of Karden<br />
<br />
'''15.''' [[Sigfrid of Sweden]]<br />
<br />
'''17.''' Silvin of Auchy<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Angilbert<br />
<br />
[[Colman of Lindisfarne]]<br />
<br />
'''20.''' Eleutherius of Tournai<br />
<br />
'''21.''' Germanus of Granfelden<br />
<br />
'''23.''' Midburh<br />
<br />
'''24.''' Aethelberht of Kent<br />
<br />
Basil of Melrose<br />
<br />
Modest<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Praetextatus/Prix<br />
<br />
'''27.''' Aelfnoth of Stowe<br />
<br />
'''29.''' [[Oswald of Worcester]]<br />
<br />
== March ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' Abdalong of Marseilles<br />
<br />
Albinus of Angers<br />
<br />
[[David of Wales]]<br />
<br />
'''2.''' [[Chad of Lichfield]]<br />
<br />
'''6.''' Baldred/Balthere of Tyninghame<br />
<br />
Billfrith <br />
<br />
Chrodegang of Metz<br />
<br />
'''7.''' Eosterwine of Monkwearmouth<br />
<br />
'''8.''' Felix of Dommac<br />
<br />
'''9.''' Bosa of York<br />
<br />
'''10.''' Agilbert<br />
<br />
Attala<br />
<br />
Himelin<br />
<br />
'''12.''' Aelfheah the Bald<br />
<br />
'''14.''' [[Benedict of Nursia]]<br />
<br />
Matilda<br />
<br />
'''16.''' Heribert of Cologne<br />
<br />
'''17.''' Gertrude of Nivelles<br />
<br />
[[Patrick of Ireland]]<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Eadweard the Martyr<br />
<br />
'''19.''' Alchmund of Derby<br />
<br />
'''20.''' [[Clement of Ireland]]<br />
<br />
[[Cuthbert of Lindisfarne]]<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Humbert<br />
<br />
'''26.''' Ludger of Saxony<br />
<br />
'''27.''' Rupert of Salzburg<br />
<br />
'''28.''' Bereharius<br />
<br />
Guntram<br />
<br />
'''29.''' Eustace<br />
<br />
== April ==<br />
<br />
'''2.''' Aebbe the Younger<br />
<br />
Nicetius of Lyon<br />
<br />
'''3.''' Burgundofara<br />
<br />
'''5.''' Aethelburh of Kent<br />
<br />
'''9.''' Hugh of Champagne<br />
<br />
'''11.''' Guthlac of Crowland<br />
<br />
'''12.''' Erkembode<br />
<br />
'''15.''' Abbo II of Metz<br />
<br />
'''16.''' Padarn<br />
<br />
'''19.''' Alphege of Canterbury<br />
<br />
'''22.''' Aprunculus of Treves<br />
<br />
Opportuna of Montreuil<br />
<br />
'''23.''' Gerald/Gerard of Toul<br />
<br />
'''24.''' Ecgberht of Ripon<br />
<br />
Ivo of Ramsey<br />
<br />
Mellitus of London<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Rusticus of Lyon<br />
<br />
'''26.''' Richarius<br />
<br />
Trudpert<br />
<br />
'''29.''' Adalgar<br />
<br />
Aethelwold of Farne<br />
<br />
Wilfrith the Younger<br />
<br />
'''30.''' Earconwald<br />
<br />
<br />
== May ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' Aredius of Gap<br />
<br />
Bertha of Kent<br />
<br />
Marcouf<br />
<br />
Sigismund of Burgundy<br />
<br />
Theodard of Narbonne<br />
<br />
'''4.''' Arbeo of Freising<br />
<br />
Florian<br />
<br />
'''5.''' Maurontius of Douay<br />
<br />
'''6.''' Eadberht of Lindisfarne<br />
<br />
'''7.''' [[John of Beverly]]<br />
<br />
'''8.''' Desideratus<br />
<br />
Indracht of Glastonbury<br />
<br />
Itta of Metz<br />
<br />
'''9.''' Bienheure<br />
<br />
'''10.''' Solange<br />
<br />
'''11.''' Gangulphus<br />
<br />
Majolus<br />
<br />
'''12.''' Modoald/Romoald<br />
<br />
Rictrude<br />
<br />
'''15.''' Bertha of Bingen<br />
<br />
Rupert of Bingen<br />
<br />
'''16.''' [[Brendan the Navigator]]<br />
<br />
Germerius<br />
<br />
Honoratus<br />
<br />
'''17.''' Rasso of Adechs<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Aelfgifu of Shaftesbury<br />
<br />
'''19.''' Aelfheah of Canterbury<br />
<br />
'''20.''' Aethelberht II of East Anglia<br />
<br />
Austregisilus<br />
<br />
'''21.''' Hospitius<br />
<br />
'''23.''' Desidarius of Vienne<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Aldhelm of Sherbourne<br />
<br />
'''26.''' [[Augustine of Canterbury]]<br />
<br />
'''27.''' [[Bede]] of Jarrow<br />
<br />
'''28.''' [[Germanus of Paris]]<br />
<br />
William of Gellone<br />
<br />
'''29.''' [[Maximinus of Trier]]<br />
<br />
'''30.''' Hubertus<br />
<br />
Walstan<br />
<br />
== June ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' Lullus<br />
<br />
Wigstan<br />
<br />
'''4.''' Clotilde<br />
<br />
Eadfrith of Lindisfarne<br />
<br />
'''6.''' Agobard<br />
<br />
Branwalader of Milton<br />
<br />
Claudius<br />
<br />
'''8.''' Chlodulf of Metz<br />
<br />
Gildard<br />
<br />
Medardus<br />
<br />
'''11.''' Godeberta<br />
<br />
Landry of Paris<br />
<br />
'''13, 14, 15.''' Psalmodius<br />
<br />
'''16.''' Aurelianus<br />
<br />
'''17.''' Athwulf of Thorney<br />
<br />
Botwulf of Thorney<br />
<br />
Colman<br />
<br />
Nectan of Hartland<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Osana<br />
<br />
'''19.''' Deodatus<br />
<br />
'''20.''' Gobain<br />
<br />
'''21.''' Agofredus<br />
<br />
Alban of Mainz<br />
<br />
Gobain<br />
<br />
Leutfridus<br />
<br />
Palladius of Embrun<br />
<br />
'''22.''' [[Alban]] Protomartyr of Britain<br />
<br />
'''23.''' Aethelthryth<br />
<br />
'''24.''' Rumbold<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Amphibalus of St. Albans<br />
<br />
'''26.''' Brannac of Braunton<br />
<br />
'''28.''' [[Augustine of Hippo]]<br />
<br />
== July ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' Gal<br />
<br />
Calais<br />
<br />
'''2.''' Monegundus<br />
<br />
'''4.''' Bertha of Artois<br />
<br />
[[Oda of Canterbury]]<br />
<br />
'''6.''' Modwenna of Burton<br />
<br />
Seaxburh of Ely<br />
<br />
'''7.''' Aethelburh of Faremoutiers<br />
<br />
Haedde<br />
<br />
Willibald<br />
<br />
'''8.''' Colman<br />
<br />
Grimbald<br />
<br />
Kilian<br />
<br />
Urith<br />
<br />
Wihtburh<br />
<br />
'''9.''' Agilulfus of Cologne<br />
<br />
Evorhilda<br />
<br />
Neot<br />
<br />
'''10.''' Amalberga of Temse<br />
<br />
'''13.''' Arn of Wurzburg<br />
<br />
Mildthryth<br />
<br />
'''14.''' Frithona of Canterbury<br />
<br />
'''15.''' Apronia<br />
<br />
Eadgyth of Polesworth<br />
<br />
Swithun<br />
<br />
'''16.''' Fulrad<br />
<br />
Gundulph of Maastricht<br />
<br />
Helier<br />
<br />
Reineldis<br />
<br />
'''17.''' Cynehelm/Kenelm of Mercia<br />
<br />
Marcellina<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Arnulf of Metz<br />
<br />
Eadburh of Bicester<br />
<br />
Frederick of Utrecht<br />
<br />
'''20.''' Ansegisus<br />
<br />
Arilda of Oldbury<br />
<br />
Wilgefortis<br />
<br />
'''21.''' Arbogast<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Glodesind<br />
<br />
'''27.''' Galactorius<br />
<br />
'''28.''' [[Samson of Dol]]<br />
<br />
'''31.''' Sativola of Exeter<br />
<br />
== August ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' Aethelwold of Winchester<br />
<br />
Arcadius of Bourges<br />
<br />
'''5.''' Afla of Augsburg<br />
<br />
[[Oswald of Northumbria]]<br />
<br />
'''11.''' Gaugericus<br />
<br />
'''12.''' Porcarius<br />
<br />
'''13.''' Junian<br />
<br />
[[Radegund]]<br />
<br />
'''15.''' Altfrid<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Fiacre<br />
<br />
'''19.''' Bertulf of Bobbio<br />
<br />
Calminius<br />
<br />
Credan of Bodmin<br />
<br />
Magnus<br />
<br />
Sebaldus<br />
<br />
'''20.''' Oswine of Deira<br />
<br />
Philibert of Jumieges<br />
<br />
'''21.''' Eardwulf of Northumbria<br />
<br />
'''24.''' Audoin<br />
<br />
Gildard of Lurcy-le-Bourg<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Aebbe of Coldingham<br />
<br />
Aredius<br />
<br />
Gines de la Jara<br />
<br />
Gregory of Utrecht<br />
<br />
'''26.''' Bregowine<br />
<br />
'''27.''' [[Caesarius of Arles]]<br />
<br />
Decuman of Watchet<br />
<br />
Lycerius<br />
<br />
Syagrius of Autun<br />
<br />
'''28.''' Rumon<br />
<br />
'''31.''' [[Aidan of Lindisfarne]]<br />
<br />
[[Eanswythe of Folkestone]]<br />
<br />
[[ro:Sfinți occidentali de dinainte de schisma din 1054]]<br />
<br />
== September ==<br />
<br />
'''1. ''' Giles<br />
<br />
'''2. ''' Agricola<br />
<br />
'''3. ''' Aigulphus<br />
<br />
'''4. ''' [[Cuthbert of Lindisfarne|Cuthbert the Wonderworker]]<br />
<br />
'''5. ''' Bertin<br />
<br />
'''6. ''' Chainoaldus<br />
<br />
'''7. ''' Clodoaldus (Cloud)<br />
<br />
'''8. ''' Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary<br />
<br />
Sergius<br />
<br />
'''9. ''' Omer<br />
<br />
'''10. ''' Salvius<br />
<br />
'''11. ''' Adelphus<br />
<br />
'''12. ''' Sacerdos<br />
<br />
'''13. ''' Maulrilius<br />
<br />
'''14. ''' Cormac<br />
<br />
'''15. ''' Leobinus<br />
<br />
'''16. ''' Edith<br />
<br />
[[Euphemia the Great Martyr|Euphemia]]<br />
<br />
Ninian<br />
<br />
'''17. ''' Rodingus<br />
<br />
'''18. ''' Richardis<br />
<br />
'''19. ''' Januarius<br />
<br />
'''20. ''' Candida<br />
<br />
'''21. ''' Alexander<br />
<br />
'''22. ''' Florentius<br />
<br />
'''23. ''' Linus<br />
<br />
'''24. ''' Geremarus<br />
<br />
'''25. ''' Firminus<br />
<br />
'''26. ''' Vigilius<br />
<br />
'''27. ''' Florentinus and Hilary<br />
<br />
'''28. ''' Faustus<br />
<br />
'''29. ''' Michael the Archangel<br />
<br />
'''30. ''' [[Jerome]]<br />
<br />
== October ==<br />
<br />
'''1. ''' [[Remigius of Rheims]]<br />
<br />
'''2. ''' Leodegarius<br />
<br />
'''3. ''' Menna<br />
<br />
'''4. ''' Aurea<br />
<br />
'''5. ''' Maurus and Placidus<br />
<br />
'''6. ''' Romanus of Auxerre<br />
<br />
'''7. ''' Palladius<br />
<br />
'''8. ''' Benedicta<br />
<br />
'''9. ''' Denis of Paris<br />
<br />
'''10. ''' Clarus<br />
<br />
Gereon & fellow martyrs<br />
<br />
'''11. ''' Agilbert<br />
<br />
'''12. ''' Edwin<br />
<br />
Wilfrid of York<br />
<br />
'''13. ''' Gerald<br />
<br />
'''14. ''' Menehould<br />
<br />
'''15. ''' Bruno<br />
<br />
'''16. ''' Michael the Archangel's appearance at Mont saint-Michel)<br />
<br />
Gaul<br />
<br />
'''17. ''' Translation of St [[Etheldreda of Ely]]<br />
<br />
[[Nothelm]]<br />
<br />
Berarius<br />
<br />
'''18. ''' Monon<br />
<br />
'''19. ''' Frideswide<br />
<br />
'''20. ''' Caprasius<br />
<br />
'''21. ''' Ursula & Martyrs<br />
<br />
'''22. ''' Moderan<br />
<br />
'''23. ''' Romanus<br />
<br />
'''24. ''' Maglorious<br />
<br />
'''25. ''' Crispin & Crispinian<br />
<br />
'''26. ''' [[Cuthbert of Canterbury]]<br />
<br />
'''27. ''' Vincent, Sabina and Christeta<br />
<br />
'''28. ''' Faro<br />
<br />
'''29. ''' Bond<br />
<br />
'''30. ''' Lucanus<br />
<br />
'''31. ''' Quentin<br />
<br />
== November ==<br />
<br />
'''1'''. All Saints’<br />
<br />
'''2'''. All Souls’<br />
<br />
Victorinus<br />
<br />
'''3'''. Guenhael<br />
<br />
'''4'''. Winifred<br />
<br />
'''5'''. Bertilla<br />
<br />
'''6'''. Leonard<br />
<br />
'''7'''. Willibrord<br />
<br />
'''8'''. Four Crowned Martyrs<br />
<br />
Deusdedit<br />
<br />
'''9'''. Ursinus<br />
<br />
'''10'''. [[Leo the Great]]<br />
<br />
'''11'''. [[Martin of Tours]]<br />
<br />
'''12'''. martin of Rome<br />
<br />
'''13'''. Brixius<br />
<br />
'''14'''. Erkenwald<br />
<br />
'''15'''. Malo<br />
<br />
'''16'''. Eucherius<br />
<br />
'''17'''. Gregory of Tours<br />
<br />
'''18'''. Odo<br />
<br />
'''19'''. Severinus, Exuperius and Felician<br />
<br />
'''20'''. [[Edmund the Martyr]]<br />
<br />
'''21'''. Columbanus the Younger<br />
<br />
'''22'''. Cecilia<br />
<br />
'''23'''. [[Clement of Rome]]<br />
<br />
'''24'''. Chrysogonus<br />
<br />
'''25'''. Moses of Rome<br />
<br />
'''26'''. [[Linus of Rome]]<br />
<br />
'''27'''. Siffred<br />
<br />
'''28'''. Rufus<br />
<br />
'''29'''. Saturninus<br />
<br />
'''30'''. Trojan<br />
<br />
== December ==<br />
<br />
'''1. ''' Eligius<br />
<br />
'''2. ''' Peter Chrysologous<br />
<br />
'''3. ''' [[Birinus of Dorchester]]<br />
<br />
'''4. ''' Ada<br />
<br />
'''5. ''' Bassus<br />
<br />
'''6. ''' [[Nicholas of Myra]]<br />
<br />
Asella<br />
<br />
'''7. ''' Ambrose of Milan<br />
<br />
'''8. ''' Conception of the Theotokos<br />
<br />
Romaricus<br />
'''9. ''' [[Conception of the Theotokos]]<br />
<br />
'''10. ''' Miltiades<br />
<br />
'''11. ''' [[Damasus I of Rome]]<br />
<br />
'''12. ''' Corentinuus<br />
<br />
'''13. ''' [[Lucy of Syracuse]]<br />
<br />
'''14. ''' Venantius Fortunatus<br />
<br />
'''15. ''' Mamiminus<br />
<br />
'''16. ''' Valentine, Concordius, Navalis and Agricola<br />
<br />
'''17. ''' Sturm<br />
<br />
'''18. ''' Gatian<br />
<br />
'''19. ''' Gregory of Auxerre<br />
<br />
'''20. ''' Ursicinus<br />
<br />
'''21. ''' [[Apostle Thomas|Thomas the Apostle]]<br />
<br />
'''22. ''' Flavian<br />
<br />
'''23. ''' Servulus<br />
<br />
'''24. ''' Gregory of Spoleto<br />
<br />
'''25. ''' [[Nativity|Nativity of Our Lord]]<br />
<br />
'''26. ''' Zosimus<br />
<br />
'''27. ''' Fabiola<br />
<br />
'''28. ''' Antony of Lérins<br />
<br />
'''29. ''' Trophimus<br />
<br />
'''30. ''' Sabinus<br />
<br />
'''31. ''' [[Sylvester I of Rome]]</div>Fr Levhttps://orthodoxwiki.org/index.php?title=Western_Saints_before_the_AD_1054_Schism&diff=120004Western Saints before the AD 1054 Schism2014-10-06T14:03:35Z<p>Fr Lev: /* October */ filled out October</p>
<hr />
<div>''The following compilation is not an approved list of Western saints and may well not be "official." Notes and comments about each of them are welcome. It also includes commemorations recognized in the East, but observed on different dates.''<br />
<br />
== January ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' Eugendus<br />
<br />
'''2.''' Adalard of Corbie<br />
<br />
Auspasius of Auch<br />
<br />
'''3.''' [[Genevieve of Paris]]<br />
<br />
'''4.''' Fereal of Uzes<br />
<br />
Pharaildis<br />
<br />
Rigobert<br />
<br />
'''8.''' Aldric<br />
<br />
Erhard<br />
<br />
Gudula<br />
<br />
Pega of Peakirk <br />
<br />
'''9.''' Adrian of Canterbury<br />
<br />
'''12.''' Biscop<br />
<br />
'''13.''' Berhtwald<br />
<br />
Berno of Cluny<br />
<br />
[[Remigius of Rheims]]<br />
<br />
'''14.''' Mungo (Kentigern)<br />
<br />
'''15.''' Ceolwulf<br />
<br />
Emebert<br />
<br />
'''16.''' Fursey of Cnobheresburg<br />
<br />
'''17.''' Mildgyth<br />
<br />
Sulpitius the Pious<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Deicolus<br />
<br />
'''19.''' Agricius of Tier<br />
<br />
Contentius<br />
<br />
Remigius of Rouen<br />
<br />
'''21.''' Osburh of Coventry<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Praejectus<br />
<br />
Racho of Autun<br />
<br />
'''29.''' Aquilinus of Cologne/Milano<br />
<br />
[[Gildas the Wise]]<br />
<br />
Valerius of Treves<br />
<br />
'''30.''' Aldegonde<br />
<br />
Balthild<br />
<br />
'''31.''' Domitius of Amiens<br />
<br />
Uphia<br />
<br />
== February ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' [[Brigid of Kildare]]<br />
<br />
Severus of Avranches<br />
<br />
Sigebert III<br />
<br />
'''3.''' [[Ansgar]] (Anskar) of Bremen<br />
<br />
[[Laurence of Canterbury]]<br />
<br />
Werburh<br />
<br />
'''4.''' Aldate/Aldatus of Gloucester<br />
<br />
Rimbert<br />
<br />
'''5.''' Adelaide of Vilich<br />
<br />
Bertulf of Renty<br />
<br />
'''6.''' Amandus<br />
<br />
'''8.''' Aelfflaed of Whitby<br />
<br />
Cuthmann of Steyning<br />
<br />
'''9.''' Alto of Altomunster<br />
<br />
Ansbert<br />
<br />
Marius of Avenches<br />
<br />
'''10.''' Autrebertha<br />
<br />
[[Scholastica]]<br />
<br />
'''11.''' [[Blaise of Sebaste]]<br />
<br />
'''12.''' Aethelwold of Lindisfarne<br />
<br />
Benedict of Aniane<br />
<br />
'''13.''' Castor of Karden<br />
<br />
'''15.''' [[Sigfrid of Sweden]]<br />
<br />
'''17.''' Silvin of Auchy<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Angilbert<br />
<br />
[[Colman of Lindisfarne]]<br />
<br />
'''20.''' Eleutherius of Tournai<br />
<br />
'''21.''' Germanus of Granfelden<br />
<br />
'''23.''' Midburh<br />
<br />
'''24.''' Aethelberht of Kent<br />
<br />
Basil of Melrose<br />
<br />
Modest<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Praetextatus/Prix<br />
<br />
'''27.''' Aelfnoth of Stowe<br />
<br />
'''29.''' [[Oswald of Worcester]]<br />
<br />
== March ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' Abdalong of Marseilles<br />
<br />
Albinus of Angers<br />
<br />
[[David of Wales]]<br />
<br />
'''2.''' [[Chad of Lichfield]]<br />
<br />
'''6.''' Baldred/Balthere of Tyninghame<br />
<br />
Billfrith <br />
<br />
Chrodegang of Metz<br />
<br />
'''7.''' Eosterwine of Monkwearmouth<br />
<br />
'''8.''' Felix of Dommac<br />
<br />
'''9.''' Bosa of York<br />
<br />
'''10.''' Agilbert<br />
<br />
Attala<br />
<br />
Himelin<br />
<br />
'''12.''' Aelfheah the Bald<br />
<br />
'''14.''' [[Benedict of Nursia]]<br />
<br />
Matilda<br />
<br />
'''16.''' Heribert of Cologne<br />
<br />
'''17.''' Gertrude of Nivelles<br />
<br />
[[Patrick of Ireland]]<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Eadweard the Martyr<br />
<br />
'''19.''' Alchmund of Derby<br />
<br />
'''20.''' [[Clement of Ireland]]<br />
<br />
[[Cuthbert of Lindisfarne]]<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Humbert<br />
<br />
'''26.''' Ludger of Saxony<br />
<br />
'''27.''' Rupert of Salzburg<br />
<br />
'''28.''' Bereharius<br />
<br />
Guntram<br />
<br />
'''29.''' Eustace<br />
<br />
== April ==<br />
<br />
'''2.''' Aebbe the Younger<br />
<br />
Nicetius of Lyon<br />
<br />
'''3.''' Burgundofara<br />
<br />
'''5.''' Aethelburh of Kent<br />
<br />
'''9.''' Hugh of Champagne<br />
<br />
'''11.''' Guthlac of Crowland<br />
<br />
'''12.''' Erkembode<br />
<br />
'''15.''' Abbo II of Metz<br />
<br />
'''16.''' Padarn<br />
<br />
'''19.''' Alphege of Canterbury<br />
<br />
'''22.''' Aprunculus of Treves<br />
<br />
Opportuna of Montreuil<br />
<br />
'''23.''' Gerald/Gerard of Toul<br />
<br />
'''24.''' Ecgberht of Ripon<br />
<br />
Ivo of Ramsey<br />
<br />
Mellitus of London<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Rusticus of Lyon<br />
<br />
'''26.''' Richarius<br />
<br />
Trudpert<br />
<br />
'''29.''' Adalgar<br />
<br />
Aethelwold of Farne<br />
<br />
Wilfrith the Younger<br />
<br />
'''30.''' Earconwald<br />
<br />
<br />
== May ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' Aredius of Gap<br />
<br />
Bertha of Kent<br />
<br />
Marcouf<br />
<br />
Sigismund of Burgundy<br />
<br />
Theodard of Narbonne<br />
<br />
'''4.''' Arbeo of Freising<br />
<br />
Florian<br />
<br />
'''5.''' Maurontius of Douay<br />
<br />
'''6.''' Eadberht of Lindisfarne<br />
<br />
'''7.''' [[John of Beverly]]<br />
<br />
'''8.''' Desideratus<br />
<br />
Indracht of Glastonbury<br />
<br />
Itta of Metz<br />
<br />
'''9.''' Bienheure<br />
<br />
'''10.''' Solange<br />
<br />
'''11.''' Gangulphus<br />
<br />
Majolus<br />
<br />
'''12.''' Modoald/Romoald<br />
<br />
Rictrude<br />
<br />
'''15.''' Bertha of Bingen<br />
<br />
Rupert of Bingen<br />
<br />
'''16.''' [[Brendan the Navigator]]<br />
<br />
Germerius<br />
<br />
Honoratus<br />
<br />
'''17.''' Rasso of Adechs<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Aelfgifu of Shaftesbury<br />
<br />
'''19.''' Aelfheah of Canterbury<br />
<br />
'''20.''' Aethelberht II of East Anglia<br />
<br />
Austregisilus<br />
<br />
'''21.''' Hospitius<br />
<br />
'''23.''' Desidarius of Vienne<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Aldhelm of Sherbourne<br />
<br />
'''26.''' [[Augustine of Canterbury]]<br />
<br />
'''27.''' [[Bede]] of Jarrow<br />
<br />
'''28.''' [[Germanus of Paris]]<br />
<br />
William of Gellone<br />
<br />
'''29.''' [[Maximinus of Trier]]<br />
<br />
'''30.''' Hubertus<br />
<br />
Walstan<br />
<br />
== June ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' Lullus<br />
<br />
Wigstan<br />
<br />
'''4.''' Clotilde<br />
<br />
Eadfrith of Lindisfarne<br />
<br />
'''6.''' Agobard<br />
<br />
Branwalader of Milton<br />
<br />
Claudius<br />
<br />
'''8.''' Chlodulf of Metz<br />
<br />
Gildard<br />
<br />
Medardus<br />
<br />
'''11.''' Godeberta<br />
<br />
Landry of Paris<br />
<br />
'''13, 14, 15.''' Psalmodius<br />
<br />
'''16.''' Aurelianus<br />
<br />
'''17.''' Athwulf of Thorney<br />
<br />
Botwulf of Thorney<br />
<br />
Colman<br />
<br />
Nectan of Hartland<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Osana<br />
<br />
'''19.''' Deodatus<br />
<br />
'''20.''' Gobain<br />
<br />
'''21.''' Agofredus<br />
<br />
Alban of Mainz<br />
<br />
Gobain<br />
<br />
Leutfridus<br />
<br />
Palladius of Embrun<br />
<br />
'''22.''' [[Alban]] Protomartyr of Britain<br />
<br />
'''23.''' Aethelthryth<br />
<br />
'''24.''' Rumbold<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Amphibalus of St. Albans<br />
<br />
'''26.''' Brannac of Braunton<br />
<br />
'''28.''' [[Augustine of Hippo]]<br />
<br />
== July ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' Gal<br />
<br />
Calais<br />
<br />
'''2.''' Monegundus<br />
<br />
'''4.''' Bertha of Artois<br />
<br />
[[Oda of Canterbury]]<br />
<br />
'''6.''' Modwenna of Burton<br />
<br />
Seaxburh of Ely<br />
<br />
'''7.''' Aethelburh of Faremoutiers<br />
<br />
Haedde<br />
<br />
Willibald<br />
<br />
'''8.''' Colman<br />
<br />
Grimbald<br />
<br />
Kilian<br />
<br />
Urith<br />
<br />
Wihtburh<br />
<br />
'''9.''' Agilulfus of Cologne<br />
<br />
Evorhilda<br />
<br />
Neot<br />
<br />
'''10.''' Amalberga of Temse<br />
<br />
'''13.''' Arn of Wurzburg<br />
<br />
Mildthryth<br />
<br />
'''14.''' Frithona of Canterbury<br />
<br />
'''15.''' Apronia<br />
<br />
Eadgyth of Polesworth<br />
<br />
Swithun<br />
<br />
'''16.''' Fulrad<br />
<br />
Gundulph of Maastricht<br />
<br />
Helier<br />
<br />
Reineldis<br />
<br />
'''17.''' Cynehelm/Kenelm of Mercia<br />
<br />
Marcellina<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Arnulf of Metz<br />
<br />
Eadburh of Bicester<br />
<br />
Frederick of Utrecht<br />
<br />
'''20.''' Ansegisus<br />
<br />
Arilda of Oldbury<br />
<br />
Wilgefortis<br />
<br />
'''21.''' Arbogast<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Glodesind<br />
<br />
'''27.''' Galactorius<br />
<br />
'''28.''' [[Samson of Dol]]<br />
<br />
'''31.''' Sativola of Exeter<br />
<br />
== August ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' Aethelwold of Winchester<br />
<br />
Arcadius of Bourges<br />
<br />
'''5.''' Afla of Augsburg<br />
<br />
[[Oswald of Northumbria]]<br />
<br />
'''11.''' Gaugericus<br />
<br />
'''12.''' Porcarius<br />
<br />
'''13.''' Junian<br />
<br />
[[Radegund]]<br />
<br />
'''15.''' Altfrid<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Fiacre<br />
<br />
'''19.''' Bertulf of Bobbio<br />
<br />
Calminius<br />
<br />
Credan of Bodmin<br />
<br />
Magnus<br />
<br />
Sebaldus<br />
<br />
'''20.''' Oswine of Deira<br />
<br />
Philibert of Jumieges<br />
<br />
'''21.''' Eardwulf of Northumbria<br />
<br />
'''24.''' Audoin<br />
<br />
Gildard of Lurcy-le-Bourg<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Aebbe of Coldingham<br />
<br />
Aredius<br />
<br />
Gines de la Jara<br />
<br />
Gregory of Utrecht<br />
<br />
'''26.''' Bregowine<br />
<br />
'''27.''' [[Caesarius of Arles]]<br />
<br />
Decuman of Watchet<br />
<br />
Lycerius<br />
<br />
Syagrius of Autun<br />
<br />
'''28.''' Rumon<br />
<br />
'''31.''' [[Aidan of Lindisfarne]]<br />
<br />
[[Eanswythe of Folkestone]]<br />
<br />
[[ro:Sfinți occidentali de dinainte de schisma din 1054]]<br />
<br />
== September ==<br />
<br />
'''1. ''' <br />
<br />
'''2. ''' Giles<br />
<br />
'''3. ''' <br />
<br />
'''4. ''' [[Cuthbert of Lindisfarne|Cuthbert the Wonderworker]]<br />
<br />
'''5. ''' Bertin<br />
<br />
'''6. ''' <br />
<br />
'''7. ''' <br />
<br />
'''8. ''' <br />
<br />
'''9. ''' <br />
<br />
'''10. '''<br />
<br />
'''11. ''' <br />
<br />
'''12. ''' <br />
<br />
'''13. '''<br />
<br />
'''14. ''' <br />
<br />
'''15. ''' Leobinus<br />
<br />
'''16. ''' Edith<br />
<br />
[[Euphemia the Great Martyr|Euphemia]]<br />
<br />
Ninian<br />
<br />
'''17. ''' <br />
<br />
'''18. '''<br />
<br />
'''19. '''<br />
<br />
'''20. ''' <br />
<br />
'''21. ''' [[Apostle Matthew|Matthew the Apostle]]<br />
<br />
'''22. ''' <br />
<br />
'''23. ''' [[Maurice]]<br />
<br />
'''24. ''' Conception of John the Baptist<br />
<br />
'''25. ''' Firminus<br />
<br />
'''26. ''' Cyprian & Justina<br />
<br />
'''27. '''<br />
<br />
'''28. ''' <br />
<br />
'''29. ''' <br />
<br />
'''30. ''' [[Jerome]]<br />
<br />
== October ==<br />
<br />
'''1. ''' [[Remigius of Rheims]]<br />
<br />
'''2. ''' Leodegarius<br />
<br />
'''3. ''' Menna<br />
<br />
'''4. ''' Aurea<br />
<br />
'''5. ''' Maurus and Placidus<br />
<br />
'''6. ''' Romanus of Auxerre<br />
<br />
'''7. ''' Palladius<br />
<br />
'''8. ''' Benedicta<br />
<br />
'''9. ''' Denis of Paris<br />
<br />
'''10. ''' Clarus<br />
<br />
Gereon & fellow martyrs<br />
<br />
'''11. ''' Agilbert<br />
<br />
'''12. ''' Edwin<br />
<br />
Wilfrid of York<br />
<br />
'''13. ''' Gerald<br />
<br />
'''14. ''' Menehould<br />
<br />
'''15. ''' Bruno<br />
<br />
'''16. ''' Michael the Archangel's appearance at Mont saint-Michel)<br />
<br />
Gaul<br />
<br />
'''17. ''' Translation of St [[Etheldreda of Ely]]<br />
<br />
[[Nothelm]]<br />
<br />
Berarius<br />
<br />
'''18. ''' Monon<br />
<br />
'''19. ''' Frideswide<br />
<br />
'''20. ''' Caprasius<br />
<br />
'''21. ''' Ursula & Martyrs<br />
<br />
'''22. ''' Moderan<br />
<br />
'''23. ''' Romanus<br />
<br />
'''24. ''' Maglorious<br />
<br />
'''25. ''' Crispin & Crispinian<br />
<br />
'''26. ''' [[Cuthbert of Canterbury]]<br />
<br />
'''27. ''' Vincent, Sabina and Christeta<br />
<br />
'''28. ''' Faro<br />
<br />
'''29. ''' Bond<br />
<br />
'''30. ''' Lucanus<br />
<br />
'''31. ''' Quentin<br />
<br />
== November ==<br />
<br />
'''1'''. All Saints’<br />
<br />
'''2'''. All Souls’<br />
<br />
Victorinus<br />
<br />
'''3'''. Guenhael<br />
<br />
'''4'''. Winifred<br />
<br />
'''5'''. Bertilla<br />
<br />
'''6'''. Leonard<br />
<br />
'''7'''. Willibrord<br />
<br />
'''8'''. Four Crowned Martyrs<br />
<br />
Deusdedit<br />
<br />
'''9'''. Ursinus<br />
<br />
'''10'''. [[Leo the Great]]<br />
<br />
'''11'''. [[Martin of Tours]]<br />
<br />
'''12'''. martin of Rome<br />
<br />
'''13'''. Brixius<br />
<br />
'''14'''. Erkenwald<br />
<br />
'''15'''. Malo<br />
<br />
'''16'''. Eucherius<br />
<br />
'''17'''. Gregory of Tours<br />
<br />
'''18'''. Odo<br />
<br />
'''19'''. Severinus, Exuperius and Felician<br />
<br />
'''20'''. [[Edmund the Martyr]]<br />
<br />
'''21'''. Columbanus the Younger<br />
<br />
'''22'''. Cecilia<br />
<br />
'''23'''. [[Clement of Rome]]<br />
<br />
'''24'''. Chrysogonus<br />
<br />
'''25'''. Moses of Rome<br />
<br />
'''26'''. [[Linus of Rome]]<br />
<br />
'''27'''. Siffred<br />
<br />
'''28'''. Rufus<br />
<br />
'''29'''. Saturninus<br />
<br />
'''30'''. Trojan<br />
<br />
== December ==<br />
<br />
'''1. ''' Eligius<br />
<br />
'''2. ''' Peter Chrysologous<br />
<br />
'''3. ''' [[Birinus of Dorchester]]<br />
<br />
'''4. ''' Ada<br />
<br />
'''5. ''' Bassus<br />
<br />
'''6. ''' [[Nicholas of Myra]]<br />
<br />
Asella<br />
<br />
'''7. ''' Ambrose of Milan<br />
<br />
'''8. ''' Conception of the Theotokos<br />
<br />
Romaricus<br />
'''9. ''' [[Conception of the Theotokos]]<br />
<br />
'''10. ''' Miltiades<br />
<br />
'''11. ''' [[Damasus I of Rome]]<br />
<br />
'''12. ''' Corentinuus<br />
<br />
'''13. ''' [[Lucy of Syracuse]]<br />
<br />
'''14. ''' Venantius Fortunatus<br />
<br />
'''15. ''' Mamiminus<br />
<br />
'''16. ''' Valentine, Concordius, Navalis and Agricola<br />
<br />
'''17. ''' Sturm<br />
<br />
'''18. ''' Gatian<br />
<br />
'''19. ''' Gregory of Auxerre<br />
<br />
'''20. ''' Ursicinus<br />
<br />
'''21. ''' [[Apostle Thomas|Thomas the Apostle]]<br />
<br />
'''22. ''' Flavian<br />
<br />
'''23. ''' Servulus<br />
<br />
'''24. ''' Gregory of Spoleto<br />
<br />
'''25. ''' [[Nativity|Nativity of Our Lord]]<br />
<br />
'''26. ''' Zosimus<br />
<br />
'''27. ''' Fabiola<br />
<br />
'''28. ''' Antony of Lérins<br />
<br />
'''29. ''' Trophimus<br />
<br />
'''30. ''' Sabinus<br />
<br />
'''31. ''' [[Sylvester I of Rome]]</div>Fr Levhttps://orthodoxwiki.org/index.php?title=Western_Saints_before_the_AD_1054_Schism&diff=120003Western Saints before the AD 1054 Schism2014-10-06T13:50:59Z<p>Fr Lev: /* November */ filled out November</p>
<hr />
<div>''The following compilation is not an approved list of Western saints and may well not be "official." Notes and comments about each of them are welcome. It also includes commemorations recognized in the East, but observed on different dates.''<br />
<br />
== January ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' Eugendus<br />
<br />
'''2.''' Adalard of Corbie<br />
<br />
Auspasius of Auch<br />
<br />
'''3.''' [[Genevieve of Paris]]<br />
<br />
'''4.''' Fereal of Uzes<br />
<br />
Pharaildis<br />
<br />
Rigobert<br />
<br />
'''8.''' Aldric<br />
<br />
Erhard<br />
<br />
Gudula<br />
<br />
Pega of Peakirk <br />
<br />
'''9.''' Adrian of Canterbury<br />
<br />
'''12.''' Biscop<br />
<br />
'''13.''' Berhtwald<br />
<br />
Berno of Cluny<br />
<br />
[[Remigius of Rheims]]<br />
<br />
'''14.''' Mungo (Kentigern)<br />
<br />
'''15.''' Ceolwulf<br />
<br />
Emebert<br />
<br />
'''16.''' Fursey of Cnobheresburg<br />
<br />
'''17.''' Mildgyth<br />
<br />
Sulpitius the Pious<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Deicolus<br />
<br />
'''19.''' Agricius of Tier<br />
<br />
Contentius<br />
<br />
Remigius of Rouen<br />
<br />
'''21.''' Osburh of Coventry<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Praejectus<br />
<br />
Racho of Autun<br />
<br />
'''29.''' Aquilinus of Cologne/Milano<br />
<br />
[[Gildas the Wise]]<br />
<br />
Valerius of Treves<br />
<br />
'''30.''' Aldegonde<br />
<br />
Balthild<br />
<br />
'''31.''' Domitius of Amiens<br />
<br />
Uphia<br />
<br />
== February ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' [[Brigid of Kildare]]<br />
<br />
Severus of Avranches<br />
<br />
Sigebert III<br />
<br />
'''3.''' [[Ansgar]] (Anskar) of Bremen<br />
<br />
[[Laurence of Canterbury]]<br />
<br />
Werburh<br />
<br />
'''4.''' Aldate/Aldatus of Gloucester<br />
<br />
Rimbert<br />
<br />
'''5.''' Adelaide of Vilich<br />
<br />
Bertulf of Renty<br />
<br />
'''6.''' Amandus<br />
<br />
'''8.''' Aelfflaed of Whitby<br />
<br />
Cuthmann of Steyning<br />
<br />
'''9.''' Alto of Altomunster<br />
<br />
Ansbert<br />
<br />
Marius of Avenches<br />
<br />
'''10.''' Autrebertha<br />
<br />
[[Scholastica]]<br />
<br />
'''11.''' [[Blaise of Sebaste]]<br />
<br />
'''12.''' Aethelwold of Lindisfarne<br />
<br />
Benedict of Aniane<br />
<br />
'''13.''' Castor of Karden<br />
<br />
'''15.''' [[Sigfrid of Sweden]]<br />
<br />
'''17.''' Silvin of Auchy<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Angilbert<br />
<br />
[[Colman of Lindisfarne]]<br />
<br />
'''20.''' Eleutherius of Tournai<br />
<br />
'''21.''' Germanus of Granfelden<br />
<br />
'''23.''' Midburh<br />
<br />
'''24.''' Aethelberht of Kent<br />
<br />
Basil of Melrose<br />
<br />
Modest<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Praetextatus/Prix<br />
<br />
'''27.''' Aelfnoth of Stowe<br />
<br />
'''29.''' [[Oswald of Worcester]]<br />
<br />
== March ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' Abdalong of Marseilles<br />
<br />
Albinus of Angers<br />
<br />
[[David of Wales]]<br />
<br />
'''2.''' [[Chad of Lichfield]]<br />
<br />
'''6.''' Baldred/Balthere of Tyninghame<br />
<br />
Billfrith <br />
<br />
Chrodegang of Metz<br />
<br />
'''7.''' Eosterwine of Monkwearmouth<br />
<br />
'''8.''' Felix of Dommac<br />
<br />
'''9.''' Bosa of York<br />
<br />
'''10.''' Agilbert<br />
<br />
Attala<br />
<br />
Himelin<br />
<br />
'''12.''' Aelfheah the Bald<br />
<br />
'''14.''' [[Benedict of Nursia]]<br />
<br />
Matilda<br />
<br />
'''16.''' Heribert of Cologne<br />
<br />
'''17.''' Gertrude of Nivelles<br />
<br />
[[Patrick of Ireland]]<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Eadweard the Martyr<br />
<br />
'''19.''' Alchmund of Derby<br />
<br />
'''20.''' [[Clement of Ireland]]<br />
<br />
[[Cuthbert of Lindisfarne]]<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Humbert<br />
<br />
'''26.''' Ludger of Saxony<br />
<br />
'''27.''' Rupert of Salzburg<br />
<br />
'''28.''' Bereharius<br />
<br />
Guntram<br />
<br />
'''29.''' Eustace<br />
<br />
== April ==<br />
<br />
'''2.''' Aebbe the Younger<br />
<br />
Nicetius of Lyon<br />
<br />
'''3.''' Burgundofara<br />
<br />
'''5.''' Aethelburh of Kent<br />
<br />
'''9.''' Hugh of Champagne<br />
<br />
'''11.''' Guthlac of Crowland<br />
<br />
'''12.''' Erkembode<br />
<br />
'''15.''' Abbo II of Metz<br />
<br />
'''16.''' Padarn<br />
<br />
'''19.''' Alphege of Canterbury<br />
<br />
'''22.''' Aprunculus of Treves<br />
<br />
Opportuna of Montreuil<br />
<br />
'''23.''' Gerald/Gerard of Toul<br />
<br />
'''24.''' Ecgberht of Ripon<br />
<br />
Ivo of Ramsey<br />
<br />
Mellitus of London<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Rusticus of Lyon<br />
<br />
'''26.''' Richarius<br />
<br />
Trudpert<br />
<br />
'''29.''' Adalgar<br />
<br />
Aethelwold of Farne<br />
<br />
Wilfrith the Younger<br />
<br />
'''30.''' Earconwald<br />
<br />
<br />
== May ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' Aredius of Gap<br />
<br />
Bertha of Kent<br />
<br />
Marcouf<br />
<br />
Sigismund of Burgundy<br />
<br />
Theodard of Narbonne<br />
<br />
'''4.''' Arbeo of Freising<br />
<br />
Florian<br />
<br />
'''5.''' Maurontius of Douay<br />
<br />
'''6.''' Eadberht of Lindisfarne<br />
<br />
'''7.''' [[John of Beverly]]<br />
<br />
'''8.''' Desideratus<br />
<br />
Indracht of Glastonbury<br />
<br />
Itta of Metz<br />
<br />
'''9.''' Bienheure<br />
<br />
'''10.''' Solange<br />
<br />
'''11.''' Gangulphus<br />
<br />
Majolus<br />
<br />
'''12.''' Modoald/Romoald<br />
<br />
Rictrude<br />
<br />
'''15.''' Bertha of Bingen<br />
<br />
Rupert of Bingen<br />
<br />
'''16.''' [[Brendan the Navigator]]<br />
<br />
Germerius<br />
<br />
Honoratus<br />
<br />
'''17.''' Rasso of Adechs<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Aelfgifu of Shaftesbury<br />
<br />
'''19.''' Aelfheah of Canterbury<br />
<br />
'''20.''' Aethelberht II of East Anglia<br />
<br />
Austregisilus<br />
<br />
'''21.''' Hospitius<br />
<br />
'''23.''' Desidarius of Vienne<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Aldhelm of Sherbourne<br />
<br />
'''26.''' [[Augustine of Canterbury]]<br />
<br />
'''27.''' [[Bede]] of Jarrow<br />
<br />
'''28.''' [[Germanus of Paris]]<br />
<br />
William of Gellone<br />
<br />
'''29.''' [[Maximinus of Trier]]<br />
<br />
'''30.''' Hubertus<br />
<br />
Walstan<br />
<br />
== June ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' Lullus<br />
<br />
Wigstan<br />
<br />
'''4.''' Clotilde<br />
<br />
Eadfrith of Lindisfarne<br />
<br />
'''6.''' Agobard<br />
<br />
Branwalader of Milton<br />
<br />
Claudius<br />
<br />
'''8.''' Chlodulf of Metz<br />
<br />
Gildard<br />
<br />
Medardus<br />
<br />
'''11.''' Godeberta<br />
<br />
Landry of Paris<br />
<br />
'''13, 14, 15.''' Psalmodius<br />
<br />
'''16.''' Aurelianus<br />
<br />
'''17.''' Athwulf of Thorney<br />
<br />
Botwulf of Thorney<br />
<br />
Colman<br />
<br />
Nectan of Hartland<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Osana<br />
<br />
'''19.''' Deodatus<br />
<br />
'''20.''' Gobain<br />
<br />
'''21.''' Agofredus<br />
<br />
Alban of Mainz<br />
<br />
Gobain<br />
<br />
Leutfridus<br />
<br />
Palladius of Embrun<br />
<br />
'''22.''' [[Alban]] Protomartyr of Britain<br />
<br />
'''23.''' Aethelthryth<br />
<br />
'''24.''' Rumbold<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Amphibalus of St. Albans<br />
<br />
'''26.''' Brannac of Braunton<br />
<br />
'''28.''' [[Augustine of Hippo]]<br />
<br />
== July ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' Gal<br />
<br />
Calais<br />
<br />
'''2.''' Monegundus<br />
<br />
'''4.''' Bertha of Artois<br />
<br />
[[Oda of Canterbury]]<br />
<br />
'''6.''' Modwenna of Burton<br />
<br />
Seaxburh of Ely<br />
<br />
'''7.''' Aethelburh of Faremoutiers<br />
<br />
Haedde<br />
<br />
Willibald<br />
<br />
'''8.''' Colman<br />
<br />
Grimbald<br />
<br />
Kilian<br />
<br />
Urith<br />
<br />
Wihtburh<br />
<br />
'''9.''' Agilulfus of Cologne<br />
<br />
Evorhilda<br />
<br />
Neot<br />
<br />
'''10.''' Amalberga of Temse<br />
<br />
'''13.''' Arn of Wurzburg<br />
<br />
Mildthryth<br />
<br />
'''14.''' Frithona of Canterbury<br />
<br />
'''15.''' Apronia<br />
<br />
Eadgyth of Polesworth<br />
<br />
Swithun<br />
<br />
'''16.''' Fulrad<br />
<br />
Gundulph of Maastricht<br />
<br />
Helier<br />
<br />
Reineldis<br />
<br />
'''17.''' Cynehelm/Kenelm of Mercia<br />
<br />
Marcellina<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Arnulf of Metz<br />
<br />
Eadburh of Bicester<br />
<br />
Frederick of Utrecht<br />
<br />
'''20.''' Ansegisus<br />
<br />
Arilda of Oldbury<br />
<br />
Wilgefortis<br />
<br />
'''21.''' Arbogast<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Glodesind<br />
<br />
'''27.''' Galactorius<br />
<br />
'''28.''' [[Samson of Dol]]<br />
<br />
'''31.''' Sativola of Exeter<br />
<br />
== August ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' Aethelwold of Winchester<br />
<br />
Arcadius of Bourges<br />
<br />
'''5.''' Afla of Augsburg<br />
<br />
[[Oswald of Northumbria]]<br />
<br />
'''11.''' Gaugericus<br />
<br />
'''12.''' Porcarius<br />
<br />
'''13.''' Junian<br />
<br />
[[Radegund]]<br />
<br />
'''15.''' Altfrid<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Fiacre<br />
<br />
'''19.''' Bertulf of Bobbio<br />
<br />
Calminius<br />
<br />
Credan of Bodmin<br />
<br />
Magnus<br />
<br />
Sebaldus<br />
<br />
'''20.''' Oswine of Deira<br />
<br />
Philibert of Jumieges<br />
<br />
'''21.''' Eardwulf of Northumbria<br />
<br />
'''24.''' Audoin<br />
<br />
Gildard of Lurcy-le-Bourg<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Aebbe of Coldingham<br />
<br />
Aredius<br />
<br />
Gines de la Jara<br />
<br />
Gregory of Utrecht<br />
<br />
'''26.''' Bregowine<br />
<br />
'''27.''' [[Caesarius of Arles]]<br />
<br />
Decuman of Watchet<br />
<br />
Lycerius<br />
<br />
Syagrius of Autun<br />
<br />
'''28.''' Rumon<br />
<br />
'''31.''' [[Aidan of Lindisfarne]]<br />
<br />
[[Eanswythe of Folkestone]]<br />
<br />
[[ro:Sfinți occidentali de dinainte de schisma din 1054]]<br />
<br />
== September ==<br />
<br />
'''1. ''' <br />
<br />
'''2. ''' Giles<br />
<br />
'''3. ''' <br />
<br />
'''4. ''' [[Cuthbert of Lindisfarne|Cuthbert the Wonderworker]]<br />
<br />
'''5. ''' Bertin<br />
<br />
'''6. ''' <br />
<br />
'''7. ''' <br />
<br />
'''8. ''' <br />
<br />
'''9. ''' <br />
<br />
'''10. '''<br />
<br />
'''11. ''' <br />
<br />
'''12. ''' <br />
<br />
'''13. '''<br />
<br />
'''14. ''' <br />
<br />
'''15. ''' Leobinus<br />
<br />
'''16. ''' Edith<br />
<br />
[[Euphemia the Great Martyr|Euphemia]]<br />
<br />
Ninian<br />
<br />
'''17. ''' <br />
<br />
'''18. '''<br />
<br />
'''19. '''<br />
<br />
'''20. ''' <br />
<br />
'''21. ''' [[Apostle Matthew|Matthew the Apostle]]<br />
<br />
'''22. ''' <br />
<br />
'''23. ''' [[Maurice]]<br />
<br />
'''24. ''' Conception of John the Baptist<br />
<br />
'''25. ''' Firminus<br />
<br />
'''26. ''' Cyprian & Justina<br />
<br />
'''27. '''<br />
<br />
'''28. ''' <br />
<br />
'''29. ''' <br />
<br />
'''30. ''' [[Jerome]]<br />
<br />
== October ==<br />
<br />
'''1. ''' [[Remigius of Rheims]]<br />
<br />
'''2. ''' Leodegarius<br />
<br />
'''3. ''' <br />
<br />
'''4. ''' <br />
<br />
'''5. ''' [[Archangel Raphael|Raphael the Archangel]]<br />
<br />
'''6. ''' <br />
<br />
'''7. ''' Mark & Marcellian<br />
<br />
'''8. ''' Demetrius<br />
<br />
'''9. ''' [[Dionysius the Areopagite ]]<br />
<br />
'''10. ''' [[Paulinus]]<br />
<br />
Gereon & fellow martyrs<br />
<br />
'''11. ''' Nicasius & others<br />
<br />
'''12. ''' <br />
<br />
'''13. '''<br />
<br />
'''14. ''' <br />
<br />
'''15. ''' <br />
<br />
'''16. ''' Michael upon the Sea<br />
<br />
'''17. ''' Translation of St [[Etheldreda of Ely]]<br />
<br />
[[Nothelm]]<br />
<br />
'''18. '''[[Apostle Luke| Luke the Evangelist]]<br />
<br />
'''19. ''' Frideswide<br />
<br />
'''20. ''' <br />
<br />
'''21. ''' Ursula & Martyrs<br />
<br />
'''22. ''' <br />
<br />
'''23. ''' Roman<br />
<br />
'''24. ''' <br />
<br />
'''25. ''' Crispin & Crispinian<br />
<br />
'''26. ''' [[Cuthbert of Canterbury]]<br />
<br />
'''27. '''<br />
<br />
'''28. ''' [[Apostle Simon|Simon]] & [[Apostle Jude| Jude]], Apostles]]<br />
<br />
'''29. ''' <br />
<br />
'''30. ''' <br />
<br />
'''31. ''' Quentin<br />
<br />
== November ==<br />
<br />
'''1'''. All Saints’<br />
<br />
'''2'''. All Souls’<br />
<br />
Victorinus<br />
<br />
'''3'''. Guenhael<br />
<br />
'''4'''. Winifred<br />
<br />
'''5'''. Bertilla<br />
<br />
'''6'''. Leonard<br />
<br />
'''7'''. Willibrord<br />
<br />
'''8'''. Four Crowned Martyrs<br />
<br />
Deusdedit<br />
<br />
'''9'''. Ursinus<br />
<br />
'''10'''. [[Leo the Great]]<br />
<br />
'''11'''. [[Martin of Tours]]<br />
<br />
'''12'''. martin of Rome<br />
<br />
'''13'''. Brixius<br />
<br />
'''14'''. Erkenwald<br />
<br />
'''15'''. Malo<br />
<br />
'''16'''. Eucherius<br />
<br />
'''17'''. Gregory of Tours<br />
<br />
'''18'''. Odo<br />
<br />
'''19'''. Severinus, Exuperius and Felician<br />
<br />
'''20'''. [[Edmund the Martyr]]<br />
<br />
'''21'''. Columbanus the Younger<br />
<br />
'''22'''. Cecilia<br />
<br />
'''23'''. [[Clement of Rome]]<br />
<br />
'''24'''. Chrysogonus<br />
<br />
'''25'''. Moses of Rome<br />
<br />
'''26'''. [[Linus of Rome]]<br />
<br />
'''27'''. Siffred<br />
<br />
'''28'''. Rufus<br />
<br />
'''29'''. Saturninus<br />
<br />
'''30'''. Trojan<br />
<br />
== December ==<br />
<br />
'''1. ''' Eligius<br />
<br />
'''2. ''' Peter Chrysologous<br />
<br />
'''3. ''' [[Birinus of Dorchester]]<br />
<br />
'''4. ''' Ada<br />
<br />
'''5. ''' Bassus<br />
<br />
'''6. ''' [[Nicholas of Myra]]<br />
<br />
Asella<br />
<br />
'''7. ''' Ambrose of Milan<br />
<br />
'''8. ''' Conception of the Theotokos<br />
<br />
Romaricus<br />
'''9. ''' [[Conception of the Theotokos]]<br />
<br />
'''10. ''' Miltiades<br />
<br />
'''11. ''' [[Damasus I of Rome]]<br />
<br />
'''12. ''' Corentinuus<br />
<br />
'''13. ''' [[Lucy of Syracuse]]<br />
<br />
'''14. ''' Venantius Fortunatus<br />
<br />
'''15. ''' Mamiminus<br />
<br />
'''16. ''' Valentine, Concordius, Navalis and Agricola<br />
<br />
'''17. ''' Sturm<br />
<br />
'''18. ''' Gatian<br />
<br />
'''19. ''' Gregory of Auxerre<br />
<br />
'''20. ''' Ursicinus<br />
<br />
'''21. ''' [[Apostle Thomas|Thomas the Apostle]]<br />
<br />
'''22. ''' Flavian<br />
<br />
'''23. ''' Servulus<br />
<br />
'''24. ''' Gregory of Spoleto<br />
<br />
'''25. ''' [[Nativity|Nativity of Our Lord]]<br />
<br />
'''26. ''' Zosimus<br />
<br />
'''27. ''' Fabiola<br />
<br />
'''28. ''' Antony of Lérins<br />
<br />
'''29. ''' Trophimus<br />
<br />
'''30. ''' Sabinus<br />
<br />
'''31. ''' [[Sylvester I of Rome]]</div>Fr Levhttps://orthodoxwiki.org/index.php?title=Western_Saints_before_the_AD_1054_Schism&diff=120002Western Saints before the AD 1054 Schism2014-10-06T13:40:43Z<p>Fr Lev: /* December */ filled out December</p>
<hr />
<div>''The following compilation is not an approved list of Western saints and may well not be "official." Notes and comments about each of them are welcome. It also includes commemorations recognized in the East, but observed on different dates.''<br />
<br />
== January ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' Eugendus<br />
<br />
'''2.''' Adalard of Corbie<br />
<br />
Auspasius of Auch<br />
<br />
'''3.''' [[Genevieve of Paris]]<br />
<br />
'''4.''' Fereal of Uzes<br />
<br />
Pharaildis<br />
<br />
Rigobert<br />
<br />
'''8.''' Aldric<br />
<br />
Erhard<br />
<br />
Gudula<br />
<br />
Pega of Peakirk <br />
<br />
'''9.''' Adrian of Canterbury<br />
<br />
'''12.''' Biscop<br />
<br />
'''13.''' Berhtwald<br />
<br />
Berno of Cluny<br />
<br />
[[Remigius of Rheims]]<br />
<br />
'''14.''' Mungo (Kentigern)<br />
<br />
'''15.''' Ceolwulf<br />
<br />
Emebert<br />
<br />
'''16.''' Fursey of Cnobheresburg<br />
<br />
'''17.''' Mildgyth<br />
<br />
Sulpitius the Pious<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Deicolus<br />
<br />
'''19.''' Agricius of Tier<br />
<br />
Contentius<br />
<br />
Remigius of Rouen<br />
<br />
'''21.''' Osburh of Coventry<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Praejectus<br />
<br />
Racho of Autun<br />
<br />
'''29.''' Aquilinus of Cologne/Milano<br />
<br />
[[Gildas the Wise]]<br />
<br />
Valerius of Treves<br />
<br />
'''30.''' Aldegonde<br />
<br />
Balthild<br />
<br />
'''31.''' Domitius of Amiens<br />
<br />
Uphia<br />
<br />
== February ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' [[Brigid of Kildare]]<br />
<br />
Severus of Avranches<br />
<br />
Sigebert III<br />
<br />
'''3.''' [[Ansgar]] (Anskar) of Bremen<br />
<br />
[[Laurence of Canterbury]]<br />
<br />
Werburh<br />
<br />
'''4.''' Aldate/Aldatus of Gloucester<br />
<br />
Rimbert<br />
<br />
'''5.''' Adelaide of Vilich<br />
<br />
Bertulf of Renty<br />
<br />
'''6.''' Amandus<br />
<br />
'''8.''' Aelfflaed of Whitby<br />
<br />
Cuthmann of Steyning<br />
<br />
'''9.''' Alto of Altomunster<br />
<br />
Ansbert<br />
<br />
Marius of Avenches<br />
<br />
'''10.''' Autrebertha<br />
<br />
[[Scholastica]]<br />
<br />
'''11.''' [[Blaise of Sebaste]]<br />
<br />
'''12.''' Aethelwold of Lindisfarne<br />
<br />
Benedict of Aniane<br />
<br />
'''13.''' Castor of Karden<br />
<br />
'''15.''' [[Sigfrid of Sweden]]<br />
<br />
'''17.''' Silvin of Auchy<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Angilbert<br />
<br />
[[Colman of Lindisfarne]]<br />
<br />
'''20.''' Eleutherius of Tournai<br />
<br />
'''21.''' Germanus of Granfelden<br />
<br />
'''23.''' Midburh<br />
<br />
'''24.''' Aethelberht of Kent<br />
<br />
Basil of Melrose<br />
<br />
Modest<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Praetextatus/Prix<br />
<br />
'''27.''' Aelfnoth of Stowe<br />
<br />
'''29.''' [[Oswald of Worcester]]<br />
<br />
== March ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' Abdalong of Marseilles<br />
<br />
Albinus of Angers<br />
<br />
[[David of Wales]]<br />
<br />
'''2.''' [[Chad of Lichfield]]<br />
<br />
'''6.''' Baldred/Balthere of Tyninghame<br />
<br />
Billfrith <br />
<br />
Chrodegang of Metz<br />
<br />
'''7.''' Eosterwine of Monkwearmouth<br />
<br />
'''8.''' Felix of Dommac<br />
<br />
'''9.''' Bosa of York<br />
<br />
'''10.''' Agilbert<br />
<br />
Attala<br />
<br />
Himelin<br />
<br />
'''12.''' Aelfheah the Bald<br />
<br />
'''14.''' [[Benedict of Nursia]]<br />
<br />
Matilda<br />
<br />
'''16.''' Heribert of Cologne<br />
<br />
'''17.''' Gertrude of Nivelles<br />
<br />
[[Patrick of Ireland]]<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Eadweard the Martyr<br />
<br />
'''19.''' Alchmund of Derby<br />
<br />
'''20.''' [[Clement of Ireland]]<br />
<br />
[[Cuthbert of Lindisfarne]]<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Humbert<br />
<br />
'''26.''' Ludger of Saxony<br />
<br />
'''27.''' Rupert of Salzburg<br />
<br />
'''28.''' Bereharius<br />
<br />
Guntram<br />
<br />
'''29.''' Eustace<br />
<br />
== April ==<br />
<br />
'''2.''' Aebbe the Younger<br />
<br />
Nicetius of Lyon<br />
<br />
'''3.''' Burgundofara<br />
<br />
'''5.''' Aethelburh of Kent<br />
<br />
'''9.''' Hugh of Champagne<br />
<br />
'''11.''' Guthlac of Crowland<br />
<br />
'''12.''' Erkembode<br />
<br />
'''15.''' Abbo II of Metz<br />
<br />
'''16.''' Padarn<br />
<br />
'''19.''' Alphege of Canterbury<br />
<br />
'''22.''' Aprunculus of Treves<br />
<br />
Opportuna of Montreuil<br />
<br />
'''23.''' Gerald/Gerard of Toul<br />
<br />
'''24.''' Ecgberht of Ripon<br />
<br />
Ivo of Ramsey<br />
<br />
Mellitus of London<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Rusticus of Lyon<br />
<br />
'''26.''' Richarius<br />
<br />
Trudpert<br />
<br />
'''29.''' Adalgar<br />
<br />
Aethelwold of Farne<br />
<br />
Wilfrith the Younger<br />
<br />
'''30.''' Earconwald<br />
<br />
<br />
== May ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' Aredius of Gap<br />
<br />
Bertha of Kent<br />
<br />
Marcouf<br />
<br />
Sigismund of Burgundy<br />
<br />
Theodard of Narbonne<br />
<br />
'''4.''' Arbeo of Freising<br />
<br />
Florian<br />
<br />
'''5.''' Maurontius of Douay<br />
<br />
'''6.''' Eadberht of Lindisfarne<br />
<br />
'''7.''' [[John of Beverly]]<br />
<br />
'''8.''' Desideratus<br />
<br />
Indracht of Glastonbury<br />
<br />
Itta of Metz<br />
<br />
'''9.''' Bienheure<br />
<br />
'''10.''' Solange<br />
<br />
'''11.''' Gangulphus<br />
<br />
Majolus<br />
<br />
'''12.''' Modoald/Romoald<br />
<br />
Rictrude<br />
<br />
'''15.''' Bertha of Bingen<br />
<br />
Rupert of Bingen<br />
<br />
'''16.''' [[Brendan the Navigator]]<br />
<br />
Germerius<br />
<br />
Honoratus<br />
<br />
'''17.''' Rasso of Adechs<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Aelfgifu of Shaftesbury<br />
<br />
'''19.''' Aelfheah of Canterbury<br />
<br />
'''20.''' Aethelberht II of East Anglia<br />
<br />
Austregisilus<br />
<br />
'''21.''' Hospitius<br />
<br />
'''23.''' Desidarius of Vienne<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Aldhelm of Sherbourne<br />
<br />
'''26.''' [[Augustine of Canterbury]]<br />
<br />
'''27.''' [[Bede]] of Jarrow<br />
<br />
'''28.''' [[Germanus of Paris]]<br />
<br />
William of Gellone<br />
<br />
'''29.''' [[Maximinus of Trier]]<br />
<br />
'''30.''' Hubertus<br />
<br />
Walstan<br />
<br />
== June ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' Lullus<br />
<br />
Wigstan<br />
<br />
'''4.''' Clotilde<br />
<br />
Eadfrith of Lindisfarne<br />
<br />
'''6.''' Agobard<br />
<br />
Branwalader of Milton<br />
<br />
Claudius<br />
<br />
'''8.''' Chlodulf of Metz<br />
<br />
Gildard<br />
<br />
Medardus<br />
<br />
'''11.''' Godeberta<br />
<br />
Landry of Paris<br />
<br />
'''13, 14, 15.''' Psalmodius<br />
<br />
'''16.''' Aurelianus<br />
<br />
'''17.''' Athwulf of Thorney<br />
<br />
Botwulf of Thorney<br />
<br />
Colman<br />
<br />
Nectan of Hartland<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Osana<br />
<br />
'''19.''' Deodatus<br />
<br />
'''20.''' Gobain<br />
<br />
'''21.''' Agofredus<br />
<br />
Alban of Mainz<br />
<br />
Gobain<br />
<br />
Leutfridus<br />
<br />
Palladius of Embrun<br />
<br />
'''22.''' [[Alban]] Protomartyr of Britain<br />
<br />
'''23.''' Aethelthryth<br />
<br />
'''24.''' Rumbold<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Amphibalus of St. Albans<br />
<br />
'''26.''' Brannac of Braunton<br />
<br />
'''28.''' [[Augustine of Hippo]]<br />
<br />
== July ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' Gal<br />
<br />
Calais<br />
<br />
'''2.''' Monegundus<br />
<br />
'''4.''' Bertha of Artois<br />
<br />
[[Oda of Canterbury]]<br />
<br />
'''6.''' Modwenna of Burton<br />
<br />
Seaxburh of Ely<br />
<br />
'''7.''' Aethelburh of Faremoutiers<br />
<br />
Haedde<br />
<br />
Willibald<br />
<br />
'''8.''' Colman<br />
<br />
Grimbald<br />
<br />
Kilian<br />
<br />
Urith<br />
<br />
Wihtburh<br />
<br />
'''9.''' Agilulfus of Cologne<br />
<br />
Evorhilda<br />
<br />
Neot<br />
<br />
'''10.''' Amalberga of Temse<br />
<br />
'''13.''' Arn of Wurzburg<br />
<br />
Mildthryth<br />
<br />
'''14.''' Frithona of Canterbury<br />
<br />
'''15.''' Apronia<br />
<br />
Eadgyth of Polesworth<br />
<br />
Swithun<br />
<br />
'''16.''' Fulrad<br />
<br />
Gundulph of Maastricht<br />
<br />
Helier<br />
<br />
Reineldis<br />
<br />
'''17.''' Cynehelm/Kenelm of Mercia<br />
<br />
Marcellina<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Arnulf of Metz<br />
<br />
Eadburh of Bicester<br />
<br />
Frederick of Utrecht<br />
<br />
'''20.''' Ansegisus<br />
<br />
Arilda of Oldbury<br />
<br />
Wilgefortis<br />
<br />
'''21.''' Arbogast<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Glodesind<br />
<br />
'''27.''' Galactorius<br />
<br />
'''28.''' [[Samson of Dol]]<br />
<br />
'''31.''' Sativola of Exeter<br />
<br />
== August ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' Aethelwold of Winchester<br />
<br />
Arcadius of Bourges<br />
<br />
'''5.''' Afla of Augsburg<br />
<br />
[[Oswald of Northumbria]]<br />
<br />
'''11.''' Gaugericus<br />
<br />
'''12.''' Porcarius<br />
<br />
'''13.''' Junian<br />
<br />
[[Radegund]]<br />
<br />
'''15.''' Altfrid<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Fiacre<br />
<br />
'''19.''' Bertulf of Bobbio<br />
<br />
Calminius<br />
<br />
Credan of Bodmin<br />
<br />
Magnus<br />
<br />
Sebaldus<br />
<br />
'''20.''' Oswine of Deira<br />
<br />
Philibert of Jumieges<br />
<br />
'''21.''' Eardwulf of Northumbria<br />
<br />
'''24.''' Audoin<br />
<br />
Gildard of Lurcy-le-Bourg<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Aebbe of Coldingham<br />
<br />
Aredius<br />
<br />
Gines de la Jara<br />
<br />
Gregory of Utrecht<br />
<br />
'''26.''' Bregowine<br />
<br />
'''27.''' [[Caesarius of Arles]]<br />
<br />
Decuman of Watchet<br />
<br />
Lycerius<br />
<br />
Syagrius of Autun<br />
<br />
'''28.''' Rumon<br />
<br />
'''31.''' [[Aidan of Lindisfarne]]<br />
<br />
[[Eanswythe of Folkestone]]<br />
<br />
[[ro:Sfinți occidentali de dinainte de schisma din 1054]]<br />
<br />
== September ==<br />
<br />
'''1. ''' <br />
<br />
'''2. ''' Giles<br />
<br />
'''3. ''' <br />
<br />
'''4. ''' [[Cuthbert of Lindisfarne|Cuthbert the Wonderworker]]<br />
<br />
'''5. ''' Bertin<br />
<br />
'''6. ''' <br />
<br />
'''7. ''' <br />
<br />
'''8. ''' <br />
<br />
'''9. ''' <br />
<br />
'''10. '''<br />
<br />
'''11. ''' <br />
<br />
'''12. ''' <br />
<br />
'''13. '''<br />
<br />
'''14. ''' <br />
<br />
'''15. ''' Leobinus<br />
<br />
'''16. ''' Edith<br />
<br />
[[Euphemia the Great Martyr|Euphemia]]<br />
<br />
Ninian<br />
<br />
'''17. ''' <br />
<br />
'''18. '''<br />
<br />
'''19. '''<br />
<br />
'''20. ''' <br />
<br />
'''21. ''' [[Apostle Matthew|Matthew the Apostle]]<br />
<br />
'''22. ''' <br />
<br />
'''23. ''' [[Maurice]]<br />
<br />
'''24. ''' Conception of John the Baptist<br />
<br />
'''25. ''' Firminus<br />
<br />
'''26. ''' Cyprian & Justina<br />
<br />
'''27. '''<br />
<br />
'''28. ''' <br />
<br />
'''29. ''' <br />
<br />
'''30. ''' [[Jerome]]<br />
<br />
== October ==<br />
<br />
'''1. ''' [[Remigius of Rheims]]<br />
<br />
'''2. ''' Leodegarius<br />
<br />
'''3. ''' <br />
<br />
'''4. ''' <br />
<br />
'''5. ''' [[Archangel Raphael|Raphael the Archangel]]<br />
<br />
'''6. ''' <br />
<br />
'''7. ''' Mark & Marcellian<br />
<br />
'''8. ''' Demetrius<br />
<br />
'''9. ''' [[Dionysius the Areopagite ]]<br />
<br />
'''10. ''' [[Paulinus]]<br />
<br />
Gereon & fellow martyrs<br />
<br />
'''11. ''' Nicasius & others<br />
<br />
'''12. ''' <br />
<br />
'''13. '''<br />
<br />
'''14. ''' <br />
<br />
'''15. ''' <br />
<br />
'''16. ''' Michael upon the Sea<br />
<br />
'''17. ''' Translation of St [[Etheldreda of Ely]]<br />
<br />
[[Nothelm]]<br />
<br />
'''18. '''[[Apostle Luke| Luke the Evangelist]]<br />
<br />
'''19. ''' Frideswide<br />
<br />
'''20. ''' <br />
<br />
'''21. ''' Ursula & Martyrs<br />
<br />
'''22. ''' <br />
<br />
'''23. ''' Roman<br />
<br />
'''24. ''' <br />
<br />
'''25. ''' Crispin & Crispinian<br />
<br />
'''26. ''' [[Cuthbert of Canterbury]]<br />
<br />
'''27. '''<br />
<br />
'''28. ''' [[Apostle Simon|Simon]] & [[Apostle Jude| Jude]], Apostles]]<br />
<br />
'''29. ''' <br />
<br />
'''30. ''' <br />
<br />
'''31. ''' Quentin<br />
<br />
== November ==<br />
<br />
'''1'''. All Saints’<br />
<br />
'''2'''. All Souls’<br />
<br />
'''3'''. <br />
<br />
'''4'''. Winifred<br />
<br />
'''5'''.<br />
<br />
'''6'''. Leonard<br />
<br />
'''7'''.<br />
<br />
'''8'''. Four Crowned Martyrs<br />
<br />
'''9'''.<br />
<br />
'''10'''. [[Leo the Great]]<br />
<br />
'''11'''. [[Martin of Tours]]<br />
<br />
'''12'''.<br />
<br />
'''13'''. Brixius<br />
<br />
'''14'''. Erkenwald<br />
<br />
'''15'''. Malo<br />
<br />
'''16'''. <br />
<br />
'''17'''.<br />
<br />
'''18'''.<br />
<br />
'''19'''.<br />
<br />
'''20'''. [[Edmund the Martyr]]<br />
<br />
'''21'''. <br />
<br />
'''22'''. Cecilia<br />
<br />
'''23'''. [[Clement of Rome]]<br />
<br />
'''24'''.<br />
<br />
'''25'''. [[Catherine of Alexandria]]<br />
<br />
'''26'''. [[Linus of Rome]]<br />
<br />
'''27'''.<br />
<br />
'''28'''. <br />
<br />
'''29'''. Saturnin<br />
<br />
'''30'''. [[Apostle Andrew|Andrew the Apostle]]<br />
<br />
== December ==<br />
<br />
'''1. ''' Eligius<br />
<br />
'''2. ''' Peter Chrysologous<br />
<br />
'''3. ''' [[Birinus of Dorchester]]<br />
<br />
'''4. ''' Ada<br />
<br />
'''5. ''' Bassus<br />
<br />
'''6. ''' [[Nicholas of Myra]]<br />
<br />
Asella<br />
<br />
'''7. ''' Ambrose of Milan<br />
<br />
'''8. ''' Conception of the Theotokos<br />
<br />
Romaricus<br />
'''9. ''' [[Conception of the Theotokos]]<br />
<br />
'''10. ''' Miltiades<br />
<br />
'''11. ''' [[Damasus I of Rome]]<br />
<br />
'''12. ''' Corentinuus<br />
<br />
'''13. ''' [[Lucy of Syracuse]]<br />
<br />
'''14. ''' Venantius Fortunatus<br />
<br />
'''15. ''' Mamiminus<br />
<br />
'''16. ''' Valentine, Concordius, Navalis and Agricola<br />
<br />
'''17. ''' Sturm<br />
<br />
'''18. ''' Gatian<br />
<br />
'''19. ''' Gregory of Auxerre<br />
<br />
'''20. ''' Ursicinus<br />
<br />
'''21. ''' [[Apostle Thomas|Thomas the Apostle]]<br />
<br />
'''22. ''' Flavian<br />
<br />
'''23. ''' Servulus<br />
<br />
'''24. ''' Gregory of Spoleto<br />
<br />
'''25. ''' [[Nativity|Nativity of Our Lord]]<br />
<br />
'''26. ''' Zosimus<br />
<br />
'''27. ''' Fabiola<br />
<br />
'''28. ''' Antony of Lérins<br />
<br />
'''29. ''' Trophimus<br />
<br />
'''30. ''' Sabinus<br />
<br />
'''31. ''' [[Sylvester I of Rome]]</div>Fr Levhttps://orthodoxwiki.org/index.php?title=Western_Saints_before_the_AD_1054_Schism&diff=120001Western Saints before the AD 1054 Schism2014-10-06T13:24:08Z<p>Fr Lev: Undo revision 119994 by Drchadwick (talk)</p>
<hr />
<div>''The following compilation is not an approved list of Western saints and may well not be "official." Notes and comments about each of them are welcome. It also includes commemorations recognized in the East, but observed on different dates.''<br />
<br />
== January ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' Eugendus<br />
<br />
'''2.''' Adalard of Corbie<br />
<br />
Auspasius of Auch<br />
<br />
'''3.''' [[Genevieve of Paris]]<br />
<br />
'''4.''' Fereal of Uzes<br />
<br />
Pharaildis<br />
<br />
Rigobert<br />
<br />
'''8.''' Aldric<br />
<br />
Erhard<br />
<br />
Gudula<br />
<br />
Pega of Peakirk <br />
<br />
'''9.''' Adrian of Canterbury<br />
<br />
'''12.''' Biscop<br />
<br />
'''13.''' Berhtwald<br />
<br />
Berno of Cluny<br />
<br />
[[Remigius of Rheims]]<br />
<br />
'''14.''' Mungo (Kentigern)<br />
<br />
'''15.''' Ceolwulf<br />
<br />
Emebert<br />
<br />
'''16.''' Fursey of Cnobheresburg<br />
<br />
'''17.''' Mildgyth<br />
<br />
Sulpitius the Pious<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Deicolus<br />
<br />
'''19.''' Agricius of Tier<br />
<br />
Contentius<br />
<br />
Remigius of Rouen<br />
<br />
'''21.''' Osburh of Coventry<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Praejectus<br />
<br />
Racho of Autun<br />
<br />
'''29.''' Aquilinus of Cologne/Milano<br />
<br />
[[Gildas the Wise]]<br />
<br />
Valerius of Treves<br />
<br />
'''30.''' Aldegonde<br />
<br />
Balthild<br />
<br />
'''31.''' Domitius of Amiens<br />
<br />
Uphia<br />
<br />
== February ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' [[Brigid of Kildare]]<br />
<br />
Severus of Avranches<br />
<br />
Sigebert III<br />
<br />
'''3.''' [[Ansgar]] (Anskar) of Bremen<br />
<br />
[[Laurence of Canterbury]]<br />
<br />
Werburh<br />
<br />
'''4.''' Aldate/Aldatus of Gloucester<br />
<br />
Rimbert<br />
<br />
'''5.''' Adelaide of Vilich<br />
<br />
Bertulf of Renty<br />
<br />
'''6.''' Amandus<br />
<br />
'''8.''' Aelfflaed of Whitby<br />
<br />
Cuthmann of Steyning<br />
<br />
'''9.''' Alto of Altomunster<br />
<br />
Ansbert<br />
<br />
Marius of Avenches<br />
<br />
'''10.''' Autrebertha<br />
<br />
[[Scholastica]]<br />
<br />
'''11.''' [[Blaise of Sebaste]]<br />
<br />
'''12.''' Aethelwold of Lindisfarne<br />
<br />
Benedict of Aniane<br />
<br />
'''13.''' Castor of Karden<br />
<br />
'''15.''' [[Sigfrid of Sweden]]<br />
<br />
'''17.''' Silvin of Auchy<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Angilbert<br />
<br />
[[Colman of Lindisfarne]]<br />
<br />
'''20.''' Eleutherius of Tournai<br />
<br />
'''21.''' Germanus of Granfelden<br />
<br />
'''23.''' Midburh<br />
<br />
'''24.''' Aethelberht of Kent<br />
<br />
Basil of Melrose<br />
<br />
Modest<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Praetextatus/Prix<br />
<br />
'''27.''' Aelfnoth of Stowe<br />
<br />
'''29.''' [[Oswald of Worcester]]<br />
<br />
== March ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' Abdalong of Marseilles<br />
<br />
Albinus of Angers<br />
<br />
[[David of Wales]]<br />
<br />
'''2.''' [[Chad of Lichfield]]<br />
<br />
'''6.''' Baldred/Balthere of Tyninghame<br />
<br />
Billfrith <br />
<br />
Chrodegang of Metz<br />
<br />
'''7.''' Eosterwine of Monkwearmouth<br />
<br />
'''8.''' Felix of Dommac<br />
<br />
'''9.''' Bosa of York<br />
<br />
'''10.''' Agilbert<br />
<br />
Attala<br />
<br />
Himelin<br />
<br />
'''12.''' Aelfheah the Bald<br />
<br />
'''14.''' [[Benedict of Nursia]]<br />
<br />
Matilda<br />
<br />
'''16.''' Heribert of Cologne<br />
<br />
'''17.''' Gertrude of Nivelles<br />
<br />
[[Patrick of Ireland]]<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Eadweard the Martyr<br />
<br />
'''19.''' Alchmund of Derby<br />
<br />
'''20.''' [[Clement of Ireland]]<br />
<br />
[[Cuthbert of Lindisfarne]]<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Humbert<br />
<br />
'''26.''' Ludger of Saxony<br />
<br />
'''27.''' Rupert of Salzburg<br />
<br />
'''28.''' Bereharius<br />
<br />
Guntram<br />
<br />
'''29.''' Eustace<br />
<br />
== April ==<br />
<br />
'''2.''' Aebbe the Younger<br />
<br />
Nicetius of Lyon<br />
<br />
'''3.''' Burgundofara<br />
<br />
'''5.''' Aethelburh of Kent<br />
<br />
'''9.''' Hugh of Champagne<br />
<br />
'''11.''' Guthlac of Crowland<br />
<br />
'''12.''' Erkembode<br />
<br />
'''15.''' Abbo II of Metz<br />
<br />
'''16.''' Padarn<br />
<br />
'''19.''' Alphege of Canterbury<br />
<br />
'''22.''' Aprunculus of Treves<br />
<br />
Opportuna of Montreuil<br />
<br />
'''23.''' Gerald/Gerard of Toul<br />
<br />
'''24.''' Ecgberht of Ripon<br />
<br />
Ivo of Ramsey<br />
<br />
Mellitus of London<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Rusticus of Lyon<br />
<br />
'''26.''' Richarius<br />
<br />
Trudpert<br />
<br />
'''29.''' Adalgar<br />
<br />
Aethelwold of Farne<br />
<br />
Wilfrith the Younger<br />
<br />
'''30.''' Earconwald<br />
<br />
<br />
== May ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' Aredius of Gap<br />
<br />
Bertha of Kent<br />
<br />
Marcouf<br />
<br />
Sigismund of Burgundy<br />
<br />
Theodard of Narbonne<br />
<br />
'''4.''' Arbeo of Freising<br />
<br />
Florian<br />
<br />
'''5.''' Maurontius of Douay<br />
<br />
'''6.''' Eadberht of Lindisfarne<br />
<br />
'''7.''' [[John of Beverly]]<br />
<br />
'''8.''' Desideratus<br />
<br />
Indracht of Glastonbury<br />
<br />
Itta of Metz<br />
<br />
'''9.''' Bienheure<br />
<br />
'''10.''' Solange<br />
<br />
'''11.''' Gangulphus<br />
<br />
Majolus<br />
<br />
'''12.''' Modoald/Romoald<br />
<br />
Rictrude<br />
<br />
'''15.''' Bertha of Bingen<br />
<br />
Rupert of Bingen<br />
<br />
'''16.''' [[Brendan the Navigator]]<br />
<br />
Germerius<br />
<br />
Honoratus<br />
<br />
'''17.''' Rasso of Adechs<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Aelfgifu of Shaftesbury<br />
<br />
'''19.''' Aelfheah of Canterbury<br />
<br />
'''20.''' Aethelberht II of East Anglia<br />
<br />
Austregisilus<br />
<br />
'''21.''' Hospitius<br />
<br />
'''23.''' Desidarius of Vienne<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Aldhelm of Sherbourne<br />
<br />
'''26.''' [[Augustine of Canterbury]]<br />
<br />
'''27.''' [[Bede]] of Jarrow<br />
<br />
'''28.''' [[Germanus of Paris]]<br />
<br />
William of Gellone<br />
<br />
'''29.''' [[Maximinus of Trier]]<br />
<br />
'''30.''' Hubertus<br />
<br />
Walstan<br />
<br />
== June ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' Lullus<br />
<br />
Wigstan<br />
<br />
'''4.''' Clotilde<br />
<br />
Eadfrith of Lindisfarne<br />
<br />
'''6.''' Agobard<br />
<br />
Branwalader of Milton<br />
<br />
Claudius<br />
<br />
'''8.''' Chlodulf of Metz<br />
<br />
Gildard<br />
<br />
Medardus<br />
<br />
'''11.''' Godeberta<br />
<br />
Landry of Paris<br />
<br />
'''13, 14, 15.''' Psalmodius<br />
<br />
'''16.''' Aurelianus<br />
<br />
'''17.''' Athwulf of Thorney<br />
<br />
Botwulf of Thorney<br />
<br />
Colman<br />
<br />
Nectan of Hartland<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Osana<br />
<br />
'''19.''' Deodatus<br />
<br />
'''20.''' Gobain<br />
<br />
'''21.''' Agofredus<br />
<br />
Alban of Mainz<br />
<br />
Gobain<br />
<br />
Leutfridus<br />
<br />
Palladius of Embrun<br />
<br />
'''22.''' [[Alban]] Protomartyr of Britain<br />
<br />
'''23.''' Aethelthryth<br />
<br />
'''24.''' Rumbold<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Amphibalus of St. Albans<br />
<br />
'''26.''' Brannac of Braunton<br />
<br />
'''28.''' [[Augustine of Hippo]]<br />
<br />
== July ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' Gal<br />
<br />
Calais<br />
<br />
'''2.''' Monegundus<br />
<br />
'''4.''' Bertha of Artois<br />
<br />
[[Oda of Canterbury]]<br />
<br />
'''6.''' Modwenna of Burton<br />
<br />
Seaxburh of Ely<br />
<br />
'''7.''' Aethelburh of Faremoutiers<br />
<br />
Haedde<br />
<br />
Willibald<br />
<br />
'''8.''' Colman<br />
<br />
Grimbald<br />
<br />
Kilian<br />
<br />
Urith<br />
<br />
Wihtburh<br />
<br />
'''9.''' Agilulfus of Cologne<br />
<br />
Evorhilda<br />
<br />
Neot<br />
<br />
'''10.''' Amalberga of Temse<br />
<br />
'''13.''' Arn of Wurzburg<br />
<br />
Mildthryth<br />
<br />
'''14.''' Frithona of Canterbury<br />
<br />
'''15.''' Apronia<br />
<br />
Eadgyth of Polesworth<br />
<br />
Swithun<br />
<br />
'''16.''' Fulrad<br />
<br />
Gundulph of Maastricht<br />
<br />
Helier<br />
<br />
Reineldis<br />
<br />
'''17.''' Cynehelm/Kenelm of Mercia<br />
<br />
Marcellina<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Arnulf of Metz<br />
<br />
Eadburh of Bicester<br />
<br />
Frederick of Utrecht<br />
<br />
'''20.''' Ansegisus<br />
<br />
Arilda of Oldbury<br />
<br />
Wilgefortis<br />
<br />
'''21.''' Arbogast<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Glodesind<br />
<br />
'''27.''' Galactorius<br />
<br />
'''28.''' [[Samson of Dol]]<br />
<br />
'''31.''' Sativola of Exeter<br />
<br />
== August ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' Aethelwold of Winchester<br />
<br />
Arcadius of Bourges<br />
<br />
'''5.''' Afla of Augsburg<br />
<br />
[[Oswald of Northumbria]]<br />
<br />
'''11.''' Gaugericus<br />
<br />
'''12.''' Porcarius<br />
<br />
'''13.''' Junian<br />
<br />
[[Radegund]]<br />
<br />
'''15.''' Altfrid<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Fiacre<br />
<br />
'''19.''' Bertulf of Bobbio<br />
<br />
Calminius<br />
<br />
Credan of Bodmin<br />
<br />
Magnus<br />
<br />
Sebaldus<br />
<br />
'''20.''' Oswine of Deira<br />
<br />
Philibert of Jumieges<br />
<br />
'''21.''' Eardwulf of Northumbria<br />
<br />
'''24.''' Audoin<br />
<br />
Gildard of Lurcy-le-Bourg<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Aebbe of Coldingham<br />
<br />
Aredius<br />
<br />
Gines de la Jara<br />
<br />
Gregory of Utrecht<br />
<br />
'''26.''' Bregowine<br />
<br />
'''27.''' [[Caesarius of Arles]]<br />
<br />
Decuman of Watchet<br />
<br />
Lycerius<br />
<br />
Syagrius of Autun<br />
<br />
'''28.''' Rumon<br />
<br />
'''31.''' [[Aidan of Lindisfarne]]<br />
<br />
[[Eanswythe of Folkestone]]<br />
<br />
[[ro:Sfinți occidentali de dinainte de schisma din 1054]]<br />
<br />
== September ==<br />
<br />
'''1. ''' <br />
<br />
'''2. ''' Giles<br />
<br />
'''3. ''' <br />
<br />
'''4. ''' [[Cuthbert of Lindisfarne|Cuthbert the Wonderworker]]<br />
<br />
'''5. ''' Bertin<br />
<br />
'''6. ''' <br />
<br />
'''7. ''' <br />
<br />
'''8. ''' <br />
<br />
'''9. ''' <br />
<br />
'''10. '''<br />
<br />
'''11. ''' <br />
<br />
'''12. ''' <br />
<br />
'''13. '''<br />
<br />
'''14. ''' <br />
<br />
'''15. ''' Leobinus<br />
<br />
'''16. ''' Edith<br />
<br />
[[Euphemia the Great Martyr|Euphemia]]<br />
<br />
Ninian<br />
<br />
'''17. ''' <br />
<br />
'''18. '''<br />
<br />
'''19. '''<br />
<br />
'''20. ''' <br />
<br />
'''21. ''' [[Apostle Matthew|Matthew the Apostle]]<br />
<br />
'''22. ''' <br />
<br />
'''23. ''' [[Maurice]]<br />
<br />
'''24. ''' Conception of John the Baptist<br />
<br />
'''25. ''' Firminus<br />
<br />
'''26. ''' Cyprian & Justina<br />
<br />
'''27. '''<br />
<br />
'''28. ''' <br />
<br />
'''29. ''' <br />
<br />
'''30. ''' [[Jerome]]<br />
<br />
== October ==<br />
<br />
'''1. ''' [[Remigius of Rheims]]<br />
<br />
'''2. ''' Leodegarius<br />
<br />
'''3. ''' <br />
<br />
'''4. ''' <br />
<br />
'''5. ''' [[Archangel Raphael|Raphael the Archangel]]<br />
<br />
'''6. ''' <br />
<br />
'''7. ''' Mark & Marcellian<br />
<br />
'''8. ''' Demetrius<br />
<br />
'''9. ''' [[Dionysius the Areopagite ]]<br />
<br />
'''10. ''' [[Paulinus]]<br />
<br />
Gereon & fellow martyrs<br />
<br />
'''11. ''' Nicasius & others<br />
<br />
'''12. ''' <br />
<br />
'''13. '''<br />
<br />
'''14. ''' <br />
<br />
'''15. ''' <br />
<br />
'''16. ''' Michael upon the Sea<br />
<br />
'''17. ''' Translation of St [[Etheldreda of Ely]]<br />
<br />
[[Nothelm]]<br />
<br />
'''18. '''[[Apostle Luke| Luke the Evangelist]]<br />
<br />
'''19. ''' Frideswide<br />
<br />
'''20. ''' <br />
<br />
'''21. ''' Ursula & Martyrs<br />
<br />
'''22. ''' <br />
<br />
'''23. ''' Roman<br />
<br />
'''24. ''' <br />
<br />
'''25. ''' Crispin & Crispinian<br />
<br />
'''26. ''' [[Cuthbert of Canterbury]]<br />
<br />
'''27. '''<br />
<br />
'''28. ''' [[Apostle Simon|Simon]] & [[Apostle Jude| Jude]], Apostles]]<br />
<br />
'''29. ''' <br />
<br />
'''30. ''' <br />
<br />
'''31. ''' Quentin<br />
<br />
== November ==<br />
<br />
'''1'''. All Saints’<br />
<br />
'''2'''. All Souls’<br />
<br />
'''3'''. <br />
<br />
'''4'''. Winifred<br />
<br />
'''5'''.<br />
<br />
'''6'''. Leonard<br />
<br />
'''7'''.<br />
<br />
'''8'''. Four Crowned Martyrs<br />
<br />
'''9'''.<br />
<br />
'''10'''. [[Leo the Great]]<br />
<br />
'''11'''. [[Martin of Tours]]<br />
<br />
'''12'''.<br />
<br />
'''13'''. Brixius<br />
<br />
'''14'''. Erkenwald<br />
<br />
'''15'''. Malo<br />
<br />
'''16'''. <br />
<br />
'''17'''.<br />
<br />
'''18'''.<br />
<br />
'''19'''.<br />
<br />
'''20'''. [[Edmund the Martyr]]<br />
<br />
'''21'''. <br />
<br />
'''22'''. Cecilia<br />
<br />
'''23'''. [[Clement of Rome]]<br />
<br />
'''24'''.<br />
<br />
'''25'''. [[Catherine of Alexandria]]<br />
<br />
'''26'''. [[Linus of Rome]]<br />
<br />
'''27'''.<br />
<br />
'''28'''. <br />
<br />
'''29'''. Saturnin<br />
<br />
'''30'''. [[Apostle Andrew|Andrew the Apostle]]<br />
<br />
== December ==<br />
<br />
'''1. ''' <br />
<br />
'''2. ''' <br />
<br />
'''3. ''' [[Birinus of Dorchester]]<br />
<br />
'''4. ''' <br />
<br />
'''5. ''' <br />
<br />
'''6. ''' [[Nicholas of Myra]]<br />
<br />
'''7. ''' <br />
<br />
'''8. ''' <br />
<br />
'''9. ''' [[Conception of the Theotokos]]<br />
<br />
'''10. ''' <br />
<br />
'''11. ''' [[Damasus I of Rome]]<br />
<br />
'''12. ''' <br />
<br />
'''13. ''' [[Lucy of Syracuse]]<br />
<br />
'''14. ''' <br />
<br />
'''15. ''' <br />
<br />
'''16. ''' [[Barbara of Heliopolis|Barbara]]<br />
<br />
'''17. ''' <br />
<br />
'''18. ''' <br />
<br />
'''19. ''' <br />
<br />
'''20. ''' <br />
<br />
'''21. ''' [[Apostle Thomas|Thomas the Apostle]]<br />
<br />
'''22. ''' <br />
<br />
'''23. ''' <br />
<br />
'''24. ''' <br />
<br />
'''25. ''' [[Nativity|Nativity of Our Lord]]<br />
<br />
'''26. ''' [[Apostle Stephen the Protomartyr|Stephen the Protomartyr]]<br />
<br />
'''27. ''' [[Apostle John| John the Theologian]]<br />
<br />
'''28. '''[[ Holy Innocents]]<br />
<br />
'''29. ''' <br />
<br />
'''30. ''' <br />
<br />
'''31. ''' [[Sylvester I of Rome]]</div>Fr Levhttps://orthodoxwiki.org/index.php?title=Talk:Western_Saints_before_the_AD_1054_Schism&diff=120000Talk:Western Saints before the AD 1054 Schism2014-10-05T15:06:07Z<p>Fr Lev: </p>
<hr />
<div>For what reason were several months deleted? And numerous links to existing articles? --[[User:Fr Lev|Fr Lev]] 08:02, October 5, 2014 (PDT)</div>Fr Levhttps://orthodoxwiki.org/index.php?title=Talk:Western_Saints_before_the_AD_1054_Schism&diff=119999Talk:Western Saints before the AD 1054 Schism2014-10-05T15:02:47Z<p>Fr Lev: Created page with "For what reason were several months deleted? --~~~~"</p>
<hr />
<div>For what reason were several months deleted? --[[User:Fr Lev|Fr Lev]] 08:02, October 5, 2014 (PDT)</div>Fr Levhttps://orthodoxwiki.org/index.php?title=Serge_Ch%C3%A9vitch&diff=119987Serge Chévitch2014-10-02T20:04:42Z<p>Fr Lev: Created page with "'''Serge (Chévitch)''' was a Russian Orthodox staretz. He was born August 3, 1903, in the Hague, where his mother’s father served as the Russian ambassador, and given the b..."</p>
<hr />
<div>'''Serge (Chévitch)''' was a Russian Orthodox staretz. He was born August 3, 1903, in the Hague, where his mother’s father served as the Russian ambassador, and given the baptismal name of Cyril. He was tonsured a [[Monastic Ranks|stavrophore]] monk on November 18, 1941, taking the name of Serge (of Valaam). He lived with his spiritual father, Archimandrite Stéphane (Svetosarov), rector of the Church of the Holy Trinity in Vanves (Hauts-de-Seine), who introduced him to the monastic life according to the spiritual traditions of [[Valaam Monastery]] where he had lived.<br />
<br />
Fr Serge was ordained deacon on September 11, 1945, and priest the next day at the St [[Alexander Nevsky]] Cathedral on rue Daru, Paris. He Father Serge was appointed rector of the Church of the Holy Trinity in Vanves. Shortly after, he was also appointed abbot of the Skete of the Holy Spirit in Mesnil-Saint-Denis near Trappes (Yvelines). <br />
During this time, Father Serge began a correspondence with the staretz Chariton, abbot of the monastery of Valaam, who gave him many useful tips for his spiritual life. <br />
<br />
Fr Serge made two visits and pilgrimages to Russia in 1947 and in 1977, but otherwise did not travel during his life as a monk, anxious to ensure his parish perfect continuity of liturgical services and to be constantly present and available to all who needed him. He had the qualities of a true elder, which earned him recognition as such, far beyond France's borders, by the greatest spiritual figures of our time, whether the Father [[Sophrony (Sakharov)]] with which he was always linked to friendship, Father (now Saint) [[Justin Popovich]] or the Athonite elders Ephrem of [[Katounakia Fathers (Athos)|Katounakia]], Charalampos (Dionusiates), and [[Paisios (Eznepidis)]]. <br />
<br />
He was chosen as the spiritual father by figures such as [[Nikolai Berdyaev]], [[Vladimir Lossky]], and [[Jean-Claude Larchet]]. Bishops, abbots, priests, monks and faithful throughout the world, many famous and often representatives of the Russian intelligentsia, sought his advice and make their confessions to him. Yet he had only very few disciples. This is primarily due to its great humility. He willingly repeated that the spiritual life is essentially what we are, not in what is said. Father Serge never preached, choosing instead to occasionally read a patristic text. <br />
<br />
At the beginning of Lent 1985, Father Serge fell seriously ill. In early October 1986, the disease struck again, more seriously than the last time. Fr Serge was able to return to Vanves, but June 3, 1987 he was struck by paralysis and had to be hospitalized again. An x-ray allowed then to see that cancer had spread to several organs of the body. On July 25, Fr Serge received communion and, very gently and in great peace, surrendered his soul to God. <br />
<br />
== Source == <br />
[[Jean-Claude Larchet]], ''Le starets Serge''. (Cerf, 2004)</div>Fr Levhttps://orthodoxwiki.org/index.php?title=Jean-Claude_Larchet&diff=119986Jean-Claude Larchet2014-10-02T14:11:55Z<p>Fr Lev: </p>
<hr />
<div>[[Image:Dr Larchet and Abp Ieronymos II.jpg|right|thumb|Archbishop [[Ieronymos II (Liapis) of Athens|Ieronymos II]] and Dr. Jean-Claude Larchet, April 8, 2009.]]<br />
Dr. '''Jean-Claude Larchet''' is a French Orthodox researcher who is one of the foremost Orthodox [[Patristics]] scholars writing today. <br />
<br />
Born in northeastern France in 1949 of a Roman Catholic family, Larchet earned doctorates in philosophy (1987) and theology (1994) from the University of Strasbourg. It was during his studies in philosophy that his reading of the Greek Fathers and their Orthodox commentators (especially [[Vladimir Lossky]]) led him to the Orthodox Church, where he was received in 1971 by the man who would be his spiritual father, the elder [[Serge Chévitch]] (1904-1987), which was also the spiritual father of the theologian Vladimir Lossky, the philosopher [[Nikolai Berdyaev]], and the monk iconographer [[Gregory (Krug)]]. <br />
<br />
From 1973 to 1979 he met, to receive their advice, some of the best-known spiritual leaders of that era: [[Archimandrite]] (now Saint) [[Justin Popovich]], Archimandrite [[Sophrony (Sakharov)]] and, in two long stays at Mount Athos, the followers of Elder [[Joseph the Hesychast]] - the Elder Ephrem of [[Katounakia Fathers (Athos)|Katounakia]], the Elder [[Ephraim (Moraitis) of Philotheou]], the Elder [[Charalampos (Dionusiates)]] - especially the Elder [[Paisios (Eznepidis)]] with whom he had long talks and whose support remains of great importance to Larchet. <br />
<br />
He is one of the very few contemporary authors who is able seamlessly to combine rigorous scholarship with a vibrant sense of the inner life of the Church. His prolific writings on the spirituality of the [[Church Fathers|Fathers of the Church]] and on orthodox theology ([http://www.editionsducerf.fr/html/fiche/ficheauteur.asp?n_aut=553 twenty-two books], over one hundred and fifty articles) have been translated into no less than 15 languages.<ref>[[Apostoliki Diakonia]]. ''[http://www.apostoliki-diakonia.gr/diakonia/15-7-2008/diakonia.htm New Publications: The Healing of Spiritual Disorders: An Introduction in the Ascetic Tradition of the Orthodox Church, Vol. A'].'' By Jean Claude Larchet. Transl. into Greek by Christos Koulas. 2009.</ref><br />
<br />
==Authorship==<br />
===Series on St Maximus the Confessor===<br />
His three volumes on St [[Maximos the Confessor]] are widely acknowledged as among the best studies of this great saint and theologian published in any language:<br />
* {{fr icon}} ''[http://www.editionsducerf.fr/html/fiche/fichelivre.asp?n_liv_cerf=1288 La Divinisation de l'homme selon saint Maxime le Confesseur]'' (1996)<br />
* {{fr icon}} ''[http://www.editionsducerf.fr/html/fiche/fichelivre.asp?n_liv_cerf=1303 Maxime le Confesseur, médiateur entre l'Orient et l'Occident]'' (1998)<br />
* {{fr icon}} ''[http://www.editionsducerf.fr/html/fiche/fichelivre.asp?n_liv_cerf=6110 Saint Maxime le Confesseur]'' (2003)<br />
<br />
===Series on Illness and Healing===<br />
Equally remarkable is his three-part series on illness and healing in the Patristic tradition: <br />
* ''[http://www.amazon.com/Theology-Illness-Jean-Claude-Larchet/dp/0881412392/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1241808962&sr=8-1 The Theology of Illness]'' (2002), and <br />
* ''[http://www.amazon.com/Mental-Disorders-Spiritual-Healing-Teachings/dp/159731045X/ref=sr_1_2?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1241808962&sr=8-2 Mental Disorders and Spiritual Healing]'' (2005). <br />
* ''[http://www.alexanderpress.com/downloads/Larchet%20Spiritual%20Illness%20blurb.pdf Therapy of Spiritual Illnesses]'' (2012)<br />
The third volume of Dr. Larchet's trilogy – ''The Therapy of Spiritual Illness'' - has been released in Greek translation by [[Apostoliki Diakonia]] (the official imprint of the [[Church of Greece]]) under the title:<br><br />
:* {{el icon}} ''[http://www.apostoliki-diakonia.gr/bookshop/ItemShowDetails.aspx?productID=971 Η θεραπευτική των πνευματικών νοσημάτων - Εισαγωγή στην ασκητική παράδοση της Ορθοδόξου Εκκλησίας]'' <br />
The Greek edition (in two volumes) was officially released at a major function held in Athens on Wednesday, April 7, 2009, attended by over 200 people, including several hierarchs, many clergy, and representatives of the [http://www.theol.uoa.gr/ Theology Faculty of the University of Athens]. The event was opened by Metropolitan Damaskinos, a member of the Holy Synod, who read a letter of greeting from the Primate of the Church of Greece, Archbishop [[Ieronymos II (Liapis) of Athens|Ieronymos II of Athens and All Greece]]. Further remarks were offered by Bishop Agathangelos, general editor of [[Apostoliki Diakonia]]; Metropolitan [[Hierotheos (Vlachos) of Nafpaktos|Hierotheos of Nafpaktos]], who is well known for his own works written in a similar vein; Hieromonk Damianos of Mt Athos, who is trained both as a doctor and a theologian; Stylianos Papadopoulos, professor emeritus of patrology at the Theological Faculty of the University of Athens; and, finally, the author himself, who expressed his gratitude to the translators and publishers of his work. On the following day Dr. Larchet was interviewed for the Church of Greece's radio station and received by His Beatitude, Archbishop Ieronymos.</ref> <br />
<br />
===Other books in English===<br />
* ''[http://www.amazon.com/after-Death-according-Orthodox-Tradition/dp/1933275626/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1345554674&sr=8-1&keywords=larchet+life+after+death Life after death according to the Orthodox Tradition]'' (2012)<br />
* ''[http://www.amazon.com/Elder-Sergie-Vanves-Life-Teachings/dp/0971413983/ref=sr_1_1?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1345554808&sr=1-1&keywords=larchet+elder+sergei+of+vanves Elder Sergei of Vanves: Life and Teachings]'' (2012)<br />
<br />
===Books in French===<br />
* Thérapeutique des maladies spirituelles (1991, 5th edition 2007) ISBN 2204055301<br />
* Théologie de la maladie (1991, 3rd edition 2001) ISBN 2204042900<br />
* Thérapeutique des maladies mentales. L’expérience de l’Orient chrétien des premiers siècles (1992, 3rd edition 2008) ISBN 2204045187<br />
* La Divinisation de l’homme selon saint Maxime le Confesseur (1996) ISBN 2204052493<br />
* Maxime le Confesseur, médiateur entre l’Orient et l’Occident (1998) ISBN 2204059498<br />
* Pour une éthique de la procréation. Éléments d’anthropologie patristique (1998) ISBN 2204058580<br />
* Dieu ne veut pas la souffrance des hommes (1999, 2nd edition 2008) ISBN 2204086029 <br />
* Saint Silouane de l’Athos (2001, 2nd edition 2004) ISBN 2204065439<br />
* La Vie après la mort selon la Tradition orthodoxe (2001, 2nd edition 2008) ISBN 220406713X<br />
* Le Chrétien devant la maladie, la souffrance et la mort(2002) ISBN 2204070947<br />
* Saint Maxime le Confesseur (580-662) (2003)ISBN 2204071560<br />
* Le Starets Serge (2004) ISBN 2204076244<br />
* L’Inconscient spirituel (2005) ISBN 2204077879<br />
* Variations sur la charité (2007) ISBN 2204084751<br />
* L’Iconographe et l’artiste (2008) ISBN 220408476X<br />
* Théologie du corps (2009) ISBN 2204090026<br />
* Théologie des énergies divines (2010) ISBN 2204090085<br />
* Une fin paisible, sans douleur, sans honte... (2010) ISBN 2204091278<br />
* Personne et nature (2011) ISBN 2204096237<br />
* L’Église, corps du Christ, I, Nature et structure (2012)ISBN 2204096245<br />
* L’Église, corps du Christ, II, Les relations entre les Églises (2012) ISBN 2204097721<br />
* La Vie et l’œuvre théologique de Grégoire II de Chypre (1241-1290), patriarche de Constantinople (editor) (2012) ISBN 2204097152<br />
* Le Patriarche Paul de Serbie. Un saint de notre temps (2014) ISBN 282514423X<br />
* La Vie sacramentelle (2014) ISBN 2204102822<br />
<br />
===Articles===<br />
* ''[http://www.incommunion.org/2004/10/24/on-the-love-of-enemies/ On the Love of Enemies: The Teaching of St. Silouan].'' '''In Communion'''. (''Posted Sunday, October 24th, 2004'')<br />
* ''[http://www.oodegr.com/english/psyxotherap/love_enemies.htm But I say to you: Love your Ennemies].''<br />
* ''[http://books.google.com/books?id=K0sbuf37A_UC&pg=PA188&lpg=PA188&dq=jean-claude+larchet&source=bl&ots=2eN9ZiTba0&sig=bs7Hijg5UnelPlioWHQfrrxhkWA&hl=en&ei=6YUESqGRNdOB_AbhiumdBw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=8#v=onepage&q=jean-claude%20larchet&f=false The Question of the Roman Primacy in the Thought of Saint Maximus the Confessor].'' In: Cardinal Walter Kasper. '''The Petrine Ministry: Catholics and Orthodox in Dialogue: Academic Symposium Held at the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity'''. The Newman Press, 2006. pp.188-209.<br />
<br />
==See also==<br />
* [[Patristics]]<br />
<br />
==Notes==<br />
<references group="note" /><br />
<br />
==References== <br />
<div><references/></div><br />
<br />
==Sources==<br />
* [http://ishmaelite.blogspot.com/2009/05/jean-claude-larchet.html Jean-Claude Larchet]. ''ORA ET LABORA''. Friday, May 8, 2009.<br />
<br />
[[Category:Modern Writers|Larchet]]<br />
[[Category:Converts to Orthodox Christianity from Roman Catholicism|Larchet]]<br />
[[Category:Church History]]<br />
<br />
[[fr:Jean-Claude Larchet]]<br />
[[ro:Jean-Claude Larchet]]</div>Fr Levhttps://orthodoxwiki.org/index.php?title=Jean-Claude_Larchet&diff=119985Jean-Claude Larchet2014-10-02T14:09:37Z<p>Fr Lev: </p>
<hr />
<div>[[Image:Dr Larchet and Abp Ieronymos II.jpg|right|thumb|Archbishop [[Ieronymos II (Liapis) of Athens|Ieronymos II]] and Dr. Jean-Claude Larchet, April 8, 2009.]]<br />
Dr. '''Jean-Claude Larchet''' is a French Orthodox researcher who is one of the foremost Orthodox [[Patristics]] scholars writing today. <br />
<br />
Born in northeastern France in 1949 of a Roman Catholic family, Larchet earned doctorates in philosophy (1987) and theology (1994) from the University of Strasbourg. It was during his studies in philosophy that his reading of the Greek Fathers and their Orthodox commentators (especially [[Vladimir Lossky]]) led him to the Orthodox Church, where he was received in 1971 by the man who would be his spiritual father, the elder Serge Chévitch (1904-1987), which was also the spiritual father of the theologian Vladimir Lossky , the philosopher [[Nikolai Berdyaev]], and the monk iconographer [[Gregory (Krug)]]. <br />
<br />
From 1973 to 1979 he met, to receive their advice, some of the best-known spiritual leaders of that era: [[Archimandrite]] (now Saint) [[Justin Popovich]], Archimandrite [[Sophrony (Sakharov)]] and, in two long stays at Mount Athos, the followers of Elder [[Joseph the Hesychast]] - the Elder Ephrem of [[Katounakia Fathers (Athos)|Katounakia]], the Elder [[Ephraim (Moraitis) of Philotheou]], the Elder Charalampos (Dionusiates) - especially the Elder [[Paisios (Eznepidis)]] with whom he had long talks and whose support remains of great importance to Larchet. <br />
<br />
He is one of the very few contemporary authors who is able seamlessly to combine rigorous scholarship with a vibrant sense of the inner life of the Church. His prolific writings on the spirituality of the [[Church Fathers|Fathers of the Church]] and on orthodox theology ([http://www.editionsducerf.fr/html/fiche/ficheauteur.asp?n_aut=553 twenty-two books], over one hundred and fifty articles) have been translated into no less than 15 languages.<ref>[[Apostoliki Diakonia]]. ''[http://www.apostoliki-diakonia.gr/diakonia/15-7-2008/diakonia.htm New Publications: The Healing of Spiritual Disorders: An Introduction in the Ascetic Tradition of the Orthodox Church, Vol. A'].'' By Jean Claude Larchet. Transl. into Greek by Christos Koulas. 2009.</ref><br />
<br />
==Authorship==<br />
===Series on St Maximus the Confessor===<br />
His three volumes on St [[Maximos the Confessor]] are widely acknowledged as among the best studies of this great saint and theologian published in any language:<br />
* {{fr icon}} ''[http://www.editionsducerf.fr/html/fiche/fichelivre.asp?n_liv_cerf=1288 La Divinisation de l'homme selon saint Maxime le Confesseur]'' (1996)<br />
* {{fr icon}} ''[http://www.editionsducerf.fr/html/fiche/fichelivre.asp?n_liv_cerf=1303 Maxime le Confesseur, médiateur entre l'Orient et l'Occident]'' (1998)<br />
* {{fr icon}} ''[http://www.editionsducerf.fr/html/fiche/fichelivre.asp?n_liv_cerf=6110 Saint Maxime le Confesseur]'' (2003)<br />
<br />
===Series on Illness and Healing===<br />
Equally remarkable is his three-part series on illness and healing in the Patristic tradition: <br />
* ''[http://www.amazon.com/Theology-Illness-Jean-Claude-Larchet/dp/0881412392/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1241808962&sr=8-1 The Theology of Illness]'' (2002), and <br />
* ''[http://www.amazon.com/Mental-Disorders-Spiritual-Healing-Teachings/dp/159731045X/ref=sr_1_2?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1241808962&sr=8-2 Mental Disorders and Spiritual Healing]'' (2005). <br />
* ''[http://www.alexanderpress.com/downloads/Larchet%20Spiritual%20Illness%20blurb.pdf Therapy of Spiritual Illnesses]'' (2012)<br />
The third volume of Dr. Larchet's trilogy – ''The Therapy of Spiritual Illness'' - has been released in Greek translation by [[Apostoliki Diakonia]] (the official imprint of the [[Church of Greece]]) under the title:<br><br />
:* {{el icon}} ''[http://www.apostoliki-diakonia.gr/bookshop/ItemShowDetails.aspx?productID=971 Η θεραπευτική των πνευματικών νοσημάτων - Εισαγωγή στην ασκητική παράδοση της Ορθοδόξου Εκκλησίας]'' <br />
The Greek edition (in two volumes) was officially released at a major function held in Athens on Wednesday, April 7, 2009, attended by over 200 people, including several hierarchs, many clergy, and representatives of the [http://www.theol.uoa.gr/ Theology Faculty of the University of Athens]. The event was opened by Metropolitan Damaskinos, a member of the Holy Synod, who read a letter of greeting from the Primate of the Church of Greece, Archbishop [[Ieronymos II (Liapis) of Athens|Ieronymos II of Athens and All Greece]]. Further remarks were offered by Bishop Agathangelos, general editor of [[Apostoliki Diakonia]]; Metropolitan [[Hierotheos (Vlachos) of Nafpaktos|Hierotheos of Nafpaktos]], who is well known for his own works written in a similar vein; Hieromonk Damianos of Mt Athos, who is trained both as a doctor and a theologian; Stylianos Papadopoulos, professor emeritus of patrology at the Theological Faculty of the University of Athens; and, finally, the author himself, who expressed his gratitude to the translators and publishers of his work. On the following day Dr. Larchet was interviewed for the Church of Greece's radio station and received by His Beatitude, Archbishop Ieronymos.</ref> <br />
<br />
===Other books in English===<br />
* ''[http://www.amazon.com/after-Death-according-Orthodox-Tradition/dp/1933275626/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1345554674&sr=8-1&keywords=larchet+life+after+death Life after death according to the Orthodox Tradition]'' (2012)<br />
* ''[http://www.amazon.com/Elder-Sergie-Vanves-Life-Teachings/dp/0971413983/ref=sr_1_1?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1345554808&sr=1-1&keywords=larchet+elder+sergei+of+vanves Elder Sergei of Vanves: Life and Teachings]'' (2012)<br />
<br />
===Books in French===<br />
* Thérapeutique des maladies spirituelles (1991, 5th edition 2007) ISBN 2204055301<br />
* Théologie de la maladie (1991, 3rd edition 2001) ISBN 2204042900<br />
* Thérapeutique des maladies mentales. L’expérience de l’Orient chrétien des premiers siècles (1992, 3rd edition 2008) ISBN 2204045187<br />
* La Divinisation de l’homme selon saint Maxime le Confesseur (1996) ISBN 2204052493<br />
* Maxime le Confesseur, médiateur entre l’Orient et l’Occident (1998) ISBN 2204059498<br />
* Pour une éthique de la procréation. Éléments d’anthropologie patristique (1998) ISBN 2204058580<br />
* Dieu ne veut pas la souffrance des hommes (1999, 2nd edition 2008) ISBN 2204086029 <br />
* Saint Silouane de l’Athos (2001, 2nd edition 2004) ISBN 2204065439<br />
* La Vie après la mort selon la Tradition orthodoxe (2001, 2nd edition 2008) ISBN 220406713X<br />
* Le Chrétien devant la maladie, la souffrance et la mort(2002) ISBN 2204070947<br />
* Saint Maxime le Confesseur (580-662) (2003)ISBN 2204071560<br />
* Le Starets Serge (2004) ISBN 2204076244<br />
* L’Inconscient spirituel (2005) ISBN 2204077879<br />
* Variations sur la charité (2007) ISBN 2204084751<br />
* L’Iconographe et l’artiste (2008) ISBN 220408476X<br />
* Théologie du corps (2009) ISBN 2204090026<br />
* Théologie des énergies divines (2010) ISBN 2204090085<br />
* Une fin paisible, sans douleur, sans honte... (2010) ISBN 2204091278<br />
* Personne et nature (2011) ISBN 2204096237<br />
* L’Église, corps du Christ, I, Nature et structure (2012)ISBN 2204096245<br />
* L’Église, corps du Christ, II, Les relations entre les Églises (2012) ISBN 2204097721<br />
* La Vie et l’œuvre théologique de Grégoire II de Chypre (1241-1290), patriarche de Constantinople (editor) (2012) ISBN 2204097152<br />
* Le Patriarche Paul de Serbie. Un saint de notre temps (2014) ISBN 282514423X<br />
* La Vie sacramentelle (2014) ISBN 2204102822<br />
<br />
===Articles===<br />
* ''[http://www.incommunion.org/2004/10/24/on-the-love-of-enemies/ On the Love of Enemies: The Teaching of St. Silouan].'' '''In Communion'''. (''Posted Sunday, October 24th, 2004'')<br />
* ''[http://www.oodegr.com/english/psyxotherap/love_enemies.htm But I say to you: Love your Ennemies].''<br />
* ''[http://books.google.com/books?id=K0sbuf37A_UC&pg=PA188&lpg=PA188&dq=jean-claude+larchet&source=bl&ots=2eN9ZiTba0&sig=bs7Hijg5UnelPlioWHQfrrxhkWA&hl=en&ei=6YUESqGRNdOB_AbhiumdBw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=8#v=onepage&q=jean-claude%20larchet&f=false The Question of the Roman Primacy in the Thought of Saint Maximus the Confessor].'' In: Cardinal Walter Kasper. '''The Petrine Ministry: Catholics and Orthodox in Dialogue: Academic Symposium Held at the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity'''. The Newman Press, 2006. pp.188-209.<br />
<br />
==See also==<br />
* [[Patristics]]<br />
<br />
==Notes==<br />
<references group="note" /><br />
<br />
==References== <br />
<div><references/></div><br />
<br />
==Sources==<br />
* [http://ishmaelite.blogspot.com/2009/05/jean-claude-larchet.html Jean-Claude Larchet]. ''ORA ET LABORA''. Friday, May 8, 2009.<br />
<br />
[[Category:Modern Writers|Larchet]]<br />
[[Category:Converts to Orthodox Christianity from Roman Catholicism|Larchet]]<br />
[[Category:Church History]]<br />
<br />
[[fr:Jean-Claude Larchet]]<br />
[[ro:Jean-Claude Larchet]]</div>Fr Levhttps://orthodoxwiki.org/index.php?title=Jean-Claude_Larchet&diff=119984Jean-Claude Larchet2014-10-02T13:53:05Z<p>Fr Lev: </p>
<hr />
<div>[[Image:Dr Larchet and Abp Ieronymos II.jpg|right|thumb|Archbishop [[Ieronymos II (Liapis) of Athens|Ieronymos II]] and Dr. Jean-Claude Larchet, April 8, 2009.]]<br />
Dr. '''Jean-Claude Larchet''' is a French Orthodox researcher who is one of the foremost Orthodox [[Patristics]] scholars writing today. <br />
<br />
Born in northeastern France in 1949 of a Roman Catholic family, Larchet earned doctorates in philosophy (1987) and theology (1994) from the University of Strasbourg. It was during his studies in philosophy that his reading of the Greek Fathers and their Orthodox commentators (especially [[Vladimir Lossky]]) led him to the Orthodox Church, where he was received in 1971 by the man who would be his spiritual father, the elder Serge Chévitch (1904-1987), which was also the spiritual father of the theologian Vladimir Lossky , the philosopher [[Nikolai Berdyaev]], and the monk iconographer [[Gregory (Krug)]]. <br />
<br />
From 1973 to 1979 he met, to receive their advice, some of the best-known spiritual leaders of that era: [[Archimandrite]] (now Saint) [[Justin Popovich]], Archimandrite [[Sophrony (Sakharov)]] and, in two long stays at Mount Athos, the followers of Elder [[Joseph the Hesychast]] - the Elder Ephrem of [[Katounakia Fathers (Athos)|Katounakia]], the Elder [[Ephraim (Moraitis) of Philotheou]], the Elder Charalampos - especially the Elder [[Paisios (Eznepidis)]] with whom he had long talks and whose support remains of great importance to Larchet. <br />
<br />
He is one of the very few contemporary authors who is able seamlessly to combine rigorous scholarship with a vibrant sense of the inner life of the Church. His prolific writings on the spirituality of the [[Church Fathers|Fathers of the Church]] and on orthodox theology ([http://www.editionsducerf.fr/html/fiche/ficheauteur.asp?n_aut=553 twenty-two books], over one hundred and fifty articles) have been translated into no less than 15 languages.<ref>[[Apostoliki Diakonia]]. ''[http://www.apostoliki-diakonia.gr/diakonia/15-7-2008/diakonia.htm New Publications: The Healing of Spiritual Disorders: An Introduction in the Ascetic Tradition of the Orthodox Church, Vol. A'].'' By Jean Claude Larchet. Transl. into Greek by Christos Koulas. 2009.</ref><br />
<br />
==Authorship==<br />
===Series on St Maximus the Confessor===<br />
His three volumes on St [[Maximos the Confessor]] are widely acknowledged as among the best studies of this great saint and theologian published in any language:<br />
* {{fr icon}} ''[http://www.editionsducerf.fr/html/fiche/fichelivre.asp?n_liv_cerf=1288 La Divinisation de l'homme selon saint Maxime le Confesseur]'' (1996)<br />
* {{fr icon}} ''[http://www.editionsducerf.fr/html/fiche/fichelivre.asp?n_liv_cerf=1303 Maxime le Confesseur, médiateur entre l'Orient et l'Occident]'' (1998)<br />
* {{fr icon}} ''[http://www.editionsducerf.fr/html/fiche/fichelivre.asp?n_liv_cerf=6110 Saint Maxime le Confesseur]'' (2003)<br />
<br />
===Series on Illness and Healing===<br />
Equally remarkable is his three-part series on illness and healing in the Patristic tradition: <br />
* ''[http://www.amazon.com/Theology-Illness-Jean-Claude-Larchet/dp/0881412392/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1241808962&sr=8-1 The Theology of Illness]'' (2002), and <br />
* ''[http://www.amazon.com/Mental-Disorders-Spiritual-Healing-Teachings/dp/159731045X/ref=sr_1_2?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1241808962&sr=8-2 Mental Disorders and Spiritual Healing]'' (2005). <br />
* ''[http://www.alexanderpress.com/downloads/Larchet%20Spiritual%20Illness%20blurb.pdf Therapy of Spiritual Illnesses]'' (2012)<br />
The third volume of Dr. Larchet's trilogy – ''The Therapy of Spiritual Illness'' - has been released in Greek translation by [[Apostoliki Diakonia]] (the official imprint of the [[Church of Greece]]) under the title:<br><br />
:* {{el icon}} ''[http://www.apostoliki-diakonia.gr/bookshop/ItemShowDetails.aspx?productID=971 Η θεραπευτική των πνευματικών νοσημάτων - Εισαγωγή στην ασκητική παράδοση της Ορθοδόξου Εκκλησίας]'' <br />
The Greek edition (in two volumes) was officially released at a major function held in Athens on Wednesday, April 7, 2009, attended by over 200 people, including several hierarchs, many clergy, and representatives of the [http://www.theol.uoa.gr/ Theology Faculty of the University of Athens]. The event was opened by Metropolitan Damaskinos, a member of the Holy Synod, who read a letter of greeting from the Primate of the Church of Greece, Archbishop [[Ieronymos II (Liapis) of Athens|Ieronymos II of Athens and All Greece]]. Further remarks were offered by Bishop Agathangelos, general editor of [[Apostoliki Diakonia]]; Metropolitan [[Hierotheos (Vlachos) of Nafpaktos|Hierotheos of Nafpaktos]], who is well known for his own works written in a similar vein; Hieromonk Damianos of Mt Athos, who is trained both as a doctor and a theologian; Stylianos Papadopoulos, professor emeritus of patrology at the Theological Faculty of the University of Athens; and, finally, the author himself, who expressed his gratitude to the translators and publishers of his work. On the following day Dr. Larchet was interviewed for the Church of Greece's radio station and received by His Beatitude, Archbishop Ieronymos.</ref> <br />
<br />
===Other books in English===<br />
* ''[http://www.amazon.com/after-Death-according-Orthodox-Tradition/dp/1933275626/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1345554674&sr=8-1&keywords=larchet+life+after+death Life after death according to the Orthodox Tradition]'' (2012)<br />
* ''[http://www.amazon.com/Elder-Sergie-Vanves-Life-Teachings/dp/0971413983/ref=sr_1_1?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1345554808&sr=1-1&keywords=larchet+elder+sergei+of+vanves Elder Sergei of Vanves: Life and Teachings]'' (2012)<br />
<br />
===Books in French===<br />
* Thérapeutique des maladies spirituelles (1991, 5th edition 2007) ISBN 2204055301<br />
* Théologie de la maladie (1991, 3rd edition 2001) ISBN 2204042900<br />
* Thérapeutique des maladies mentales. L’expérience de l’Orient chrétien des premiers siècles (1992, 3rd edition 2008) ISBN 2204045187<br />
* La Divinisation de l’homme selon saint Maxime le Confesseur (1996) ISBN 2204052493<br />
* Maxime le Confesseur, médiateur entre l’Orient et l’Occident (1998) ISBN 2204059498<br />
* Pour une éthique de la procréation. Éléments d’anthropologie patristique (1998) ISBN 2204058580<br />
* Dieu ne veut pas la souffrance des hommes (1999, 2nd edition 2008) ISBN 2204086029 <br />
* Saint Silouane de l’Athos (2001, 2nd edition 2004) ISBN 2204065439<br />
* La Vie après la mort selon la Tradition orthodoxe (2001, 2nd edition 2008) ISBN 220406713X<br />
* Le Chrétien devant la maladie, la souffrance et la mort(2002) ISBN 2204070947<br />
* Saint Maxime le Confesseur (580-662) (2003)ISBN 2204071560<br />
* Le Starets Serge (2004) ISBN 2204076244<br />
* L’Inconscient spirituel (2005) ISBN 2204077879<br />
* Variations sur la charité (2007) ISBN 2204084751<br />
* L’Iconographe et l’artiste (2008) ISBN 220408476X<br />
* Théologie du corps (2009) ISBN 2204090026<br />
* Théologie des énergies divines (2010) ISBN 2204090085<br />
* Une fin paisible, sans douleur, sans honte... (2010) ISBN 2204091278<br />
* Personne et nature (2011) ISBN 2204096237<br />
* L’Église, corps du Christ, I, Nature et structure (2012)ISBN 2204096245<br />
* L’Église, corps du Christ, II, Les relations entre les Églises (2012) ISBN 2204097721<br />
* La Vie et l’œuvre théologique de Grégoire II de Chypre (1241-1290), patriarche de Constantinople (editor) (2012) ISBN 2204097152<br />
* Le Patriarche Paul de Serbie. Un saint de notre temps (2014) ISBN 282514423X<br />
* La Vie sacramentelle (2014) ISBN 2204102822<br />
<br />
===Articles===<br />
* ''[http://www.incommunion.org/2004/10/24/on-the-love-of-enemies/ On the Love of Enemies: The Teaching of St. Silouan].'' '''In Communion'''. (''Posted Sunday, October 24th, 2004'')<br />
* ''[http://www.oodegr.com/english/psyxotherap/love_enemies.htm But I say to you: Love your Ennemies].''<br />
* ''[http://books.google.com/books?id=K0sbuf37A_UC&pg=PA188&lpg=PA188&dq=jean-claude+larchet&source=bl&ots=2eN9ZiTba0&sig=bs7Hijg5UnelPlioWHQfrrxhkWA&hl=en&ei=6YUESqGRNdOB_AbhiumdBw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=8#v=onepage&q=jean-claude%20larchet&f=false The Question of the Roman Primacy in the Thought of Saint Maximus the Confessor].'' In: Cardinal Walter Kasper. '''The Petrine Ministry: Catholics and Orthodox in Dialogue: Academic Symposium Held at the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity'''. The Newman Press, 2006. pp.188-209.<br />
<br />
==See also==<br />
* [[Patristics]]<br />
<br />
==Notes==<br />
<references group="note" /><br />
<br />
==References== <br />
<div><references/></div><br />
<br />
==Sources==<br />
* [http://ishmaelite.blogspot.com/2009/05/jean-claude-larchet.html Jean-Claude Larchet]. ''ORA ET LABORA''. Friday, May 8, 2009.<br />
<br />
[[Category:Modern Writers|Larchet]]<br />
[[Category:Converts to Orthodox Christianity from Roman Catholicism|Larchet]]<br />
[[Category:Church History]]<br />
<br />
[[fr:Jean-Claude Larchet]]<br />
[[ro:Jean-Claude Larchet]]</div>Fr Levhttps://orthodoxwiki.org/index.php?title=John_Anthony_McGuckin&diff=119977John Anthony McGuckin2014-10-01T15:58:14Z<p>Fr Lev: /* External links */ fixed link</p>
<hr />
<div>Father '''John Anthony McGuckin''', Ph.D. (born 1952), is a scholar and [[priest]]. He is the Nielsen Professor of Early Church History at Union Theological Seminary and Professor of Byzantine Christian Studies at Columbia University in New York City. He is also pastor of St. Gregory's Chaplaincy, a community within the [[Romanian Orthodox Archdiocese in America and Canada]] meeting at Union Theological Seminary. <br />
<br />
McGuckin attended Heythrop College from 1970 to 1972, graduated from the University of London with a Divinity degree in 1975, and received a Certificate in Education from the University of Newcastle upon Tyne in 1979, his Doctor of Philosophy from Durham University in 1980, and a Master's degree in Educational Studies from the University of Southampton in 1986. He is a Fellow of both the Royal Society of Arts and the Royal Historical Society. He is the Director of the Sophia Institute:International Center for Orthodox Thought and Culture, which has its offices on the Union Seminary campus in Manhattan. He was awarded the Gold Cross of Moldavia and Bukovina by the Romanian Patriarch [[Daniel (Ciobotea) of Romania|Daniel]] in 2007 for his services to the Church and the Academy.<br />
<br />
A former Reader in [[Patristics]] and Byzantine Theology at the University of Leeds, he was raised [[Roman Catholic]] and at 19 became a member of the Passionist religious order. In 1989 McGuckin embraced Orthodoxy and was [[ordination|ordained]] a priest for the Romanian Orthodox Church, serving in Manhattan. In addition to his current pastoral ministry, he has served at the St. [[Mary Magdalene]] Mission, a parish of the [[Orthodox Church in America]].<br />
<br />
Fr. John was awarded the prestigious Henry Luce III Fellowship in Theology for 2006. His research project, completed at the end of 2006, is a large-scale book on the history and culture of Eastern Christianity, entitled ''The Orthodox Church: An Introduction to its History, Doctrine, and Spiritual Culture'' (published in 2008). Fr. John's scholarly activities have included serving as manuscript assessor (Early Christian Studies) for Routledge Publications, as advisor to the Australian Catholic University's ''Center for Early Christian Studies'', Sydney and its series of scholarly monographs, as a member of the Editorial Advisory Board for the Journals ''Pro Ecclesia'' and ''Maria'', and as an active member/fellow of numerous professional societies, including the Royal History Society, American Society of Church History, and International Society for the Promotion of Byzantine Studies. He is the founder and president of the [[Sophia Institute: International Center for Orthodox Thought & Culture]]. <br />
<br />
He has written important scholarly books on [[Cyril of Alexandria]], [[Gregory of Nazianzus]], and [[Origen]], among others. His work has ranged over the areas of [[New Testament]] interpretation, Patristics, Byzantine History, and Orthodox theology. He is a highly regarded Orthodox theologian, both in the English-speaking world and in Eastern Europe.<br />
<br />
In 1994, Fr. John entered into the poetic realm with a small book of poetry: ''Byzantium and Other Poems''.<br />
<br />
Fr. John is married to Eileen, a well-regarded [[iconographer]].<br />
<br />
==Bibliography==<br />
*''St Symeon the New Theologian: Chapters and Discourses''(1982, reprinted 1996)<br />
*''The Transfiguration of Christ in Scripture and Tradition'' (1986) ISBN 0-88946-609-2<br />
*''Selected Poems of St Gregory Nazianzen'' (1986, reprinted 1989, and 1995)<br />
*''St. Cyril of Alexandria: The Christological Controversy'' (1994, and reprinted 2004) ISBN 0-88141-259-7<br />
*''At the Lighting of the Lamps: Hymns from the Ancient Church'' (1995, and reprinted 1997) ISBN 0-8192-1717-4<br />
*''St. Gregory of Nazianzus: An Intellectual Biography'' (2000; nominated for the 2002 Pollock Biography Prize) ISBN 0-88141-222-8<br />
*''Standing in God's Holy Fire: The Spiritual Tradition of Byzantium'' (Orbis, 2001) ISBN 1-57075-382-2<br />
*''Byzantium and Other Poems'' (Black Gate Press, 1994; out of print)<br />
*''The Book of Mystical Chapters'' (Shambhala, 2002) ISBN 1-59030-007-6<br />
*''The Westminster Handbook to Origen'' (2004) ISBN 0-664-22472-5<br />
*''The Westminster Handbook to Patristic Theology'' (2004) ISBN 0-664-22396-6 <br />
*''The Orthodox Church: An Introduction to its History, Doctrine, and Spiritual Culture'' (2008) ISBN 978-1405150668<br />
*''The Ascent of Christian Law: Patristic and Byzantine Formulations of a New Civilization'' (St Vladimir's Seminary Press, 2012) ISBN 978-0881414035<br />
<br />
==External links==<br />
*[http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=John_Anthony_McGuckin&oldid=168241570 ''John Anthony McGuckin'' at Wikipedia]<br />
*[http://www.utsnyc.edu/faculty/faculty-directory/john-mcguckin Fr. John's faculty page at Union Theological Seminary]<br />
*[http://religion.columbia.edu/people/John%20McGuckin Fr. John's page at Columnia University]<br />
*[http://sgtt.org/iconstudio/index.htm Eileen McGuckin's Iconography page]<br />
*[http://sgtt.org Website of St. Gregory's Chaplaincy in New York]<br />
*[http://www.christianitytoday.com/ch/2005/001/7.18.html The Road to Nicaea], an essay describing the [[First Ecumenical Council]]<br />
<br />
[[Category:Priests|McGuckin, John]]<br />
[[Category:Modern Writers|McGuckin, John]]<br />
[[Category:Converts to Orthodox Christianity|McGuckin]]<br />
[[Category:Converts to Orthodox Christianity from Roman Catholicism|McGuckin]]<br />
<br />
[[ro:John Anthony McGuckin]]</div>Fr Levhttps://orthodoxwiki.org/index.php?title=John_Anthony_McGuckin&diff=119976John Anthony McGuckin2014-10-01T15:56:59Z<p>Fr Lev: /* External links */ corrected link</p>
<hr />
<div>Father '''John Anthony McGuckin''', Ph.D. (born 1952), is a scholar and [[priest]]. He is the Nielsen Professor of Early Church History at Union Theological Seminary and Professor of Byzantine Christian Studies at Columbia University in New York City. He is also pastor of St. Gregory's Chaplaincy, a community within the [[Romanian Orthodox Archdiocese in America and Canada]] meeting at Union Theological Seminary. <br />
<br />
McGuckin attended Heythrop College from 1970 to 1972, graduated from the University of London with a Divinity degree in 1975, and received a Certificate in Education from the University of Newcastle upon Tyne in 1979, his Doctor of Philosophy from Durham University in 1980, and a Master's degree in Educational Studies from the University of Southampton in 1986. He is a Fellow of both the Royal Society of Arts and the Royal Historical Society. He is the Director of the Sophia Institute:International Center for Orthodox Thought and Culture, which has its offices on the Union Seminary campus in Manhattan. He was awarded the Gold Cross of Moldavia and Bukovina by the Romanian Patriarch [[Daniel (Ciobotea) of Romania|Daniel]] in 2007 for his services to the Church and the Academy.<br />
<br />
A former Reader in [[Patristics]] and Byzantine Theology at the University of Leeds, he was raised [[Roman Catholic]] and at 19 became a member of the Passionist religious order. In 1989 McGuckin embraced Orthodoxy and was [[ordination|ordained]] a priest for the Romanian Orthodox Church, serving in Manhattan. In addition to his current pastoral ministry, he has served at the St. [[Mary Magdalene]] Mission, a parish of the [[Orthodox Church in America]].<br />
<br />
Fr. John was awarded the prestigious Henry Luce III Fellowship in Theology for 2006. His research project, completed at the end of 2006, is a large-scale book on the history and culture of Eastern Christianity, entitled ''The Orthodox Church: An Introduction to its History, Doctrine, and Spiritual Culture'' (published in 2008). Fr. John's scholarly activities have included serving as manuscript assessor (Early Christian Studies) for Routledge Publications, as advisor to the Australian Catholic University's ''Center for Early Christian Studies'', Sydney and its series of scholarly monographs, as a member of the Editorial Advisory Board for the Journals ''Pro Ecclesia'' and ''Maria'', and as an active member/fellow of numerous professional societies, including the Royal History Society, American Society of Church History, and International Society for the Promotion of Byzantine Studies. He is the founder and president of the [[Sophia Institute: International Center for Orthodox Thought & Culture]]. <br />
<br />
He has written important scholarly books on [[Cyril of Alexandria]], [[Gregory of Nazianzus]], and [[Origen]], among others. His work has ranged over the areas of [[New Testament]] interpretation, Patristics, Byzantine History, and Orthodox theology. He is a highly regarded Orthodox theologian, both in the English-speaking world and in Eastern Europe.<br />
<br />
In 1994, Fr. John entered into the poetic realm with a small book of poetry: ''Byzantium and Other Poems''.<br />
<br />
Fr. John is married to Eileen, a well-regarded [[iconographer]].<br />
<br />
==Bibliography==<br />
*''St Symeon the New Theologian: Chapters and Discourses''(1982, reprinted 1996)<br />
*''The Transfiguration of Christ in Scripture and Tradition'' (1986) ISBN 0-88946-609-2<br />
*''Selected Poems of St Gregory Nazianzen'' (1986, reprinted 1989, and 1995)<br />
*''St. Cyril of Alexandria: The Christological Controversy'' (1994, and reprinted 2004) ISBN 0-88141-259-7<br />
*''At the Lighting of the Lamps: Hymns from the Ancient Church'' (1995, and reprinted 1997) ISBN 0-8192-1717-4<br />
*''St. Gregory of Nazianzus: An Intellectual Biography'' (2000; nominated for the 2002 Pollock Biography Prize) ISBN 0-88141-222-8<br />
*''Standing in God's Holy Fire: The Spiritual Tradition of Byzantium'' (Orbis, 2001) ISBN 1-57075-382-2<br />
*''Byzantium and Other Poems'' (Black Gate Press, 1994; out of print)<br />
*''The Book of Mystical Chapters'' (Shambhala, 2002) ISBN 1-59030-007-6<br />
*''The Westminster Handbook to Origen'' (2004) ISBN 0-664-22472-5<br />
*''The Westminster Handbook to Patristic Theology'' (2004) ISBN 0-664-22396-6 <br />
*''The Orthodox Church: An Introduction to its History, Doctrine, and Spiritual Culture'' (2008) ISBN 978-1405150668<br />
*''The Ascent of Christian Law: Patristic and Byzantine Formulations of a New Civilization'' (St Vladimir's Seminary Press, 2012) ISBN 978-0881414035<br />
<br />
==External links==<br />
*[http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=John_Anthony_McGuckin&oldid=168241570 ''John Anthony McGuckin'' at Wikipedia]<br />
*[http://www.utsnyc.edu/faculty/faculty-directory/john-mcguckin Fr. John's faculty page at Union Theological Seminary]<br />
*[http://www.columbia.edu/cu/religion/faculty-data/john-mcguckin/faculty.html Fr. John's page at Columnia University]<br />
*[http://sgtt.org/iconstudio/index.htm Eileen McGuckin's Iconography page]<br />
*[http://sgtt.org Website of St. Gregory's Chaplaincy in New York]<br />
*[http://www.christianitytoday.com/ch/2005/001/7.18.html The Road to Nicaea], an essay describing the [[First Ecumenical Council]]<br />
<br />
[[Category:Priests|McGuckin, John]]<br />
[[Category:Modern Writers|McGuckin, John]]<br />
[[Category:Converts to Orthodox Christianity|McGuckin]]<br />
[[Category:Converts to Orthodox Christianity from Roman Catholicism|McGuckin]]<br />
<br />
[[ro:John Anthony McGuckin]]</div>Fr Levhttps://orthodoxwiki.org/index.php?title=Western_Saints_before_the_AD_1054_Schism&diff=119975Western Saints before the AD 1054 Schism2014-10-01T13:35:51Z<p>Fr Lev: /* September */</p>
<hr />
<div>''The following compilation is not an approved list of Western saints and may well not be "official." Notes and comments about each of them are welcome. It also includes commemorations recognized in the East, but observed on different dates.''<br />
<br />
== January ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' Eugendus<br />
<br />
'''2.''' Adalard of Corbie<br />
<br />
Auspasius of Auch<br />
<br />
'''3.''' [[Genevieve of Paris]]<br />
<br />
'''4.''' Fereal of Uzes<br />
<br />
Pharaildis<br />
<br />
Rigobert<br />
<br />
'''8.''' Aldric<br />
<br />
Erhard<br />
<br />
Gudula<br />
<br />
Pega of Peakirk <br />
<br />
'''9.''' Adrian of Canterbury<br />
<br />
'''12.''' Biscop<br />
<br />
'''13.''' Berhtwald<br />
<br />
Berno of Cluny<br />
<br />
[[Remigius of Rheims]]<br />
<br />
'''14.''' Mungo (Kentigern)<br />
<br />
'''15.''' Ceolwulf<br />
<br />
Emebert<br />
<br />
'''16.''' Fursey of Cnobheresburg<br />
<br />
'''17.''' Mildgyth<br />
<br />
Sulpitius the Pious<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Deicolus<br />
<br />
'''19.''' Agricius of Tier<br />
<br />
Contentius<br />
<br />
Remigius of Rouen<br />
<br />
'''21.''' Osburh of Coventry<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Praejectus<br />
<br />
Racho of Autun<br />
<br />
'''29.''' Aquilinus of Cologne/Milano<br />
<br />
[[Gildas the Wise]]<br />
<br />
Valerius of Treves<br />
<br />
'''30.''' Aldegonde<br />
<br />
Balthild<br />
<br />
'''31.''' Domitius of Amiens<br />
<br />
Uphia<br />
<br />
== February ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' [[Brigid of Kildare]]<br />
<br />
Severus of Avranches<br />
<br />
Sigebert III<br />
<br />
'''3.''' [[Ansgar]] (Anskar) of Bremen<br />
<br />
[[Laurence of Canterbury]]<br />
<br />
Werburh<br />
<br />
'''4.''' Aldate/Aldatus of Gloucester<br />
<br />
Rimbert<br />
<br />
'''5.''' Adelaide of Vilich<br />
<br />
Bertulf of Renty<br />
<br />
'''6.''' Amandus<br />
<br />
'''8.''' Aelfflaed of Whitby<br />
<br />
Cuthmann of Steyning<br />
<br />
'''9.''' Alto of Altomunster<br />
<br />
Ansbert<br />
<br />
Marius of Avenches<br />
<br />
'''10.''' Autrebertha<br />
<br />
[[Scholastica]]<br />
<br />
'''11.''' [[Blaise of Sebaste]]<br />
<br />
'''12.''' Aethelwold of Lindisfarne<br />
<br />
Benedict of Aniane<br />
<br />
'''13.''' Castor of Karden<br />
<br />
'''15.''' [[Sigfrid of Sweden]]<br />
<br />
'''17.''' Silvin of Auchy<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Angilbert<br />
<br />
[[Colman of Lindisfarne]]<br />
<br />
'''20.''' Eleutherius of Tournai<br />
<br />
'''21.''' Germanus of Granfelden<br />
<br />
'''23.''' Midburh<br />
<br />
'''24.''' Aethelberht of Kent<br />
<br />
Basil of Melrose<br />
<br />
Modest<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Praetextatus/Prix<br />
<br />
'''27.''' Aelfnoth of Stowe<br />
<br />
'''29.''' [[Oswald of Worcester]]<br />
<br />
== March ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' Abdalong of Marseilles<br />
<br />
Albinus of Angers<br />
<br />
[[David of Wales]]<br />
<br />
'''2.''' [[Chad of Lichfield]]<br />
<br />
'''6.''' Baldred/Balthere of Tyninghame<br />
<br />
Billfrith <br />
<br />
Chrodegang of Metz<br />
<br />
'''7.''' Eosterwine of Monkwearmouth<br />
<br />
'''8.''' Felix of Dommac<br />
<br />
'''9.''' Bosa of York<br />
<br />
'''10.''' Agilbert<br />
<br />
Attala<br />
<br />
Himelin<br />
<br />
'''12.''' Aelfheah the Bald<br />
<br />
'''14.''' [[Benedict of Nursia]]<br />
<br />
Matilda<br />
<br />
'''16.''' Heribert of Cologne<br />
<br />
'''17.''' Gertrude of Nivelles<br />
<br />
[[Patrick of Ireland]]<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Eadweard the Martyr<br />
<br />
'''19.''' Alchmund of Derby<br />
<br />
'''20.''' [[Clement of Ireland]]<br />
<br />
[[Cuthbert of Lindisfarne]]<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Humbert<br />
<br />
'''26.''' Ludger of Saxony<br />
<br />
'''27.''' Rupert of Salzburg<br />
<br />
'''28.''' Bereharius<br />
<br />
Guntram<br />
<br />
'''29.''' Eustace<br />
<br />
== April ==<br />
<br />
'''2.''' Aebbe the Younger<br />
<br />
Nicetius of Lyon<br />
<br />
'''3.''' Burgundofara<br />
<br />
'''5.''' Aethelburh of Kent<br />
<br />
'''9.''' Hugh of Champagne<br />
<br />
'''11.''' Guthlac of Crowland<br />
<br />
'''12.''' Erkembode<br />
<br />
'''15.''' Abbo II of Metz<br />
<br />
'''16.''' Padarn<br />
<br />
'''19.''' Alphege of Canterbury<br />
<br />
'''22.''' Aprunculus of Treves<br />
<br />
Opportuna of Montreuil<br />
<br />
'''23.''' Gerald/Gerard of Toul<br />
<br />
'''24.''' Ecgberht of Ripon<br />
<br />
Ivo of Ramsey<br />
<br />
Mellitus of London<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Rusticus of Lyon<br />
<br />
'''26.''' Richarius<br />
<br />
Trudpert<br />
<br />
'''29.''' Adalgar<br />
<br />
Aethelwold of Farne<br />
<br />
Wilfrith the Younger<br />
<br />
'''30.''' Earconwald<br />
<br />
<br />
== May ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' Aredius of Gap<br />
<br />
Bertha of Kent<br />
<br />
Marcouf<br />
<br />
Sigismund of Burgundy<br />
<br />
Theodard of Narbonne<br />
<br />
'''4.''' Arbeo of Freising<br />
<br />
Florian<br />
<br />
'''5.''' Maurontius of Douay<br />
<br />
'''6.''' Eadberht of Lindisfarne<br />
<br />
'''7.''' [[John of Beverly]]<br />
<br />
'''8.''' Desideratus<br />
<br />
Indracht of Glastonbury<br />
<br />
Itta of Metz<br />
<br />
'''9.''' Bienheure<br />
<br />
'''10.''' Solange<br />
<br />
'''11.''' Gangulphus<br />
<br />
Majolus<br />
<br />
'''12.''' Modoald/Romoald<br />
<br />
Rictrude<br />
<br />
'''15.''' Bertha of Bingen<br />
<br />
Rupert of Bingen<br />
<br />
'''16.''' [[Brendan the Navigator]]<br />
<br />
Germerius<br />
<br />
Honoratus<br />
<br />
'''17.''' Rasso of Adechs<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Aelfgifu of Shaftesbury<br />
<br />
'''19.''' Aelfheah of Canterbury<br />
<br />
'''20.''' Aethelberht II of East Anglia<br />
<br />
Austregisilus<br />
<br />
'''21.''' Hospitius<br />
<br />
'''23.''' Desidarius of Vienne<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Aldhelm of Sherbourne<br />
<br />
'''26.''' [[Augustine of Canterbury]]<br />
<br />
'''27.''' [[Bede]] of Jarrow<br />
<br />
'''28.''' [[Germanus of Paris]]<br />
<br />
William of Gellone<br />
<br />
'''29.''' [[Maximinus of Trier]]<br />
<br />
'''30.''' Hubertus<br />
<br />
Walstan<br />
<br />
== June ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' Lullus<br />
<br />
Wigstan<br />
<br />
'''4.''' Clotilde<br />
<br />
Eadfrith of Lindisfarne<br />
<br />
'''6.''' Agobard<br />
<br />
Branwalader of Milton<br />
<br />
Claudius<br />
<br />
'''8.''' Chlodulf of Metz<br />
<br />
Gildard<br />
<br />
Medardus<br />
<br />
'''11.''' Godeberta<br />
<br />
Landry of Paris<br />
<br />
'''13, 14, 15.''' Psalmodius<br />
<br />
'''16.''' Aurelianus<br />
<br />
'''17.''' Athwulf of Thorney<br />
<br />
Botwulf of Thorney<br />
<br />
Colman<br />
<br />
Nectan of Hartland<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Osana<br />
<br />
'''19.''' Deodatus<br />
<br />
'''20.''' Gobain<br />
<br />
'''21.''' Agofredus<br />
<br />
Alban of Mainz<br />
<br />
Gobain<br />
<br />
Leutfridus<br />
<br />
Palladius of Embrun<br />
<br />
'''22.''' [[Alban]] Protomartyr of Britain<br />
<br />
'''23.''' Aethelthryth<br />
<br />
'''24.''' Rumbold<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Amphibalus of St. Albans<br />
<br />
'''26.''' Brannac of Braunton<br />
<br />
'''28.''' [[Augustine of Hippo]]<br />
<br />
== July ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' Gal<br />
<br />
Calais<br />
<br />
'''2.''' Monegundus<br />
<br />
'''4.''' Bertha of Artois<br />
<br />
[[Oda of Canterbury]]<br />
<br />
'''6.''' Modwenna of Burton<br />
<br />
Seaxburh of Ely<br />
<br />
'''7.''' Aethelburh of Faremoutiers<br />
<br />
Haedde<br />
<br />
Willibald<br />
<br />
'''8.''' Colman<br />
<br />
Grimbald<br />
<br />
Kilian<br />
<br />
Urith<br />
<br />
Wihtburh<br />
<br />
'''9.''' Agilulfus of Cologne<br />
<br />
Evorhilda<br />
<br />
Neot<br />
<br />
'''10.''' Amalberga of Temse<br />
<br />
'''13.''' Arn of Wurzburg<br />
<br />
Mildthryth<br />
<br />
'''14.''' Frithona of Canterbury<br />
<br />
'''15.''' Apronia<br />
<br />
Eadgyth of Polesworth<br />
<br />
Swithun<br />
<br />
'''16.''' Fulrad<br />
<br />
Gundulph of Maastricht<br />
<br />
Helier<br />
<br />
Reineldis<br />
<br />
'''17.''' Cynehelm/Kenelm of Mercia<br />
<br />
Marcellina<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Arnulf of Metz<br />
<br />
Eadburh of Bicester<br />
<br />
Frederick of Utrecht<br />
<br />
'''20.''' Ansegisus<br />
<br />
Arilda of Oldbury<br />
<br />
Wilgefortis<br />
<br />
'''21.''' Arbogast<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Glodesind<br />
<br />
'''27.''' Galactorius<br />
<br />
'''28.''' [[Samson of Dol]]<br />
<br />
'''31.''' Sativola of Exeter<br />
<br />
== August ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' Aethelwold of Winchester<br />
<br />
Arcadius of Bourges<br />
<br />
'''5.''' Afla of Augsburg<br />
<br />
[[Oswald of Northumbria]]<br />
<br />
'''11.''' Gaugericus<br />
<br />
'''12.''' Porcarius<br />
<br />
'''13.''' Junian<br />
<br />
[[Radegund]]<br />
<br />
'''15.''' Altfrid<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Fiacre<br />
<br />
'''19.''' Bertulf of Bobbio<br />
<br />
Calminius<br />
<br />
Credan of Bodmin<br />
<br />
Magnus<br />
<br />
Sebaldus<br />
<br />
'''20.''' Oswine of Deira<br />
<br />
Philibert of Jumieges<br />
<br />
'''21.''' Eardwulf of Northumbria<br />
<br />
'''24.''' Audoin<br />
<br />
Gildard of Lurcy-le-Bourg<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Aebbe of Coldingham<br />
<br />
Aredius<br />
<br />
Gines de la Jara<br />
<br />
Gregory of Utrecht<br />
<br />
'''26.''' Bregowine<br />
<br />
'''27.''' [[Caesarius of Arles]]<br />
<br />
Decuman of Watchet<br />
<br />
Lycerius<br />
<br />
Syagrius of Autun<br />
<br />
'''28.''' Rumon<br />
<br />
'''31.''' [[Aidan of Lindisfarne]]<br />
<br />
[[Eanswythe of Folkestone]]<br />
<br />
[[ro:Sfinți occidentali de dinainte de schisma din 1054]]<br />
<br />
== September ==<br />
<br />
'''1. ''' <br />
<br />
'''2. ''' Giles<br />
<br />
'''3. ''' <br />
<br />
'''4. ''' [[Cuthbert of Lindisfarne|Cuthbert the Wonderworker]]<br />
<br />
'''5. ''' Bertin<br />
<br />
'''6. ''' <br />
<br />
'''7. ''' <br />
<br />
'''8. ''' <br />
<br />
'''9. ''' <br />
<br />
'''10. '''<br />
<br />
'''11. ''' <br />
<br />
'''12. ''' <br />
<br />
'''13. '''<br />
<br />
'''14. ''' <br />
<br />
'''15. ''' Leobinus<br />
<br />
'''16. ''' Edith<br />
<br />
[[Euphemia the Great Martyr|Euphemia]]<br />
<br />
Ninian<br />
<br />
'''17. ''' <br />
<br />
'''18. '''<br />
<br />
'''19. '''<br />
<br />
'''20. ''' <br />
<br />
'''21. ''' [[Apostle Matthew|Matthew the Apostle]]<br />
<br />
'''22. ''' <br />
<br />
'''23. ''' [[Maurice]]<br />
<br />
'''24. ''' Conception of John the Baptist<br />
<br />
'''25. ''' Firminus<br />
<br />
'''26. ''' Cyprian & Justina<br />
<br />
'''27. '''<br />
<br />
'''28. ''' <br />
<br />
'''29. ''' <br />
<br />
'''30. ''' [[Jerome]]<br />
<br />
== October ==<br />
<br />
'''1. ''' [[Remigius of Rheims]]<br />
<br />
'''2. ''' Leodegarius<br />
<br />
'''3. ''' <br />
<br />
'''4. ''' <br />
<br />
'''5. ''' [[Archangel Raphael|Raphael the Archangel]]<br />
<br />
'''6. ''' <br />
<br />
'''7. ''' Mark & Marcellian<br />
<br />
'''8. ''' Demetrius<br />
<br />
'''9. ''' [[Dionysius the Areopagite ]]<br />
<br />
'''10. ''' [[Paulinus]]<br />
<br />
Gereon & fellow martyrs<br />
<br />
'''11. ''' Nicasius & others<br />
<br />
'''12. ''' <br />
<br />
'''13. '''<br />
<br />
'''14. ''' <br />
<br />
'''15. ''' <br />
<br />
'''16. ''' Michael upon the Sea<br />
<br />
'''17. ''' Translation of St [[Etheldreda of Ely]]<br />
<br />
[[Nothelm]]<br />
<br />
'''18. '''[[Apostle Luke| Luke the Evangelist]]<br />
<br />
'''19. ''' Frideswide<br />
<br />
'''20. ''' <br />
<br />
'''21. ''' Ursula & Martyrs<br />
<br />
'''22. ''' <br />
<br />
'''23. ''' Roman<br />
<br />
'''24. ''' <br />
<br />
'''25. ''' Crispin & Crispinian<br />
<br />
'''26. ''' [[Cuthbert of Canterbury]]<br />
<br />
'''27. '''<br />
<br />
'''28. ''' [[Apostle Simon|Simon]] & [[Apostle Jude| Jude]], Apostles]]<br />
<br />
'''29. ''' <br />
<br />
'''30. ''' <br />
<br />
'''31. ''' Quentin<br />
<br />
== November ==<br />
<br />
'''1'''. All Saints’<br />
<br />
'''2'''. All Souls’<br />
<br />
'''3'''. <br />
<br />
'''4'''. Winifred<br />
<br />
'''5'''.<br />
<br />
'''6'''. Leonard<br />
<br />
'''7'''.<br />
<br />
'''8'''. Four Crowned Martyrs<br />
<br />
'''9'''.<br />
<br />
'''10'''. [[Leo the Great]]<br />
<br />
'''11'''. [[Martin of Tours]]<br />
<br />
'''12'''.<br />
<br />
'''13'''. Brixius<br />
<br />
'''14'''. Erkenwald<br />
<br />
'''15'''. Malo<br />
<br />
'''16'''. <br />
<br />
'''17'''.<br />
<br />
'''18'''.<br />
<br />
'''19'''.<br />
<br />
'''20'''. [[Edmund the Martyr]]<br />
<br />
'''21'''. <br />
<br />
'''22'''. Cecilia<br />
<br />
'''23'''. [[Clement of Rome]]<br />
<br />
'''24'''.<br />
<br />
'''25'''. [[Catherine of Alexandria]]<br />
<br />
'''26'''. [[Linus of Rome]]<br />
<br />
'''27'''.<br />
<br />
'''28'''. <br />
<br />
'''29'''. Saturnin<br />
<br />
'''30'''. [[Apostle Andrew|Andrew the Apostle]]<br />
<br />
== December ==<br />
<br />
'''1. ''' <br />
<br />
'''2. ''' <br />
<br />
'''3. ''' [[Birinus of Dorchester]]<br />
<br />
'''4. ''' <br />
<br />
'''5. ''' <br />
<br />
'''6. ''' [[Nicholas of Myra]]<br />
<br />
'''7. ''' <br />
<br />
'''8. ''' <br />
<br />
'''9. ''' [[Conception of the Theotokos]]<br />
<br />
'''10. ''' <br />
<br />
'''11. ''' [[Damasus I of Rome]]<br />
<br />
'''12. ''' <br />
<br />
'''13. ''' [[Lucy of Syracuse]]<br />
<br />
'''14. ''' <br />
<br />
'''15. ''' <br />
<br />
'''16. ''' [[Barbara of Heliopolis|Barbara]]<br />
<br />
'''17. ''' <br />
<br />
'''18. ''' <br />
<br />
'''19. ''' <br />
<br />
'''20. ''' <br />
<br />
'''21. ''' [[Apostle Thomas|Thomas the Apostle]]<br />
<br />
'''22. ''' <br />
<br />
'''23. ''' <br />
<br />
'''24. ''' <br />
<br />
'''25. ''' [[Nativity|Nativity of Our Lord]]<br />
<br />
'''26. ''' [[Apostle Stephen the Protomartyr|Stephen the Protomartyr]]<br />
<br />
'''27. ''' [[Apostle John| John the Theologian]]<br />
<br />
'''28. '''[[ Holy Innocents]]<br />
<br />
'''29. ''' <br />
<br />
'''30. ''' <br />
<br />
'''31. ''' [[Sylvester I of Rome]]</div>Fr Levhttps://orthodoxwiki.org/index.php?title=Western_Saints_before_the_AD_1054_Schism&diff=119974Western Saints before the AD 1054 Schism2014-10-01T13:35:24Z<p>Fr Lev: /* March */</p>
<hr />
<div>''The following compilation is not an approved list of Western saints and may well not be "official." Notes and comments about each of them are welcome. It also includes commemorations recognized in the East, but observed on different dates.''<br />
<br />
== January ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' Eugendus<br />
<br />
'''2.''' Adalard of Corbie<br />
<br />
Auspasius of Auch<br />
<br />
'''3.''' [[Genevieve of Paris]]<br />
<br />
'''4.''' Fereal of Uzes<br />
<br />
Pharaildis<br />
<br />
Rigobert<br />
<br />
'''8.''' Aldric<br />
<br />
Erhard<br />
<br />
Gudula<br />
<br />
Pega of Peakirk <br />
<br />
'''9.''' Adrian of Canterbury<br />
<br />
'''12.''' Biscop<br />
<br />
'''13.''' Berhtwald<br />
<br />
Berno of Cluny<br />
<br />
[[Remigius of Rheims]]<br />
<br />
'''14.''' Mungo (Kentigern)<br />
<br />
'''15.''' Ceolwulf<br />
<br />
Emebert<br />
<br />
'''16.''' Fursey of Cnobheresburg<br />
<br />
'''17.''' Mildgyth<br />
<br />
Sulpitius the Pious<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Deicolus<br />
<br />
'''19.''' Agricius of Tier<br />
<br />
Contentius<br />
<br />
Remigius of Rouen<br />
<br />
'''21.''' Osburh of Coventry<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Praejectus<br />
<br />
Racho of Autun<br />
<br />
'''29.''' Aquilinus of Cologne/Milano<br />
<br />
[[Gildas the Wise]]<br />
<br />
Valerius of Treves<br />
<br />
'''30.''' Aldegonde<br />
<br />
Balthild<br />
<br />
'''31.''' Domitius of Amiens<br />
<br />
Uphia<br />
<br />
== February ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' [[Brigid of Kildare]]<br />
<br />
Severus of Avranches<br />
<br />
Sigebert III<br />
<br />
'''3.''' [[Ansgar]] (Anskar) of Bremen<br />
<br />
[[Laurence of Canterbury]]<br />
<br />
Werburh<br />
<br />
'''4.''' Aldate/Aldatus of Gloucester<br />
<br />
Rimbert<br />
<br />
'''5.''' Adelaide of Vilich<br />
<br />
Bertulf of Renty<br />
<br />
'''6.''' Amandus<br />
<br />
'''8.''' Aelfflaed of Whitby<br />
<br />
Cuthmann of Steyning<br />
<br />
'''9.''' Alto of Altomunster<br />
<br />
Ansbert<br />
<br />
Marius of Avenches<br />
<br />
'''10.''' Autrebertha<br />
<br />
[[Scholastica]]<br />
<br />
'''11.''' [[Blaise of Sebaste]]<br />
<br />
'''12.''' Aethelwold of Lindisfarne<br />
<br />
Benedict of Aniane<br />
<br />
'''13.''' Castor of Karden<br />
<br />
'''15.''' [[Sigfrid of Sweden]]<br />
<br />
'''17.''' Silvin of Auchy<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Angilbert<br />
<br />
[[Colman of Lindisfarne]]<br />
<br />
'''20.''' Eleutherius of Tournai<br />
<br />
'''21.''' Germanus of Granfelden<br />
<br />
'''23.''' Midburh<br />
<br />
'''24.''' Aethelberht of Kent<br />
<br />
Basil of Melrose<br />
<br />
Modest<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Praetextatus/Prix<br />
<br />
'''27.''' Aelfnoth of Stowe<br />
<br />
'''29.''' [[Oswald of Worcester]]<br />
<br />
== March ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' Abdalong of Marseilles<br />
<br />
Albinus of Angers<br />
<br />
[[David of Wales]]<br />
<br />
'''2.''' [[Chad of Lichfield]]<br />
<br />
'''6.''' Baldred/Balthere of Tyninghame<br />
<br />
Billfrith <br />
<br />
Chrodegang of Metz<br />
<br />
'''7.''' Eosterwine of Monkwearmouth<br />
<br />
'''8.''' Felix of Dommac<br />
<br />
'''9.''' Bosa of York<br />
<br />
'''10.''' Agilbert<br />
<br />
Attala<br />
<br />
Himelin<br />
<br />
'''12.''' Aelfheah the Bald<br />
<br />
'''14.''' [[Benedict of Nursia]]<br />
<br />
Matilda<br />
<br />
'''16.''' Heribert of Cologne<br />
<br />
'''17.''' Gertrude of Nivelles<br />
<br />
[[Patrick of Ireland]]<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Eadweard the Martyr<br />
<br />
'''19.''' Alchmund of Derby<br />
<br />
'''20.''' [[Clement of Ireland]]<br />
<br />
[[Cuthbert of Lindisfarne]]<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Humbert<br />
<br />
'''26.''' Ludger of Saxony<br />
<br />
'''27.''' Rupert of Salzburg<br />
<br />
'''28.''' Bereharius<br />
<br />
Guntram<br />
<br />
'''29.''' Eustace<br />
<br />
== April ==<br />
<br />
'''2.''' Aebbe the Younger<br />
<br />
Nicetius of Lyon<br />
<br />
'''3.''' Burgundofara<br />
<br />
'''5.''' Aethelburh of Kent<br />
<br />
'''9.''' Hugh of Champagne<br />
<br />
'''11.''' Guthlac of Crowland<br />
<br />
'''12.''' Erkembode<br />
<br />
'''15.''' Abbo II of Metz<br />
<br />
'''16.''' Padarn<br />
<br />
'''19.''' Alphege of Canterbury<br />
<br />
'''22.''' Aprunculus of Treves<br />
<br />
Opportuna of Montreuil<br />
<br />
'''23.''' Gerald/Gerard of Toul<br />
<br />
'''24.''' Ecgberht of Ripon<br />
<br />
Ivo of Ramsey<br />
<br />
Mellitus of London<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Rusticus of Lyon<br />
<br />
'''26.''' Richarius<br />
<br />
Trudpert<br />
<br />
'''29.''' Adalgar<br />
<br />
Aethelwold of Farne<br />
<br />
Wilfrith the Younger<br />
<br />
'''30.''' Earconwald<br />
<br />
<br />
== May ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' Aredius of Gap<br />
<br />
Bertha of Kent<br />
<br />
Marcouf<br />
<br />
Sigismund of Burgundy<br />
<br />
Theodard of Narbonne<br />
<br />
'''4.''' Arbeo of Freising<br />
<br />
Florian<br />
<br />
'''5.''' Maurontius of Douay<br />
<br />
'''6.''' Eadberht of Lindisfarne<br />
<br />
'''7.''' [[John of Beverly]]<br />
<br />
'''8.''' Desideratus<br />
<br />
Indracht of Glastonbury<br />
<br />
Itta of Metz<br />
<br />
'''9.''' Bienheure<br />
<br />
'''10.''' Solange<br />
<br />
'''11.''' Gangulphus<br />
<br />
Majolus<br />
<br />
'''12.''' Modoald/Romoald<br />
<br />
Rictrude<br />
<br />
'''15.''' Bertha of Bingen<br />
<br />
Rupert of Bingen<br />
<br />
'''16.''' [[Brendan the Navigator]]<br />
<br />
Germerius<br />
<br />
Honoratus<br />
<br />
'''17.''' Rasso of Adechs<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Aelfgifu of Shaftesbury<br />
<br />
'''19.''' Aelfheah of Canterbury<br />
<br />
'''20.''' Aethelberht II of East Anglia<br />
<br />
Austregisilus<br />
<br />
'''21.''' Hospitius<br />
<br />
'''23.''' Desidarius of Vienne<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Aldhelm of Sherbourne<br />
<br />
'''26.''' [[Augustine of Canterbury]]<br />
<br />
'''27.''' [[Bede]] of Jarrow<br />
<br />
'''28.''' [[Germanus of Paris]]<br />
<br />
William of Gellone<br />
<br />
'''29.''' [[Maximinus of Trier]]<br />
<br />
'''30.''' Hubertus<br />
<br />
Walstan<br />
<br />
== June ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' Lullus<br />
<br />
Wigstan<br />
<br />
'''4.''' Clotilde<br />
<br />
Eadfrith of Lindisfarne<br />
<br />
'''6.''' Agobard<br />
<br />
Branwalader of Milton<br />
<br />
Claudius<br />
<br />
'''8.''' Chlodulf of Metz<br />
<br />
Gildard<br />
<br />
Medardus<br />
<br />
'''11.''' Godeberta<br />
<br />
Landry of Paris<br />
<br />
'''13, 14, 15.''' Psalmodius<br />
<br />
'''16.''' Aurelianus<br />
<br />
'''17.''' Athwulf of Thorney<br />
<br />
Botwulf of Thorney<br />
<br />
Colman<br />
<br />
Nectan of Hartland<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Osana<br />
<br />
'''19.''' Deodatus<br />
<br />
'''20.''' Gobain<br />
<br />
'''21.''' Agofredus<br />
<br />
Alban of Mainz<br />
<br />
Gobain<br />
<br />
Leutfridus<br />
<br />
Palladius of Embrun<br />
<br />
'''22.''' [[Alban]] Protomartyr of Britain<br />
<br />
'''23.''' Aethelthryth<br />
<br />
'''24.''' Rumbold<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Amphibalus of St. Albans<br />
<br />
'''26.''' Brannac of Braunton<br />
<br />
'''28.''' [[Augustine of Hippo]]<br />
<br />
== July ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' Gal<br />
<br />
Calais<br />
<br />
'''2.''' Monegundus<br />
<br />
'''4.''' Bertha of Artois<br />
<br />
[[Oda of Canterbury]]<br />
<br />
'''6.''' Modwenna of Burton<br />
<br />
Seaxburh of Ely<br />
<br />
'''7.''' Aethelburh of Faremoutiers<br />
<br />
Haedde<br />
<br />
Willibald<br />
<br />
'''8.''' Colman<br />
<br />
Grimbald<br />
<br />
Kilian<br />
<br />
Urith<br />
<br />
Wihtburh<br />
<br />
'''9.''' Agilulfus of Cologne<br />
<br />
Evorhilda<br />
<br />
Neot<br />
<br />
'''10.''' Amalberga of Temse<br />
<br />
'''13.''' Arn of Wurzburg<br />
<br />
Mildthryth<br />
<br />
'''14.''' Frithona of Canterbury<br />
<br />
'''15.''' Apronia<br />
<br />
Eadgyth of Polesworth<br />
<br />
Swithun<br />
<br />
'''16.''' Fulrad<br />
<br />
Gundulph of Maastricht<br />
<br />
Helier<br />
<br />
Reineldis<br />
<br />
'''17.''' Cynehelm/Kenelm of Mercia<br />
<br />
Marcellina<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Arnulf of Metz<br />
<br />
Eadburh of Bicester<br />
<br />
Frederick of Utrecht<br />
<br />
'''20.''' Ansegisus<br />
<br />
Arilda of Oldbury<br />
<br />
Wilgefortis<br />
<br />
'''21.''' Arbogast<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Glodesind<br />
<br />
'''27.''' Galactorius<br />
<br />
'''28.''' [[Samson of Dol]]<br />
<br />
'''31.''' Sativola of Exeter<br />
<br />
== August ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' Aethelwold of Winchester<br />
<br />
Arcadius of Bourges<br />
<br />
'''5.''' Afla of Augsburg<br />
<br />
[[Oswald of Northumbria]]<br />
<br />
'''11.''' Gaugericus<br />
<br />
'''12.''' Porcarius<br />
<br />
'''13.''' Junian<br />
<br />
[[Radegund]]<br />
<br />
'''15.''' Altfrid<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Fiacre<br />
<br />
'''19.''' Bertulf of Bobbio<br />
<br />
Calminius<br />
<br />
Credan of Bodmin<br />
<br />
Magnus<br />
<br />
Sebaldus<br />
<br />
'''20.''' Oswine of Deira<br />
<br />
Philibert of Jumieges<br />
<br />
'''21.''' Eardwulf of Northumbria<br />
<br />
'''24.''' Audoin<br />
<br />
Gildard of Lurcy-le-Bourg<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Aebbe of Coldingham<br />
<br />
Aredius<br />
<br />
Gines de la Jara<br />
<br />
Gregory of Utrecht<br />
<br />
'''26.''' Bregowine<br />
<br />
'''27.''' [[Caesarius of Arles]]<br />
<br />
Decuman of Watchet<br />
<br />
Lycerius<br />
<br />
Syagrius of Autun<br />
<br />
'''28.''' Rumon<br />
<br />
'''31.''' [[Aidan of Lindisfarne]]<br />
<br />
[[Eanswythe of Folkestone]]<br />
<br />
[[ro:Sfinți occidentali de dinainte de schisma din 1054]]<br />
<br />
== September ==<br />
<br />
'''1. ''' <br />
<br />
'''2. ''' Giles<br />
<br />
'''3. ''' <br />
<br />
'''4. ''' [[Cuthbert of Lindisfarne|Cuthbert the Wonderworker]]<br />
<br />
'''5. ''' Bertin<br />
<br />
'''6. ''' <br />
<br />
'''7. ''' <br />
<br />
'''8. ''' <br />
<br />
'''9. ''' <br />
<br />
'''10. '''<br />
<br />
'''11. ''' <br />
<br />
'''12. ''' <br />
<br />
'''13. '''<br />
<br />
'''14. ''' <br />
<br />
'''15. ''' <br />
<br />
'''16. ''' Edith<br />
<br />
[[Euphemia the Great Martyr|Euphemia]]<br />
<br />
Ninian<br />
<br />
'''17. ''' <br />
<br />
'''18. '''<br />
<br />
'''19. '''<br />
<br />
'''20. ''' <br />
<br />
'''21. ''' [[Apostle Matthew|Matthew the Apostle]]<br />
<br />
'''22. ''' <br />
<br />
'''23. ''' [[Maurice]]<br />
<br />
'''24. ''' Conception of John the Baptist<br />
<br />
'''25. ''' Firminus<br />
<br />
'''26. ''' Cyprian & Justina<br />
<br />
'''27. '''<br />
<br />
'''28. ''' <br />
<br />
'''29. ''' <br />
<br />
'''30. ''' [[Jerome]]<br />
<br />
== October ==<br />
<br />
'''1. ''' [[Remigius of Rheims]]<br />
<br />
'''2. ''' Leodegarius<br />
<br />
'''3. ''' <br />
<br />
'''4. ''' <br />
<br />
'''5. ''' [[Archangel Raphael|Raphael the Archangel]]<br />
<br />
'''6. ''' <br />
<br />
'''7. ''' Mark & Marcellian<br />
<br />
'''8. ''' Demetrius<br />
<br />
'''9. ''' [[Dionysius the Areopagite ]]<br />
<br />
'''10. ''' [[Paulinus]]<br />
<br />
Gereon & fellow martyrs<br />
<br />
'''11. ''' Nicasius & others<br />
<br />
'''12. ''' <br />
<br />
'''13. '''<br />
<br />
'''14. ''' <br />
<br />
'''15. ''' <br />
<br />
'''16. ''' Michael upon the Sea<br />
<br />
'''17. ''' Translation of St [[Etheldreda of Ely]]<br />
<br />
[[Nothelm]]<br />
<br />
'''18. '''[[Apostle Luke| Luke the Evangelist]]<br />
<br />
'''19. ''' Frideswide<br />
<br />
'''20. ''' <br />
<br />
'''21. ''' Ursula & Martyrs<br />
<br />
'''22. ''' <br />
<br />
'''23. ''' Roman<br />
<br />
'''24. ''' <br />
<br />
'''25. ''' Crispin & Crispinian<br />
<br />
'''26. ''' [[Cuthbert of Canterbury]]<br />
<br />
'''27. '''<br />
<br />
'''28. ''' [[Apostle Simon|Simon]] & [[Apostle Jude| Jude]], Apostles]]<br />
<br />
'''29. ''' <br />
<br />
'''30. ''' <br />
<br />
'''31. ''' Quentin<br />
<br />
== November ==<br />
<br />
'''1'''. All Saints’<br />
<br />
'''2'''. All Souls’<br />
<br />
'''3'''. <br />
<br />
'''4'''. Winifred<br />
<br />
'''5'''.<br />
<br />
'''6'''. Leonard<br />
<br />
'''7'''.<br />
<br />
'''8'''. Four Crowned Martyrs<br />
<br />
'''9'''.<br />
<br />
'''10'''. [[Leo the Great]]<br />
<br />
'''11'''. [[Martin of Tours]]<br />
<br />
'''12'''.<br />
<br />
'''13'''. Brixius<br />
<br />
'''14'''. Erkenwald<br />
<br />
'''15'''. Malo<br />
<br />
'''16'''. <br />
<br />
'''17'''.<br />
<br />
'''18'''.<br />
<br />
'''19'''.<br />
<br />
'''20'''. [[Edmund the Martyr]]<br />
<br />
'''21'''. <br />
<br />
'''22'''. Cecilia<br />
<br />
'''23'''. [[Clement of Rome]]<br />
<br />
'''24'''.<br />
<br />
'''25'''. [[Catherine of Alexandria]]<br />
<br />
'''26'''. [[Linus of Rome]]<br />
<br />
'''27'''.<br />
<br />
'''28'''. <br />
<br />
'''29'''. Saturnin<br />
<br />
'''30'''. [[Apostle Andrew|Andrew the Apostle]]<br />
<br />
== December ==<br />
<br />
'''1. ''' <br />
<br />
'''2. ''' <br />
<br />
'''3. ''' [[Birinus of Dorchester]]<br />
<br />
'''4. ''' <br />
<br />
'''5. ''' <br />
<br />
'''6. ''' [[Nicholas of Myra]]<br />
<br />
'''7. ''' <br />
<br />
'''8. ''' <br />
<br />
'''9. ''' [[Conception of the Theotokos]]<br />
<br />
'''10. ''' <br />
<br />
'''11. ''' [[Damasus I of Rome]]<br />
<br />
'''12. ''' <br />
<br />
'''13. ''' [[Lucy of Syracuse]]<br />
<br />
'''14. ''' <br />
<br />
'''15. ''' <br />
<br />
'''16. ''' [[Barbara of Heliopolis|Barbara]]<br />
<br />
'''17. ''' <br />
<br />
'''18. ''' <br />
<br />
'''19. ''' <br />
<br />
'''20. ''' <br />
<br />
'''21. ''' [[Apostle Thomas|Thomas the Apostle]]<br />
<br />
'''22. ''' <br />
<br />
'''23. ''' <br />
<br />
'''24. ''' <br />
<br />
'''25. ''' [[Nativity|Nativity of Our Lord]]<br />
<br />
'''26. ''' [[Apostle Stephen the Protomartyr|Stephen the Protomartyr]]<br />
<br />
'''27. ''' [[Apostle John| John the Theologian]]<br />
<br />
'''28. '''[[ Holy Innocents]]<br />
<br />
'''29. ''' <br />
<br />
'''30. ''' <br />
<br />
'''31. ''' [[Sylvester I of Rome]]</div>Fr Levhttps://orthodoxwiki.org/index.php?title=Western_Saints_before_the_AD_1054_Schism&diff=119973Western Saints before the AD 1054 Schism2014-10-01T13:32:22Z<p>Fr Lev: /* October */</p>
<hr />
<div>''The following compilation is not an approved list of Western saints and may well not be "official." Notes and comments about each of them are welcome. It also includes commemorations recognized in the East, but observed on different dates.''<br />
<br />
== January ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' Eugendus<br />
<br />
'''2.''' Adalard of Corbie<br />
<br />
Auspasius of Auch<br />
<br />
'''3.''' [[Genevieve of Paris]]<br />
<br />
'''4.''' Fereal of Uzes<br />
<br />
Pharaildis<br />
<br />
Rigobert<br />
<br />
'''8.''' Aldric<br />
<br />
Erhard<br />
<br />
Gudula<br />
<br />
Pega of Peakirk <br />
<br />
'''9.''' Adrian of Canterbury<br />
<br />
'''12.''' Biscop<br />
<br />
'''13.''' Berhtwald<br />
<br />
Berno of Cluny<br />
<br />
[[Remigius of Rheims]]<br />
<br />
'''14.''' Mungo (Kentigern)<br />
<br />
'''15.''' Ceolwulf<br />
<br />
Emebert<br />
<br />
'''16.''' Fursey of Cnobheresburg<br />
<br />
'''17.''' Mildgyth<br />
<br />
Sulpitius the Pious<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Deicolus<br />
<br />
'''19.''' Agricius of Tier<br />
<br />
Contentius<br />
<br />
Remigius of Rouen<br />
<br />
'''21.''' Osburh of Coventry<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Praejectus<br />
<br />
Racho of Autun<br />
<br />
'''29.''' Aquilinus of Cologne/Milano<br />
<br />
[[Gildas the Wise]]<br />
<br />
Valerius of Treves<br />
<br />
'''30.''' Aldegonde<br />
<br />
Balthild<br />
<br />
'''31.''' Domitius of Amiens<br />
<br />
Uphia<br />
<br />
== February ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' [[Brigid of Kildare]]<br />
<br />
Severus of Avranches<br />
<br />
Sigebert III<br />
<br />
'''3.''' [[Ansgar]] (Anskar) of Bremen<br />
<br />
[[Laurence of Canterbury]]<br />
<br />
Werburh<br />
<br />
'''4.''' Aldate/Aldatus of Gloucester<br />
<br />
Rimbert<br />
<br />
'''5.''' Adelaide of Vilich<br />
<br />
Bertulf of Renty<br />
<br />
'''6.''' Amandus<br />
<br />
'''8.''' Aelfflaed of Whitby<br />
<br />
Cuthmann of Steyning<br />
<br />
'''9.''' Alto of Altomunster<br />
<br />
Ansbert<br />
<br />
Marius of Avenches<br />
<br />
'''10.''' Autrebertha<br />
<br />
[[Scholastica]]<br />
<br />
'''11.''' [[Blaise of Sebaste]]<br />
<br />
'''12.''' Aethelwold of Lindisfarne<br />
<br />
Benedict of Aniane<br />
<br />
'''13.''' Castor of Karden<br />
<br />
'''15.''' [[Sigfrid of Sweden]]<br />
<br />
'''17.''' Silvin of Auchy<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Angilbert<br />
<br />
[[Colman of Lindisfarne]]<br />
<br />
'''20.''' Eleutherius of Tournai<br />
<br />
'''21.''' Germanus of Granfelden<br />
<br />
'''23.''' Midburh<br />
<br />
'''24.''' Aethelberht of Kent<br />
<br />
Basil of Melrose<br />
<br />
Modest<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Praetextatus/Prix<br />
<br />
'''27.''' Aelfnoth of Stowe<br />
<br />
'''29.''' [[Oswald of Worcester]]<br />
<br />
== March ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' Abdalong of Marseilles<br />
<br />
Albinus of Angers<br />
<br />
[[David of Wales]]<br />
<br />
'''2.''' [[Chad of Lichfield]]<br />
<br />
'''6.''' Baldred/Balthere of Tyninghame<br />
<br />
Billfrith <br />
<br />
Chrodegang of Metz<br />
<br />
'''7.''' Eosterwine of Monkwearmouth<br />
<br />
'''8.''' Felix of Dommac<br />
<br />
'''9.''' Bosa of York<br />
<br />
'''10.''' Agilbert<br />
<br />
Attala<br />
<br />
Himelin<br />
<br />
'''12.''' Aelfheah the Bald<br />
<br />
'''14.''' [[Benedict of Nursia]]<br />
<br />
Leobinus<br />
<br />
Matilda<br />
<br />
'''16.''' Heribert of Cologne<br />
<br />
'''17.''' Gertrude of Nivelles<br />
<br />
[[Patrick of Ireland]]<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Eadweard the Martyr<br />
<br />
'''19.''' Alchmund of Derby<br />
<br />
'''20.''' [[Clement of Ireland]]<br />
<br />
[[Cuthbert of Lindisfarne]]<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Humbert<br />
<br />
'''26.''' Ludger of Saxony<br />
<br />
'''27.''' Rupert of Salzburg<br />
<br />
'''28.''' Bereharius<br />
<br />
Guntram<br />
<br />
'''29.''' Eustace<br />
<br />
== April ==<br />
<br />
'''2.''' Aebbe the Younger<br />
<br />
Nicetius of Lyon<br />
<br />
'''3.''' Burgundofara<br />
<br />
'''5.''' Aethelburh of Kent<br />
<br />
'''9.''' Hugh of Champagne<br />
<br />
'''11.''' Guthlac of Crowland<br />
<br />
'''12.''' Erkembode<br />
<br />
'''15.''' Abbo II of Metz<br />
<br />
'''16.''' Padarn<br />
<br />
'''19.''' Alphege of Canterbury<br />
<br />
'''22.''' Aprunculus of Treves<br />
<br />
Opportuna of Montreuil<br />
<br />
'''23.''' Gerald/Gerard of Toul<br />
<br />
'''24.''' Ecgberht of Ripon<br />
<br />
Ivo of Ramsey<br />
<br />
Mellitus of London<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Rusticus of Lyon<br />
<br />
'''26.''' Richarius<br />
<br />
Trudpert<br />
<br />
'''29.''' Adalgar<br />
<br />
Aethelwold of Farne<br />
<br />
Wilfrith the Younger<br />
<br />
'''30.''' Earconwald<br />
<br />
<br />
== May ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' Aredius of Gap<br />
<br />
Bertha of Kent<br />
<br />
Marcouf<br />
<br />
Sigismund of Burgundy<br />
<br />
Theodard of Narbonne<br />
<br />
'''4.''' Arbeo of Freising<br />
<br />
Florian<br />
<br />
'''5.''' Maurontius of Douay<br />
<br />
'''6.''' Eadberht of Lindisfarne<br />
<br />
'''7.''' [[John of Beverly]]<br />
<br />
'''8.''' Desideratus<br />
<br />
Indracht of Glastonbury<br />
<br />
Itta of Metz<br />
<br />
'''9.''' Bienheure<br />
<br />
'''10.''' Solange<br />
<br />
'''11.''' Gangulphus<br />
<br />
Majolus<br />
<br />
'''12.''' Modoald/Romoald<br />
<br />
Rictrude<br />
<br />
'''15.''' Bertha of Bingen<br />
<br />
Rupert of Bingen<br />
<br />
'''16.''' [[Brendan the Navigator]]<br />
<br />
Germerius<br />
<br />
Honoratus<br />
<br />
'''17.''' Rasso of Adechs<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Aelfgifu of Shaftesbury<br />
<br />
'''19.''' Aelfheah of Canterbury<br />
<br />
'''20.''' Aethelberht II of East Anglia<br />
<br />
Austregisilus<br />
<br />
'''21.''' Hospitius<br />
<br />
'''23.''' Desidarius of Vienne<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Aldhelm of Sherbourne<br />
<br />
'''26.''' [[Augustine of Canterbury]]<br />
<br />
'''27.''' [[Bede]] of Jarrow<br />
<br />
'''28.''' [[Germanus of Paris]]<br />
<br />
William of Gellone<br />
<br />
'''29.''' [[Maximinus of Trier]]<br />
<br />
'''30.''' Hubertus<br />
<br />
Walstan<br />
<br />
== June ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' Lullus<br />
<br />
Wigstan<br />
<br />
'''4.''' Clotilde<br />
<br />
Eadfrith of Lindisfarne<br />
<br />
'''6.''' Agobard<br />
<br />
Branwalader of Milton<br />
<br />
Claudius<br />
<br />
'''8.''' Chlodulf of Metz<br />
<br />
Gildard<br />
<br />
Medardus<br />
<br />
'''11.''' Godeberta<br />
<br />
Landry of Paris<br />
<br />
'''13, 14, 15.''' Psalmodius<br />
<br />
'''16.''' Aurelianus<br />
<br />
'''17.''' Athwulf of Thorney<br />
<br />
Botwulf of Thorney<br />
<br />
Colman<br />
<br />
Nectan of Hartland<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Osana<br />
<br />
'''19.''' Deodatus<br />
<br />
'''20.''' Gobain<br />
<br />
'''21.''' Agofredus<br />
<br />
Alban of Mainz<br />
<br />
Gobain<br />
<br />
Leutfridus<br />
<br />
Palladius of Embrun<br />
<br />
'''22.''' [[Alban]] Protomartyr of Britain<br />
<br />
'''23.''' Aethelthryth<br />
<br />
'''24.''' Rumbold<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Amphibalus of St. Albans<br />
<br />
'''26.''' Brannac of Braunton<br />
<br />
'''28.''' [[Augustine of Hippo]]<br />
<br />
== July ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' Gal<br />
<br />
Calais<br />
<br />
'''2.''' Monegundus<br />
<br />
'''4.''' Bertha of Artois<br />
<br />
[[Oda of Canterbury]]<br />
<br />
'''6.''' Modwenna of Burton<br />
<br />
Seaxburh of Ely<br />
<br />
'''7.''' Aethelburh of Faremoutiers<br />
<br />
Haedde<br />
<br />
Willibald<br />
<br />
'''8.''' Colman<br />
<br />
Grimbald<br />
<br />
Kilian<br />
<br />
Urith<br />
<br />
Wihtburh<br />
<br />
'''9.''' Agilulfus of Cologne<br />
<br />
Evorhilda<br />
<br />
Neot<br />
<br />
'''10.''' Amalberga of Temse<br />
<br />
'''13.''' Arn of Wurzburg<br />
<br />
Mildthryth<br />
<br />
'''14.''' Frithona of Canterbury<br />
<br />
'''15.''' Apronia<br />
<br />
Eadgyth of Polesworth<br />
<br />
Swithun<br />
<br />
'''16.''' Fulrad<br />
<br />
Gundulph of Maastricht<br />
<br />
Helier<br />
<br />
Reineldis<br />
<br />
'''17.''' Cynehelm/Kenelm of Mercia<br />
<br />
Marcellina<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Arnulf of Metz<br />
<br />
Eadburh of Bicester<br />
<br />
Frederick of Utrecht<br />
<br />
'''20.''' Ansegisus<br />
<br />
Arilda of Oldbury<br />
<br />
Wilgefortis<br />
<br />
'''21.''' Arbogast<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Glodesind<br />
<br />
'''27.''' Galactorius<br />
<br />
'''28.''' [[Samson of Dol]]<br />
<br />
'''31.''' Sativola of Exeter<br />
<br />
== August ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' Aethelwold of Winchester<br />
<br />
Arcadius of Bourges<br />
<br />
'''5.''' Afla of Augsburg<br />
<br />
[[Oswald of Northumbria]]<br />
<br />
'''11.''' Gaugericus<br />
<br />
'''12.''' Porcarius<br />
<br />
'''13.''' Junian<br />
<br />
[[Radegund]]<br />
<br />
'''15.''' Altfrid<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Fiacre<br />
<br />
'''19.''' Bertulf of Bobbio<br />
<br />
Calminius<br />
<br />
Credan of Bodmin<br />
<br />
Magnus<br />
<br />
Sebaldus<br />
<br />
'''20.''' Oswine of Deira<br />
<br />
Philibert of Jumieges<br />
<br />
'''21.''' Eardwulf of Northumbria<br />
<br />
'''24.''' Audoin<br />
<br />
Gildard of Lurcy-le-Bourg<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Aebbe of Coldingham<br />
<br />
Aredius<br />
<br />
Gines de la Jara<br />
<br />
Gregory of Utrecht<br />
<br />
'''26.''' Bregowine<br />
<br />
'''27.''' [[Caesarius of Arles]]<br />
<br />
Decuman of Watchet<br />
<br />
Lycerius<br />
<br />
Syagrius of Autun<br />
<br />
'''28.''' Rumon<br />
<br />
'''31.''' [[Aidan of Lindisfarne]]<br />
<br />
[[Eanswythe of Folkestone]]<br />
<br />
[[ro:Sfinți occidentali de dinainte de schisma din 1054]]<br />
<br />
== September ==<br />
<br />
'''1. ''' <br />
<br />
'''2. ''' Giles<br />
<br />
'''3. ''' <br />
<br />
'''4. ''' [[Cuthbert of Lindisfarne|Cuthbert the Wonderworker]]<br />
<br />
'''5. ''' Bertin<br />
<br />
'''6. ''' <br />
<br />
'''7. ''' <br />
<br />
'''8. ''' <br />
<br />
'''9. ''' <br />
<br />
'''10. '''<br />
<br />
'''11. ''' <br />
<br />
'''12. ''' <br />
<br />
'''13. '''<br />
<br />
'''14. ''' <br />
<br />
'''15. ''' <br />
<br />
'''16. ''' Edith<br />
<br />
[[Euphemia the Great Martyr|Euphemia]]<br />
<br />
Ninian<br />
<br />
'''17. ''' <br />
<br />
'''18. '''<br />
<br />
'''19. '''<br />
<br />
'''20. ''' <br />
<br />
'''21. ''' [[Apostle Matthew|Matthew the Apostle]]<br />
<br />
'''22. ''' <br />
<br />
'''23. ''' [[Maurice]]<br />
<br />
'''24. ''' Conception of John the Baptist<br />
<br />
'''25. ''' Firminus<br />
<br />
'''26. ''' Cyprian & Justina<br />
<br />
'''27. '''<br />
<br />
'''28. ''' <br />
<br />
'''29. ''' <br />
<br />
'''30. ''' [[Jerome]]<br />
<br />
== October ==<br />
<br />
'''1. ''' [[Remigius of Rheims]]<br />
<br />
'''2. ''' Leodegarius<br />
<br />
'''3. ''' <br />
<br />
'''4. ''' <br />
<br />
'''5. ''' [[Archangel Raphael|Raphael the Archangel]]<br />
<br />
'''6. ''' <br />
<br />
'''7. ''' Mark & Marcellian<br />
<br />
'''8. ''' Demetrius<br />
<br />
'''9. ''' [[Dionysius the Areopagite ]]<br />
<br />
'''10. ''' [[Paulinus]]<br />
<br />
Gereon & fellow martyrs<br />
<br />
'''11. ''' Nicasius & others<br />
<br />
'''12. ''' <br />
<br />
'''13. '''<br />
<br />
'''14. ''' <br />
<br />
'''15. ''' <br />
<br />
'''16. ''' Michael upon the Sea<br />
<br />
'''17. ''' Translation of St [[Etheldreda of Ely]]<br />
<br />
[[Nothelm]]<br />
<br />
'''18. '''[[Apostle Luke| Luke the Evangelist]]<br />
<br />
'''19. ''' Frideswide<br />
<br />
'''20. ''' <br />
<br />
'''21. ''' Ursula & Martyrs<br />
<br />
'''22. ''' <br />
<br />
'''23. ''' Roman<br />
<br />
'''24. ''' <br />
<br />
'''25. ''' Crispin & Crispinian<br />
<br />
'''26. ''' [[Cuthbert of Canterbury]]<br />
<br />
'''27. '''<br />
<br />
'''28. ''' [[Apostle Simon|Simon]] & [[Apostle Jude| Jude]], Apostles]]<br />
<br />
'''29. ''' <br />
<br />
'''30. ''' <br />
<br />
'''31. ''' Quentin<br />
<br />
== November ==<br />
<br />
'''1'''. All Saints’<br />
<br />
'''2'''. All Souls’<br />
<br />
'''3'''. <br />
<br />
'''4'''. Winifred<br />
<br />
'''5'''.<br />
<br />
'''6'''. Leonard<br />
<br />
'''7'''.<br />
<br />
'''8'''. Four Crowned Martyrs<br />
<br />
'''9'''.<br />
<br />
'''10'''. [[Leo the Great]]<br />
<br />
'''11'''. [[Martin of Tours]]<br />
<br />
'''12'''.<br />
<br />
'''13'''. Brixius<br />
<br />
'''14'''. Erkenwald<br />
<br />
'''15'''. Malo<br />
<br />
'''16'''. <br />
<br />
'''17'''.<br />
<br />
'''18'''.<br />
<br />
'''19'''.<br />
<br />
'''20'''. [[Edmund the Martyr]]<br />
<br />
'''21'''. <br />
<br />
'''22'''. Cecilia<br />
<br />
'''23'''. [[Clement of Rome]]<br />
<br />
'''24'''.<br />
<br />
'''25'''. [[Catherine of Alexandria]]<br />
<br />
'''26'''. [[Linus of Rome]]<br />
<br />
'''27'''.<br />
<br />
'''28'''. <br />
<br />
'''29'''. Saturnin<br />
<br />
'''30'''. [[Apostle Andrew|Andrew the Apostle]]<br />
<br />
== December ==<br />
<br />
'''1. ''' <br />
<br />
'''2. ''' <br />
<br />
'''3. ''' [[Birinus of Dorchester]]<br />
<br />
'''4. ''' <br />
<br />
'''5. ''' <br />
<br />
'''6. ''' [[Nicholas of Myra]]<br />
<br />
'''7. ''' <br />
<br />
'''8. ''' <br />
<br />
'''9. ''' [[Conception of the Theotokos]]<br />
<br />
'''10. ''' <br />
<br />
'''11. ''' [[Damasus I of Rome]]<br />
<br />
'''12. ''' <br />
<br />
'''13. ''' [[Lucy of Syracuse]]<br />
<br />
'''14. ''' <br />
<br />
'''15. ''' <br />
<br />
'''16. ''' [[Barbara of Heliopolis|Barbara]]<br />
<br />
'''17. ''' <br />
<br />
'''18. ''' <br />
<br />
'''19. ''' <br />
<br />
'''20. ''' <br />
<br />
'''21. ''' [[Apostle Thomas|Thomas the Apostle]]<br />
<br />
'''22. ''' <br />
<br />
'''23. ''' <br />
<br />
'''24. ''' <br />
<br />
'''25. ''' [[Nativity|Nativity of Our Lord]]<br />
<br />
'''26. ''' [[Apostle Stephen the Protomartyr|Stephen the Protomartyr]]<br />
<br />
'''27. ''' [[Apostle John| John the Theologian]]<br />
<br />
'''28. '''[[ Holy Innocents]]<br />
<br />
'''29. ''' <br />
<br />
'''30. ''' <br />
<br />
'''31. ''' [[Sylvester I of Rome]]</div>Fr Levhttps://orthodoxwiki.org/index.php?title=Western_Saints_before_the_AD_1054_Schism&diff=119972Western Saints before the AD 1054 Schism2014-10-01T13:27:25Z<p>Fr Lev: /* November */</p>
<hr />
<div>''The following compilation is not an approved list of Western saints and may well not be "official." Notes and comments about each of them are welcome. It also includes commemorations recognized in the East, but observed on different dates.''<br />
<br />
== January ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' Eugendus<br />
<br />
'''2.''' Adalard of Corbie<br />
<br />
Auspasius of Auch<br />
<br />
'''3.''' [[Genevieve of Paris]]<br />
<br />
'''4.''' Fereal of Uzes<br />
<br />
Pharaildis<br />
<br />
Rigobert<br />
<br />
'''8.''' Aldric<br />
<br />
Erhard<br />
<br />
Gudula<br />
<br />
Pega of Peakirk <br />
<br />
'''9.''' Adrian of Canterbury<br />
<br />
'''12.''' Biscop<br />
<br />
'''13.''' Berhtwald<br />
<br />
Berno of Cluny<br />
<br />
[[Remigius of Rheims]]<br />
<br />
'''14.''' Mungo (Kentigern)<br />
<br />
'''15.''' Ceolwulf<br />
<br />
Emebert<br />
<br />
'''16.''' Fursey of Cnobheresburg<br />
<br />
'''17.''' Mildgyth<br />
<br />
Sulpitius the Pious<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Deicolus<br />
<br />
'''19.''' Agricius of Tier<br />
<br />
Contentius<br />
<br />
Remigius of Rouen<br />
<br />
'''21.''' Osburh of Coventry<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Praejectus<br />
<br />
Racho of Autun<br />
<br />
'''29.''' Aquilinus of Cologne/Milano<br />
<br />
[[Gildas the Wise]]<br />
<br />
Valerius of Treves<br />
<br />
'''30.''' Aldegonde<br />
<br />
Balthild<br />
<br />
'''31.''' Domitius of Amiens<br />
<br />
Uphia<br />
<br />
== February ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' [[Brigid of Kildare]]<br />
<br />
Severus of Avranches<br />
<br />
Sigebert III<br />
<br />
'''3.''' [[Ansgar]] (Anskar) of Bremen<br />
<br />
[[Laurence of Canterbury]]<br />
<br />
Werburh<br />
<br />
'''4.''' Aldate/Aldatus of Gloucester<br />
<br />
Rimbert<br />
<br />
'''5.''' Adelaide of Vilich<br />
<br />
Bertulf of Renty<br />
<br />
'''6.''' Amandus<br />
<br />
'''8.''' Aelfflaed of Whitby<br />
<br />
Cuthmann of Steyning<br />
<br />
'''9.''' Alto of Altomunster<br />
<br />
Ansbert<br />
<br />
Marius of Avenches<br />
<br />
'''10.''' Autrebertha<br />
<br />
[[Scholastica]]<br />
<br />
'''11.''' [[Blaise of Sebaste]]<br />
<br />
'''12.''' Aethelwold of Lindisfarne<br />
<br />
Benedict of Aniane<br />
<br />
'''13.''' Castor of Karden<br />
<br />
'''15.''' [[Sigfrid of Sweden]]<br />
<br />
'''17.''' Silvin of Auchy<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Angilbert<br />
<br />
[[Colman of Lindisfarne]]<br />
<br />
'''20.''' Eleutherius of Tournai<br />
<br />
'''21.''' Germanus of Granfelden<br />
<br />
'''23.''' Midburh<br />
<br />
'''24.''' Aethelberht of Kent<br />
<br />
Basil of Melrose<br />
<br />
Modest<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Praetextatus/Prix<br />
<br />
'''27.''' Aelfnoth of Stowe<br />
<br />
'''29.''' [[Oswald of Worcester]]<br />
<br />
== March ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' Abdalong of Marseilles<br />
<br />
Albinus of Angers<br />
<br />
[[David of Wales]]<br />
<br />
'''2.''' [[Chad of Lichfield]]<br />
<br />
'''6.''' Baldred/Balthere of Tyninghame<br />
<br />
Billfrith <br />
<br />
Chrodegang of Metz<br />
<br />
'''7.''' Eosterwine of Monkwearmouth<br />
<br />
'''8.''' Felix of Dommac<br />
<br />
'''9.''' Bosa of York<br />
<br />
'''10.''' Agilbert<br />
<br />
Attala<br />
<br />
Himelin<br />
<br />
'''12.''' Aelfheah the Bald<br />
<br />
'''14.''' [[Benedict of Nursia]]<br />
<br />
Leobinus<br />
<br />
Matilda<br />
<br />
'''16.''' Heribert of Cologne<br />
<br />
'''17.''' Gertrude of Nivelles<br />
<br />
[[Patrick of Ireland]]<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Eadweard the Martyr<br />
<br />
'''19.''' Alchmund of Derby<br />
<br />
'''20.''' [[Clement of Ireland]]<br />
<br />
[[Cuthbert of Lindisfarne]]<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Humbert<br />
<br />
'''26.''' Ludger of Saxony<br />
<br />
'''27.''' Rupert of Salzburg<br />
<br />
'''28.''' Bereharius<br />
<br />
Guntram<br />
<br />
'''29.''' Eustace<br />
<br />
== April ==<br />
<br />
'''2.''' Aebbe the Younger<br />
<br />
Nicetius of Lyon<br />
<br />
'''3.''' Burgundofara<br />
<br />
'''5.''' Aethelburh of Kent<br />
<br />
'''9.''' Hugh of Champagne<br />
<br />
'''11.''' Guthlac of Crowland<br />
<br />
'''12.''' Erkembode<br />
<br />
'''15.''' Abbo II of Metz<br />
<br />
'''16.''' Padarn<br />
<br />
'''19.''' Alphege of Canterbury<br />
<br />
'''22.''' Aprunculus of Treves<br />
<br />
Opportuna of Montreuil<br />
<br />
'''23.''' Gerald/Gerard of Toul<br />
<br />
'''24.''' Ecgberht of Ripon<br />
<br />
Ivo of Ramsey<br />
<br />
Mellitus of London<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Rusticus of Lyon<br />
<br />
'''26.''' Richarius<br />
<br />
Trudpert<br />
<br />
'''29.''' Adalgar<br />
<br />
Aethelwold of Farne<br />
<br />
Wilfrith the Younger<br />
<br />
'''30.''' Earconwald<br />
<br />
<br />
== May ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' Aredius of Gap<br />
<br />
Bertha of Kent<br />
<br />
Marcouf<br />
<br />
Sigismund of Burgundy<br />
<br />
Theodard of Narbonne<br />
<br />
'''4.''' Arbeo of Freising<br />
<br />
Florian<br />
<br />
'''5.''' Maurontius of Douay<br />
<br />
'''6.''' Eadberht of Lindisfarne<br />
<br />
'''7.''' [[John of Beverly]]<br />
<br />
'''8.''' Desideratus<br />
<br />
Indracht of Glastonbury<br />
<br />
Itta of Metz<br />
<br />
'''9.''' Bienheure<br />
<br />
'''10.''' Solange<br />
<br />
'''11.''' Gangulphus<br />
<br />
Majolus<br />
<br />
'''12.''' Modoald/Romoald<br />
<br />
Rictrude<br />
<br />
'''15.''' Bertha of Bingen<br />
<br />
Rupert of Bingen<br />
<br />
'''16.''' [[Brendan the Navigator]]<br />
<br />
Germerius<br />
<br />
Honoratus<br />
<br />
'''17.''' Rasso of Adechs<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Aelfgifu of Shaftesbury<br />
<br />
'''19.''' Aelfheah of Canterbury<br />
<br />
'''20.''' Aethelberht II of East Anglia<br />
<br />
Austregisilus<br />
<br />
'''21.''' Hospitius<br />
<br />
'''23.''' Desidarius of Vienne<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Aldhelm of Sherbourne<br />
<br />
'''26.''' [[Augustine of Canterbury]]<br />
<br />
'''27.''' [[Bede]] of Jarrow<br />
<br />
'''28.''' [[Germanus of Paris]]<br />
<br />
William of Gellone<br />
<br />
'''29.''' [[Maximinus of Trier]]<br />
<br />
'''30.''' Hubertus<br />
<br />
Walstan<br />
<br />
== June ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' Lullus<br />
<br />
Wigstan<br />
<br />
'''4.''' Clotilde<br />
<br />
Eadfrith of Lindisfarne<br />
<br />
'''6.''' Agobard<br />
<br />
Branwalader of Milton<br />
<br />
Claudius<br />
<br />
'''8.''' Chlodulf of Metz<br />
<br />
Gildard<br />
<br />
Medardus<br />
<br />
'''11.''' Godeberta<br />
<br />
Landry of Paris<br />
<br />
'''13, 14, 15.''' Psalmodius<br />
<br />
'''16.''' Aurelianus<br />
<br />
'''17.''' Athwulf of Thorney<br />
<br />
Botwulf of Thorney<br />
<br />
Colman<br />
<br />
Nectan of Hartland<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Osana<br />
<br />
'''19.''' Deodatus<br />
<br />
'''20.''' Gobain<br />
<br />
'''21.''' Agofredus<br />
<br />
Alban of Mainz<br />
<br />
Gobain<br />
<br />
Leutfridus<br />
<br />
Palladius of Embrun<br />
<br />
'''22.''' [[Alban]] Protomartyr of Britain<br />
<br />
'''23.''' Aethelthryth<br />
<br />
'''24.''' Rumbold<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Amphibalus of St. Albans<br />
<br />
'''26.''' Brannac of Braunton<br />
<br />
'''28.''' [[Augustine of Hippo]]<br />
<br />
== July ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' Gal<br />
<br />
Calais<br />
<br />
'''2.''' Monegundus<br />
<br />
'''4.''' Bertha of Artois<br />
<br />
[[Oda of Canterbury]]<br />
<br />
'''6.''' Modwenna of Burton<br />
<br />
Seaxburh of Ely<br />
<br />
'''7.''' Aethelburh of Faremoutiers<br />
<br />
Haedde<br />
<br />
Willibald<br />
<br />
'''8.''' Colman<br />
<br />
Grimbald<br />
<br />
Kilian<br />
<br />
Urith<br />
<br />
Wihtburh<br />
<br />
'''9.''' Agilulfus of Cologne<br />
<br />
Evorhilda<br />
<br />
Neot<br />
<br />
'''10.''' Amalberga of Temse<br />
<br />
'''13.''' Arn of Wurzburg<br />
<br />
Mildthryth<br />
<br />
'''14.''' Frithona of Canterbury<br />
<br />
'''15.''' Apronia<br />
<br />
Eadgyth of Polesworth<br />
<br />
Swithun<br />
<br />
'''16.''' Fulrad<br />
<br />
Gundulph of Maastricht<br />
<br />
Helier<br />
<br />
Reineldis<br />
<br />
'''17.''' Cynehelm/Kenelm of Mercia<br />
<br />
Marcellina<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Arnulf of Metz<br />
<br />
Eadburh of Bicester<br />
<br />
Frederick of Utrecht<br />
<br />
'''20.''' Ansegisus<br />
<br />
Arilda of Oldbury<br />
<br />
Wilgefortis<br />
<br />
'''21.''' Arbogast<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Glodesind<br />
<br />
'''27.''' Galactorius<br />
<br />
'''28.''' [[Samson of Dol]]<br />
<br />
'''31.''' Sativola of Exeter<br />
<br />
== August ==<br />
<br />
'''1.''' Aethelwold of Winchester<br />
<br />
Arcadius of Bourges<br />
<br />
'''5.''' Afla of Augsburg<br />
<br />
[[Oswald of Northumbria]]<br />
<br />
'''11.''' Gaugericus<br />
<br />
'''12.''' Porcarius<br />
<br />
'''13.''' Junian<br />
<br />
[[Radegund]]<br />
<br />
'''15.''' Altfrid<br />
<br />
'''18.''' Fiacre<br />
<br />
'''19.''' Bertulf of Bobbio<br />
<br />
Calminius<br />
<br />
Credan of Bodmin<br />
<br />
Magnus<br />
<br />
Sebaldus<br />
<br />
'''20.''' Oswine of Deira<br />
<br />
Philibert of Jumieges<br />
<br />
'''21.''' Eardwulf of Northumbria<br />
<br />
'''24.''' Audoin<br />
<br />
Gildard of Lurcy-le-Bourg<br />
<br />
'''25.''' Aebbe of Coldingham<br />
<br />
Aredius<br />
<br />
Gines de la Jara<br />
<br />
Gregory of Utrecht<br />
<br />
'''26.''' Bregowine<br />
<br />
'''27.''' [[Caesarius of Arles]]<br />
<br />
Decuman of Watchet<br />
<br />
Lycerius<br />
<br />
Syagrius of Autun<br />
<br />
'''28.''' Rumon<br />
<br />
'''31.''' [[Aidan of Lindisfarne]]<br />
<br />
[[Eanswythe of Folkestone]]<br />
<br />
[[ro:Sfinți occidentali de dinainte de schisma din 1054]]<br />
<br />
== September ==<br />
<br />
'''1. ''' <br />
<br />
'''2. ''' Giles<br />
<br />
'''3. ''' <br />
<br />
'''4. ''' [[Cuthbert of Lindisfarne|Cuthbert the Wonderworker]]<br />
<br />
'''5. ''' Bertin<br />
<br />
'''6. ''' <br />
<br />
'''7. ''' <br />
<br />
'''8. ''' <br />
<br />
'''9. ''' <br />
<br />
'''10. '''<br />
<br />
'''11. ''' <br />
<br />
'''12. ''' <br />
<br />
'''13. '''<br />
<br />
'''14. ''' <br />
<br />
'''15. ''' <br />
<br />
'''16. ''' Edith<br />
<br />
[[Euphemia the Great Martyr|Euphemia]]<br />
<br />
Ninian<br />
<br />
'''17. ''' <br />
<br />
'''18. '''<br />
<br />
'''19. '''<br />
<br />
'''20. ''' <br />
<br />
'''21. ''' [[Apostle Matthew|Matthew the Apostle]]<br />
<br />
'''22. ''' <br />
<br />
'''23. ''' [[Maurice]]<br />
<br />
'''24. ''' Conception of John the Baptist<br />
<br />
'''25. ''' Firminus<br />
<br />
'''26. ''' Cyprian & Justina<br />
<br />
'''27. '''<br />
<br />
'''28. ''' <br />
<br />
'''29. ''' <br />
<br />
'''30. ''' [[Jerome]]<br />
<br />
== October ==<br />
<br />
'''1. ''' [[Remigius of Rheims]]<br />
<br />
'''2. ''' Leodegar<br />
<br />
'''3. ''' <br />
<br />
'''4. ''' <br />
<br />
'''5. ''' [[Archangel Raphael|Raphael the Archangel]]<br />
<br />
'''6. ''' <br />
<br />
'''7. ''' Mark & Marcellian<br />
<br />
'''8. ''' Demetrius<br />
<br />
'''9. ''' [[Dionysius the Areopagite ]]<br />
<br />
'''10. ''' [[Paulinus]]<br />
<br />
Gereon & fellow martyrs<br />
<br />
'''11. ''' Nicasius & others<br />
<br />
'''12. ''' <br />
<br />
'''13. '''<br />
<br />
'''14. ''' <br />
<br />
'''15. ''' <br />
<br />
'''16. ''' Michael upon the Sea<br />
<br />
'''17. ''' Translation of St [[Etheldreda of Ely]]<br />
<br />
[[Nothelm]]<br />
<br />
'''18. '''[[Apostle Luke| Luke the Evangelist]]<br />
<br />
'''19. ''' Frideswide<br />
<br />
'''20. ''' <br />
<br />
'''21. ''' Ursula & Martyrs<br />
<br />
'''22. ''' <br />
<br />
'''23. ''' Roman<br />
<br />
'''24. ''' <br />
<br />
'''25. ''' Crispin & Crispinian<br />
<br />
'''26. ''' [[Cuthbert of Canterbury]]<br />
<br />
'''27. '''<br />
<br />
'''28. ''' [[Apostle Simon|Simon]] & [[Apostle Jude| Jude]], Apostles]]<br />
<br />
'''29. ''' <br />
<br />
'''30. ''' <br />
<br />
'''31. ''' Quentin<br />
<br />
== November ==<br />
<br />
'''1'''. All Saints’<br />
<br />
'''2'''. All Souls’<br />
<br />
'''3'''. <br />
<br />
'''4'''. Winifred<br />
<br />
'''5'''.<br />
<br />
'''6'''. Leonard<br />
<br />
'''7'''.<br />
<br />
'''8'''. Four Crowned Martyrs<br />
<br />
'''9'''.<br />
<br />
'''10'''. [[Leo the Great]]<br />
<br />
'''11'''. [[Martin of Tours]]<br />
<br />
'''12'''.<br />
<br />
'''13'''. Brixius<br />
<br />
'''14'''. Erkenwald<br />
<br />
'''15'''. Malo<br />
<br />
'''16'''. <br />
<br />
'''17'''.<br />
<br />
'''18'''.<br />
<br />
'''19'''.<br />
<br />
'''20'''. [[Edmund the Martyr]]<br />
<br />
'''21'''. <br />
<br />
'''22'''. Cecilia<br />
<br />
'''23'''. [[Clement of Rome]]<br />
<br />
'''24'''.<br />
<br />
'''25'''. [[Catherine of Alexandria]]<br />
<br />
'''26'''. [[Linus of Rome]]<br />
<br />
'''27'''.<br />
<br />
'''28'''. <br />
<br />
'''29'''. Saturnin<br />
<br />
'''30'''. [[Apostle Andrew|Andrew the Apostle]]<br />
<br />
== December ==<br />
<br />
'''1. ''' <br />
<br />
'''2. ''' <br />
<br />
'''3. ''' [[Birinus of Dorchester]]<br />
<br />
'''4. ''' <br />
<br />
'''5. ''' <br />
<br />
'''6. ''' [[Nicholas of Myra]]<br />
<br />
'''7. ''' <br />
<br />
'''8. ''' <br />
<br />
'''9. ''' [[Conception of the Theotokos]]<br />
<br />
'''10. ''' <br />
<br />
'''11. ''' [[Damasus I of Rome]]<br />
<br />
'''12. ''' <br />
<br />
'''13. ''' [[Lucy of Syracuse]]<br />
<br />
'''14. ''' <br />
<br />
'''15. ''' <br />
<br />
'''16. ''' [[Barbara of Heliopolis|Barbara]]<br />
<br />
'''17. ''' <br />
<br />
'''18. ''' <br />
<br />
'''19. ''' <br />
<br />
'''20. ''' <br />
<br />
'''21. ''' [[Apostle Thomas|Thomas the Apostle]]<br />
<br />
'''22. ''' <br />
<br />
'''23. ''' <br />
<br />
'''24. ''' <br />
<br />
'''25. ''' [[Nativity|Nativity of Our Lord]]<br />
<br />
'''26. ''' [[Apostle Stephen the Protomartyr|Stephen the Protomartyr]]<br />
<br />
'''27. ''' [[Apostle John| John the Theologian]]<br />
<br />
'''28. '''[[ Holy Innocents]]<br />
<br />
'''29. ''' <br />
<br />
'''30. ''' <br />
<br />
'''31. ''' [[Sylvester I of Rome]]</div>Fr Levhttps://orthodoxwiki.org/index.php?title=Leo_the_Great&diff=119971Leo the Great2014-10-01T13:26:40Z<p>Fr Lev: added Western Date</p>
<hr />
<div>[[image:St_Leo_the_great.jpg|right|thumb|St Leo the [[Pope]] of Rome.]]Our father among the saints, '''Pope Leo I''', or Saint '''Leo the Great''', was an aristocrat who was [[Pope]] of [[Church of Rome|Rome]] from 440 to 461. He is the first widely known pope, and even sometimes assigned the title "first pope." He stopped the invasion of Italy by Attila the Hun in 452 by his moral persuasion, and was a [[theologian]]. His [[feast day]] is commemorated in the East on [[February 18]], but by Western Orthodox on November 10. <br />
<br />
==Early life==<br />
Leo was born in AD 400 in Tuscany, Italy. He was well-educated, but yearned for the spiritual life. He became a [[deacon]] and occupied a important position with St. [[Cyril of Alexandria]]. He became an [[archdeacon]] under Pope [[Sixtus III of Rome|Sixtus III]], after whose death Leo was unanimously elected [[Bishop]] of Rome. <br />
<br />
==Defender of Orthodoxy== <br />
These were difficult times for the Church, when [[Heresy|heretic]]s assaulted Orthodoxy with their false teachings. Leo combined pastoral attentiveness with uncompromising firmness in the confession of the Faith. He was in particular one of the basic defenders of Orthodoxy against the heresies of [[Eutyches]] and [[Dioscorus of Alexandria]], who taught that there was only one nature in the Lord [[Jesus Christ]]. He was also a defender against the heresy of [[Nestorius]]. <br />
<br />
He actively promoted the convening of the [[Fourth Ecumenical Council]], at Chalcedon in 451, to condemn the heresy of the [[Monophysitism|Monophysites]]. <br />
<br />
At the Council of [[Chalcedon]], at which 630 bishops were present, a letter of Leo to the deceased St. [[Flavian the Confessor|Flavian]], [[Patriarch of Constantinople]] (447-449), was read. Flavian had suffered for Orthodoxy under the [[Robber Council of Ephesus]] in the year 449. In the letter of Leo, the Orthodox teaching about the two natures of Christ, divine and human, was set forth. All the bishops present at the Council were in agreement with this teaching, and so the heretics Eutyches and [[Dioscorus of Alexandria|Dioscorus]] were [[Excommunication|excommunicate]]d from the Church.<br />
<br />
==Defender of his country==<br />
In 452, by the persuasive power of his words, he stopped Attila the Hun from pillaging Italy. Again in the year 455, when the Henzerich, the leader of the Germanic tribe of Vandals, turned towards Rome, Leo persuaded him not to pillage the city, burn buildings, nor spill blood. <br />
<br />
==Theological legacy ==<br />
Leo died in the year 461. His literary and theological legacy is comprised of 96 [[homily|sermons]] and 143 letters, of which the best known is his ''Epistle to St. Flavian''.<br />
<br />
==Hymns==<br />
[[Troparion]] (Tone 8)<br />
<br />
:O Champion of Orthodoxy, and teacher of holiness,<br />
:The enlightenment of the universe and the inspired glory of true believers.<br />
:O most wise Father Leo, your teachings are as music of the Holy Spirit for us!<br />
:Pray that Christ our God may save our souls!<br />
<br />
[[Kontakion]] (Tone 3)<br />
<br />
:O glorious Leo, when you rose to the Bishop's throne,<br />
:You shut the lions' mouths with the true doctrine of the Holy Trinity:<br />
:You enlightened your flock with the knowledge of God.<br />
:Therefore you are glorified, O seer of things divine!<br />
<br />
==Sources==<br />
*[[w:Pope Leo I the Great|Pope Leo I]] on Wikipedia<br />
*[http://ocafs.oca.org/FeastSaintsLife.asp?FSID=100553 St Leo the Great the Pope of Rome] ([[OCA]])<br />
<br />
==External links==<br />
*[http://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/npnf212.ii.iii.i.html The Letters and Sermons of Leo the Great, Bishop of Rome] at the Christian Classics Ethereal Library<br />
*[http://ocafs.oca.org/FeastSaintsViewer.asp?FSID=100553 St Leo the Great the Pope of Rome] ([[OCA]])<br />
*[http://www.goarch.org/en/chapel/saints.asp?contentid=433 Leo the Great, Pope of Rome] ([[GOARCH]])<br />
*[http://www.comeandseeicons.com/l/inp92.htm Icon of St. Leo]<br />
<br />
<br />
{{start box}} <br />
{{succession|<br />
before=St. Sixtus III|<br />
title=[[List of the Popes of the Church of Rome|Pope of Rome]]|<br />
years=440-461|<br />
after=St. Hilarius|}}<br />
{{end box}}<br />
<br />
[[Category:Bishops]]<br />
[[Category:5th-century bishops]]<br />
[[Category:Popes of Rome]]<br />
[[Category:Saints]]<br />
[[Category:Italian Saints]]<br />
[[Category:Pre-Schism Western Saints]]<br />
[[Category:5th-century saints]]<br />
<br />
[[ro:Leon cel Mare]]</div>Fr Lev