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Severus of Antioch

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Overhaul of the life of Severus of Antioch.
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Patriarch St. '''Severusof Antioch''', is one of the great fathers of the [[Patriarch Church of Antioch (Syriac)|Church of Antioch]] (AD 512 - 518), born approximately 465 known in Sozopolis in Pisidia, Syriac as the 'Togho d'Suryoye' or 'Crown of the Syrians.' He was by birth and education a the most prominent Orthodox Christian theologian associated with the opposition to the compromises with [[Nestorianism]] made at the [[PaganismFourth Ecumenical Council|paganCouncil of Chalcedon]], who was baptized and played a central role in defending the ''[[martyriumChristology]]'' of Leontius at TripolisSt.<ref>Evagrius Scholasticus, H. E. 3.33[[Cyril of Alexandria]] preserved by Chalcedon's opponents.</ref>
__TOC__== Early Life ==He almost at once openly united himself with the Acephali, repudiating his own [[baptism]] and his baptizerSt. Severus was born around 459 in Sozopolis, and even the Christian church itself as infected with [[Nestorianism]] Pisidia (Labbe, u.s.modern day Turkey). After embracing the Orthodox Faith and the Christology of St. [[Cyril of Alexandria]]His paternal grandfather, St. also named Severus entered a [[monastery]] belonging to the [[Church of Antioch (Syriac)|Syriac Orthodox Church]] between Gaza and its port city of Majuma. Here he met [[Peter the Iberian]], who had been ordained was Metropolitan of Gaza by Theodosius, a Non-Chalcedonian monk, during his time as [[Patriarch of Jerusalem]]. Not long after this St. Severus joined another monastery near Eleutheropolis under the Archimandrite Mamas. At this time Severus rejected the ''[[Henoticon]]'' of [[Zeno (emperor)|Zeno]], dismissing it as "the annulling edict," and "the disuniting edict" (Labbe, v. 121), Sozopolis and anathematized Pope [[Peter III of Alexandria|Peter Mongus]], the Non-Chalcedonian [[patriarch of Alexandria]], for accepting it. We next hear of him in an Egyptian monastery, whose abbot Nephalius having been formerly a Non-Chalcedonian, now embraced that capacity attended the [[Fourth Third Ecumenical Council|Council of ChalcedonEphesus]]in 431. Before St. In the resulting disagreement, Nephalius with Severus' birth his [[monk]]s expelled Severus and grandfather had a vision in which he was told that his disciples<ref>Evagrius 3.33; see also 3.22grandson would strengthen Orthodoxy.</ref>
Severus is said to have stirred up a fierce religious war among Following the population death of Alexandriahis father, resulting a senator in bloodshed and conflagrations (LabbeSozopolis, vSt. 121). To escape punishment Severus left Pisidia for this violenceEgypt, where he fled to [[Constantinople]], supported by a band of two hundred Non-Chalcedonian monks. [[Flavius Anastasius|Anastasius I]], who succeeded Zeno as emperor in 491, was a professed Non-Chalcedonian, studied grammar and received Severus rhetoric together with honorthe Greek and Latin languages in Alexandria. His presence initiated a period of fighting It was in Constantinople between rival bands of monks, [[Chalcedonian]] Alexandria that he was introduced to and [[Non-Chalcedonian|Non]], which ended fell in AD 511 love with the humiliation of Anastasius, the temporary triumph of the patriarch [[Macedonius II]], and the reversal writings of the Non-Chalcedonian cause (Theophanes, p. 132)Sts. That same year Severus was eagerly dispatched by Anastasius to occupy the vacant [[patriarch of Antioch]] (Labbe, iv. 1414; Theod. Lect. ii. 31, pp. 563, 567; Theophanes p. 134), and Basil the very day of his enthronement solemnly pronounced in his church an anathema on Chalcedon, and accepted the ''Henoticon'' he had previously repudiated. He had the name of Peter Mongus inscribed in the diptychs; entered into communion with the Non-Chalcedonian prelates, [[Patriarch Timothy I of Constantinople|TimotheusGreat]] of Constantinople and [[Yoannis II Gregory of Alexandria|John NiciotaNazianzus]] of Alexandria; and received into communion Peter of Iberia and other leading members of the Acephali (Evagr. HIn 486 St. E. iii. 33; Labbe, iv. 1414, v. 121, 762; Theod. Lect. l.c.). Non-Chalcedonianism seemed now triumphant throughout the Christian world. Proud of his patriarchal dignity and strong in the emperor's protection, Severus despatched letters moved to his brother-prelates, announcing his elevation Beirut to study philosophy and Roman jurisprudence and demanding [[communion]]. In these in 488 he anathematized Chalcedon and all who maintained the two natures. While many rejected them altogether, Non-Chalcedonianism was everywhere in the ascendant baptized in the Eastnearby Tripoli, and Severus having not been previously baptized as it was deservedly regarded as its chief champion (Severus of Ashmunain apud Neale, Patr. Alex. ii. 27). Synodal letters were exchanged between John Niciota and Severus, which are the earliest examples of communication between the [[Oriental Orthodox]] sees of Alexandria and Antioch a custom in Pisidia at that have continued time not to the present daybaptize boys until they had at least come of age.
The triumph of ==Life as a Monk==After his baptism St. Severus wasbecame increasingly ascetic in his daily life, howevereventually becoming a monk at St. Romanus' Monastery in Maiuma, shortPalestine. His possession of He later retreated into the patriarchate of Antioch did not survive desert near Eleutheropolis before founding a monastery for his imperial patrondisciples in Maiuma. Anastasius was succeeded The Saint lived there in 518 by [[Justin I]], who embraced peace until the beliefs of Chalcedon. The Non-Chalcedonian prelates were everywhere replaced by Chalcedonian successors, Severus being one coming of the first Nephalius to fallGaza in 508. Irenaeus, the count Nephalius had previously led a faction of the East, was commissioned to arrest him but Severus departed Eutychian heretics before his approach, setting sail one night in September 518 for Alexandria (Liberat. Brev. l.c.; Theophanes, p. 141; Evagr. H. E. iv. 4). [[Paul I of Antioch|Paul I]] was ordained in his placeaccepting Chalcedon and promptly began attacking St. Severus and after his doctrines were anathematized arrival in various councils, while at Alexandria he was gladly welcomed by the patriarch [[Timotheos III of Alexandria|Timotheos III]] and his other fellow doctrinaristsarea, being generally hailed as eventually securing the champion expulsion of the orthodox faith against the corruptions of Nestorianism. His learning and persuasion established his authority as "os omnium doctorum," and the day of his entrance into Egypt was long celebrated as a Coptic/Jacobite festival (Neale, u.s. p. 30). Alexandria soon became a refuge of Non-Chalcedonians of every shade of opinion, becoming too numerous for the emperor to molest. But within this group fierce controversies sprang up on various subtle questions of [[Christology]], one of which involved Severus and his fellow-exile [[Julian of Halicarnassus]] as to the corruptibility of Christ's human body before His resurrection. Julian Saint and his followers were styled [[Aphthartodocetae]] and "Phantasiastae," Severus and his adherents "Phthartolatrae" or "Corrupticolae," and "Ktistolatrae." The controversy was a heated and protracted one and while no settlement was arrived at, the later Oriental Orthodox claim the victory for Severus ([[Renaudot]], p. 129)from their monasteries.
After some years in Egypt spent in continual literary and polemical activity, Severus was unexpectedly summoned to Constantinople by Justin's successor [[Justinian I]], whose consort [[Theodora (wife of Justinian)|Theodora]] favored Severus' causeFollowing his expulsion from his monastery St. The emperor was weary of the turmoil caused by the prolonged theological discussions; Severus, he was told, was together with 200 monks from the master of area around Gaza left for the Non-Chalcedonian party, and only through his influence could unity only be regained. At this period, AD 535. [[Anthimus I imperial capital of Constantinople|Anthimus]] had been recently appointed , where they remained for 3 years seeking to obtain the [[favor of Emperor Anastasius. When Patriarch Macedonius of Constantinople]] by Theodora's influence. He died in 511 he was a Non-Chalcedonian, who later joined heartily with Severus and his associates, Peter of Apamea and Zoaras, in their endeavours to get Non-Chalcedonianism recognized as considered for the imperial faith. This introduction of Non-Chalcedonians threw the city into great disorder, and large numbers embraced their beliefs (Labbe, v. 124). Eventually, at the instance of [[Pope Agapetus I]], who happened to be present in Constantinople on political businesspatriarchate, the Non-Chalcedonians Anthimus and Timotheus were deposed. but Patriarch [[Mennas of Constantinople|Mennas]]Timothy, who succeeded Anthimus, summoned a [[synod]] in May and June 536 to deal with the also opposed Chalcedon question. Severus and his two companions were cast out "as wolves", was enthroned instead and once again anathematized (Labbe, vSt. 253-255). The sentence was ratified by Justinian. The writings of Severus were proscribed; any one possessing them who failed to commit them to the flames was able to lose his right hand (Evagr. H. E. iv. 11; Novell. Justinian. No. 42; Matt. Blastar. p. 59). Severus returned return to Egypt, which he seems never again to have left. The date of Palestine with his death is said variously to be 538, 539, or 542.<ref>Gillman, Ian and Hans-Joachim Klimkeit, ''Christians in Asia before 1500'' (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1999), on p. 31 states he died in 538.</ref> According to [[John of Ephesus]], he died in the Egyptian desertdisciples.
== Writing and theology Patriarchate==He When Patriarch Flavian II of Antioch was a very copious writer, but we possess little more than fragmentsdeposed in 512 St. An account Severus was elected Patriarch of them, so far as they can be identified, is given by William Cave<ref> ''Historia Literaria''Antioch, volbeing enthroned on 6 November 512. i.pp. 499 ff.</ref> and Following the rise to power of Emperor [[FabriciusJustinian I]]<ref>Biblthe Saint was summoned to Constantinople, where the emperor attempted to persuade him to accept Chalcedon. GraecWhen St. libSeverus refused the emperor ordered him to be killed, but he was saved by St. v. c. 36Theodora, vol. x. pp. 614 ff.the emperor's wife, edwho was the daughter of a priest from Syria and an opponent of Chalcedon. Harless</ref>At her urging St. A very large number exist only in SyriacSeverus fled the capital, for after which consult Emperor Justinian declared him deposed and in 518 placed a supporter of Chalcedon on the catalogue patriarchal throne of the Syriac manuscripts in the British Museum by Prof. WrightAntioch.
St. Severus was successful fled Constantinople for Egypt, where he met with Pope Timothy II and took refuge in his great aim a number of uniting the Non-Chalcedonians into one compact body with different monasteries disguised as a definitely formulated creedsimple monk. For notwithstanding the numerous subdivisions of the Non-Chalcedonians, he was, Throughout his travels in Dorner's words, "strictly speaking, Egypt St. Severus preached the scientific leader of the most compact portion of the party," Orthodox Faith and regarded as such by strengthened the Non-Chalcedonians faithful in their resistance to Chalcedon and their opponentsEutychianism. He was the chief object of attack in the long also wrote many books and fierce contest with the Chalcedonians, by whom he is always designated as the author and ringleader of Non-Chalcedonianismletters against heresies. Hoping to embrace as many as possible of varying theological color, Although he followed the traditional formulas of the church as closely as he could, while affixing wrote in Greek his own sense upon them.<ref>Dorner, ''Pers. of Christ'', div. ii. vol. i. p. 136, Clark's transwritings have been primarily preserved in Syriac.</ref>
==References==In 535 St. Severus returned to Constantinople to discuss the reunification of the Church with Emperor Justinian. During his stay in the city he brought Patriarch Anthimus of Constantinople to reject Chalcedon, but the schism as a whole was unable to be healed at that time and in 536 the emperor had St. Severus formally excommunicated by the hierarchs who favored Chalcedon on false charges.
*In 1904 the ''Sixth Book of the Select Letters of Upon returning to Egypt, St. Severus'', settled in the Syriac version home of [[Athanasius of Nisibis]]a layman, Dorotheus, were edited by G. E. W. Brooks (London). For a full statement of his opinions see in the major work city of Dorner, Sakha and continued to teach and work many miracles. On 8 February 538 he fell asleep in the article "Monophysiten" in Herzog's EncyclopediaLord.*This article uses text from ''[http://www.ccel.org/w/wace/biodict/htm/TOC.htm A Dictionary His relics were then translated to the Monastery of Christian Biography and Literature el-Zugag to the End west of the Sixth Century A.D.Alexandria, with an Account of the Principal Sects working many signs and Heresies]'' by Henry Wace.*Pauline Allen and Robert Hayward, ''Severus of Antioch'', Routlege, 2004.*Frédéric Alpi, several recent articles wonders in French devoted to the episcopate of Severusprocess.
==NotesCommemoration==<references/>St. Severus is commemorated by the Syriac Orthodox Church on 8 February and on the Thursday following the [[Fast of Nineveh]].
==SourceExternal Links and Sources==*[http://www.cecs.acu.edu.au/severusresearch.htm A Bibliography of Severus of Antioch]*[Wikipediahttp:Severus_of_Antioch]//www.newadvent.org/cathen/10489b.htm Monophysites and Monophysitism]  ==External links==(Catholic Encyclopedia)* [http://www.tertullian.org/fathers/severus_coll_0_eintro.htm A Collection of Letters of Severus: A collection of letters from numerous Syriac manuscriptsAntioch]* [http://www.cecsccel.acu.edu.auorg/ccel/pearse/morefathers/files/severusresearchseverus_coll_0_eintro.htm A bibliography Letters of Patriarch Severus of Antioch]* [http://www.orthodoxunityquodlibet.orgnet/articles/article02farrington-severus.html The shtml Orthodox Christology of St. Severus of Antioch]*[http://www.copticchurch.net/synaxarium/6_9.html Departure of St. Severus] (Synaxarium)* [http://www.orthodoxsoc-librarywus.com A collection org/ourchurch/St.%20Severus,%20Patriarch%20of%20Antioch.htm St. Severus] (Syriac Orthodox Patriarchal Vicariate of the Western United States)*[http://sor.cua.edu/Personage/Qadishe/MSeveriusAntioch.html Mor Severius of letters from numerous Antioch] (Syriac manuscripts]Orthodox Resources)
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