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Timeline of Orthodoxy in Russia

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== Problem of periodisation of Russian Church history ==
In the church-historical science there are some points of view on a problem of a periodization of Russian Church history. The most notable have been formulated by such famous historians of Russian Church as [[archbishop ]] of Chernigov Philaret Gumilevsky, Moscow [[metropolitan ]] [[Macarius (Bulgakov) of Moscow|Macarius Bulgakov]], [[Evgeny Golubinsky]] and [[Igor Smolich]].
So, archbishop [[Philaret (Gumilevsky)]] in the work «History of the Russian Church» (M, 1850-1851) has allocated five periods in the history of Russian Church:
Periodization bases have been developed in detail by metropolitan [[Macarius (Bulgakov)]]. He has distinguished three big periods, and also the special period defined as "introduction in history of Russian Church" -"Christianity history in Russia to equal-to-apostles prince Vladimir". The basic periods were distinguished proceeding from canonical status of the Russian Church: 1) full dependence of the Russian Church on the Constantinople Patriarchate (988-1240); 2) gradual transition of the Russian Church from this dependence to independence (1240-1589); 3) the independence (autocephalous) period (with 1589).
Sub-periods in each of three periods were distinguished already on "internal" to signs, were defined by time of primacy of heads of the Church taking into account reignings and reigns, because the church life was defined not only by spiritual and moral authority of hierarchs heading Church, but also and by a policy of the state and its secular ruler. In the third period "Russian Church in period of its [[autocephaly]]" Metr. Macarius has had time to investigate only the initial stage, to the Council 1666-1667. The History of the Moscow Patriarchate is stated in parallel with history West-russian metropolis.
E. Golubinsky has distinguished three periods in Russian church history: Kievan, Moscow and Petersburg. The invasion of Mongols and the establishment of the Synod (1721) became borders between the periods. Howener However, it is necessary to note that Golubinsky proved his allocation on the doubtful precondition of absence of true spiritual education in medieval Russia.
In his opinion, the Kievan and Moscow periods represent actually a single whole characterised by absence of the valid education which we have not acquired with acceptance of Christianity and without which remained to Peter the Great ("''Golubinsky''". Vol. 1, part 1, page XXII). During this period in national religious consciousness "the external more or less prevailed more or less over internal, is conditional-formal ceremonialism - over true belief". However, if during the Kievan period this prevalence still kept measures, during the period Moscow it has gone into extremes». Golubinsky understood the Petersburg period as time of establishing in Russia the present education and more perfect understanding of Christianity.
All three models of the periodization have been subjected to criticism by [[Igor Smolich]]. Estimating Metr. Philaret's work, Smolich named as "very right" a principle of division on the basis of the historical phenomena which have occurred in Russian church life, however Metr. Philaret, according to Smolich, did not try "to connect outside influence on actually church development with church history", did not consider opposition of the Church and the state, constant pressure of the state upon Church; Philaret represented their relations, according to Smolich, in peacefully idyllic tones.
Estimating the periodization of Metr. Macarius Smolich disagreed with the main principle put in its basis, - a [[jurisdiction ]] principle. According to his opinion, the end of the subordination of Moscow metropolis to [[Church of Constantinople|Constantinople]] has not rendered influence on activity and the right of the church authority, on an internal life of the Church and people, and establishment of the Moscow Patriarchy "cannot be explained from dynamics of the previous period; it was most likely only a consequence of Boris Godunov's ambitious policy". Smolich also criticized the periodization of Golubinsky "by a topographical principle", especially without approving division "on metropolitans" (Golubinsky so built the work since the Moscow period). The "a methodological principle" Smolich has considered that «the unique firm basis for a periodization can be only such facts which really defined destiny of the development of Russian Church's organization and life", and it were its relation with the state. According to this principle two basic historical periods are allocated only: the first - till the end of XIII century and the second - till 1917; their border is transfer of a residence of the Russian metropolitan from Kiev in Vladimir and soon after that to Moscow. Here it is possible to see a likeness to "a topographical" periodization of Golubinsky. Hardly probable it is possible to consider question of Smolich as correctful, what was more important for Church - its relations with the Constantinople or own secular authority, and his unconditional choice in favour of the second.
Historically developed coexistence of these two complexes of relations does not allow to oppose, define them their "subordination", because they were inseparable one from another. The author should feel some amorphy of the periodization and also has entered internal division of the second period, however periods allocated by him and key dates practically do not differ from what were suggested by his predecessors: 1589 - establishment of the Patriarchate (though earlier Smolich subjected value of this date as key to doubt), the beginning of the Synod period (1700). Thus, difference of a periodization of Smolich from constructions of his predecessors consists not so much in allocation of new key events, how many in an estimation of the maintenance and value before the allocated periods.
* 991 † St. [[Michael of Kiev]]
* 1015 Murder of passion-bearers [[Boris and Gleb]]
* 1051 [[Hilarion of Kiev]] installed to the primatial see; St. [[Anthony of the Kiev Caves|Anthony of the Caves]] brings [[Mount Athos|Athonite]] monasticism to Russia.
* 1073 † St. [[Anthony of the Kiev Caves|Anthony of the Caves]]
* 1130 [[Nifont of Novgorod]] is made Bishop of Novgorod.
*1448 Russian Church (Moscow Metropolis) became autocephalous
*1471 †Metropolitan [[Jonah of Moscow|Jonas of Moscow]]
*1499 The [[Gennady Gennadius Bible]] (Gennadievskaia Biblia), the oldest surviving complete collection of Biblical books in the [[Church Slavonic]] language, is completed under the auspices of Abp. Gennady of Novgorod (1484-1504).
*1508 †[[Nilus of Sora]]
*1515 †[[Joseph of Volokolamsk]]
* 1551 Council of a Hundred Chapters (Stoglav[[Stoglavy Sobor]]) in Moscow*1555 [[Diocese of Kazan Diocese ]] is established
* 1566, July 25 - 1568, November 4 St. Phillip, Metropolitan of Moscow
* †1569 St. Phillip was martyred by Tsar [[Ivan IV of Russia|Ivan IV]] (the terrible), January 23
== First Patriarchate Period ==
*1589 [[Ecumenical Patriarchate]] acknowledges [[autocephaly]] of [[Church of Russia]] and first Patriarch of Moscow, Metropolitan [[Job of Moscow]] is styled.
*1666 [[Moscow Sobor of 1666–1667|Moscow Big Council]]*1685-87 The [[w:Slavic Greek Latin Academy|Slavic Greek Latin Academy]] is organized as the first higher education establishment in Moscow, under the guidance of two Greek brothers, [[Joannicus and Sophronius Likhud]], on the premises of the [[w:Zaikonospassky monastery|Zaikonospassky Monastery]] with over 70 students.
*1700 [[w:Peter I of Russia|Peter the Great]] published an ''Ukase'' (edict) on [[June 18|June 18th]] that made a resounding appeal for the propagation of the faith in Siberia and China; death of Patr. [[Adrian of Moscow|Adrian]].
*1700-†1720 Patriarchal [[Locum Tenens]] metropolitan [[Stephen Yavorsky]]
*1702 In response to the [[Ukaz]] of 1700, [[Philothei (Leschinsky)]] of Kiev is chosen as Metropolitan of Tobolsk and All Siberia (1702-1711), long since a center of [[missionary]] operations, in order to ''"lead the natives in China and Siberia to the service of the true and living God"''; he built 37 churches and personally accounted for the baptism of 40,000 Siberian tribesmen by 1721.
*1712 Tsar Peter the Great issued an ukaz ordering the printed Slavonic text of the Bible to be carefully compared with the Greek of the [[Septuagint]] and to be made in every respect conformable to it; the revision was completed in 1724 and was ordered to be printed, but the death of Peter (1725) prevented the execution of the order.
== The Synodical Church (1720-1917) ==
== Communist Era (1917-1991)==
* 1917 [[All-Russian Church Council of 1917-1918|All-Russian Church Council]] elects Metropolitan [[Tikhon of Moscow]] as Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia; [[Belogorsky St. Nicholas Orthodox Missionary Monastery Cathedral (Perm Krai, Russia)|Belogorsky St. Nicholas Orthodox Missionary Monastery Cathedral]] is consecrated as the largest cathedral in the Urals, becoming known as the ''Urals Athos.''
* 1918 Bolshevik forces vie for control of Kiev damaging many [[church]]es and [[monastery|monasteries]] by cannon fire; The Bolsheviks seize the Kiev Caves Lavra, [[January 23]]; [[Vladimir (Bogoyavlensky) of Kiev and Gallich|Vladimir of Kiev]] is murdered, [[January 25]]; The Grand Duchess [[Elizabeth the New Martyr]] <ref>Source: "A LIFELONG PASSION, NICHOLAS AND ALEXANDRA THEIR OWN STORY"., Andrei Maylunas and Sergi Mironenko., Doubleday, New York., February 1997., pp. 638-639).</ref> is murdered, [[July 17]]; Archpriest [[Peter Skipetrov]] is martyred ([[February 1]]).
* 1925 † [[Tikhon of Moscow]]
* 1927 † Venerable [[Matthew of Yaransk]], Wonderworker.
* 1937 † Hieromartyr Bp. [[Seraphim (Zvezdinsky) of Dimitrov]] executed by firing squad (canonized by the [[Church of Russia|Russian Orthodox Church]] in 2000).
* 1941-1944 [[Pskov Orthodox Mission]].
* 1945 † [[Sergius I (Stragorodsky) of Moscow]]
* 1952 † 1946 In April the [[Matrona of MoscowHoly Trinity-St. Sergius Lavra]], who had the gift stronghold of spiritual vision the Russian Orthodox faith and a source of pride and inspiration for the Russian people, was given back to the Russian Patriarchy after a twenty-year-long secular spell.* 1952 † [[Matrona of Moscow|Matrona the gift Wonderworker of healing.Moscow]]
* 1970 † [[Alexei I (Simansky) of Moscow]]
* 1981 [[Elizabeth the New Martyr|Elizabeth]] glorified by [[ROCOR]].
* 2009 [[Kyrill I (Gundyayev) of Moscow]] elected as Patriarch of Russia; Metr. Valentin of Orenburg and Buzuluk consecrated the first-ever Russian Orthodox church in Rome on May 24, the day of St. ''Cyril and Methodius'', being the ''Church of the Great Martyr St. Catherine'', with the blessing of Patr. Kirill; murder of prominent Russian missionary Fr. [[Daniel Sysoyev]], Rector of St. Thomas' Church in Moscow on Kantemirovskaya, who had a talk ministry especially designed for muslim inquirers, had converted a former Wahabi believer, and wrote in his internet diary that he had received telephone threats from muslims; Russian Constitutional Court outlaws death penalty forever.
* 2010 Official visit of Ecumenical Patriarch [[Bartholomew I (Archontonis) of Constantinople]] to the [[Church of Russia]], concelebrating the [[Divine Liturgy]] with His Beatitude Patriarch [[Kyrill I (Gundyayev) of Moscow]] and All Russia on [[Pentecost]], at the renowned Holy Trinity-St. Sergius Lavra in Sergiev Posad; President Dmitry Medvedev signed a law establishing a new National Holiday on July 28 as Christianization of Rus Day, the country's 9th "memorial holiday," expected to effect closer ties between Russia and its predominantly Orthodox neighbors, Ukraine and Belarus; Abp. [[Hilarion (Alfeyev) of Volokolamsk|Hilarion (Alfeyev)]] [http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSTRE6584JX20100609?feedType=RSS&feedName=lifestyleMolt called for an end to the "monopoly of Darwinism"] in Russian schools, saying religious explanations of creation should be taught alongside [[evolution]]; Greek nuns from the Annunciation Monastery in Ormylia, Halkidiki Peninsula, Greece, pray to Father [[Daniel Sysoyev]] as a saint.[http://www.interfax-religion.com/?act=news&div=7769]
 
==References==
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==Published Works==
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