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Life-Giving Spring

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[[Image:Life_Giving_SpringTheotokos the Life-Giving Font.jpg|thumb|right|An icon Icon of the Panagia Theotokos the Life -Giving Spring, from Messinias (Pilos, Greece)Font. 17th c.]]
:''This article is about the [[feast day]] of the Life-Giving Spring. For the historic monastery see [[Church of the Life-Giving Font of the Theotokos (Istanbul)]].''
The '''Life-Giving Spring''' or '''Life-Giving [[Font]]''' of the [[Theotokos|Mother of God]] (in Greek: Ζωοδόχος Πηγή; Russian: Живоносный Источник) is both the a [[feast day]] of in the Orthodox Church that is associated with [[w:Church of St. Mary the Life-Giving Font of the Spring Theotokos (Istanbul)|a historic church]] just west of Constantinople in [[w:Balıklı, Istanbul|Valoukli]], and as well as an icon of the [[Theotokos]].
The [[feast day]] of the Life-Giving Spring is commemorated on [[w:Easter Friday|Bright Friday]] of each year (the Friday following [[Pascha]]), being the only feast day which may be celebrated during [[Bright Week]]. The , while the commemoration of the Life-Giving Spring ''[[Icon]]'' of the Most Holy [[Theotokos]] is commemorated by the [[Orthodox Church]] observed on [[April 4]].
==Revelation of the Life-Giving Spring==
[[Image:Saint Mary Of The Spring.jpg|right|thumb|The [[w:Holy well|Holy well]] (Hagiasma) of the Church of the Life Giving Font (Istanbul).]]
[[Image:Procession-Feast of Zoodohos Pigi-Arcadia,Greece-1950s.jpg|thumb|right|Procession on the [[feast day]] of Panagia the Life-giving Font in the village of KastriSpring, [[w:ArcadiaBright Friday|ArcadiaBright Friday]], Greece, ca.1959, on [[w:Bright FridayArcadia|Bright FridayArcadia]], Greece.]]There are two accounts extant concerning the revelation of the Life-Giving Fontjust outside the City of Constantinople.<br> '''Procopius'''<br> The first It is recorded by likely that in either case, before the prominent Byzantine scholar 5th-6th century monastery was erected, a shrine was already in existence with a [[w:Procopius|Procopius of Caesarea]] Spring (flourishing ca.500-565hydrosphere).<ref group="note">The 11th century Byzantine historian [[w:George Kedrenos|George Cedrenusspring of water]] also mentions this version.</ref> In this version, the Emperor [[Justinian]] was out hunting when he came upon near a small [[chapel]] in a beautiful wooded areagrove of trees, surrounded by a large crowd of people and a priest in front of a spring. Inquiring about this site, he was told that this was the “source of miracles”. He at once ordered that a magnificent church be built there, utilizing materials that had remained after the erection of dedicated to the [[Hagia Sophia (Constantinople)|Hagia SophiaTheotokos]]from early times.<ref name="JANIN">Raymond Janin (in French). ''La Géographie ecclésiastique de l'Empire byzantin. 1. Part: Le Siège de Constantinople et le Patriarcat Oecuménique. 3rd Vol.: Les Églises et les Monastères.'' Paris: Institut Français d'Etudes Byzantines. 1953. p.232-37.</ref> The church was erected in the last years of his reignOver time, ca.559-560, near the holy grove had become overgrown and the springbecame fetid.<ref group="note">In this context, "Holy Spring/Holy Font/Holy Source" becomes synonymous with the Greek: ἁγίασμα, ''hagiasma''; LitArchpriest Feodor S.: 'sanctuary'Kovalchuk.</ref> After the erection of the sanctuary, the Gate that was situated outside the [[w:Walls_of_Constantinople#Theodosian_Walls|walls of Theodosius II]] was named by the Byzantines ''Gate Wonder-Working Icons of the Spring'' (Greek: Πύλη τῆς Πηγῆς).<ref>Wolfgang Müller-Wiener (in German)Theotokos. ''Bildlexikon zur Topographie IstanbulsYoungstown OH: ByzantionCentral Satates Deanery, Konstantinupolis, Istanbul bis zum Beginn d. 17 Jh..'' Tübingen: Wasmuth, 19771985. pp.41667–70.</ref> It is possible that before the Justinian's building was erected, a small monastery dedicated to the [[Theotokos]] had already existed there from early times.<br>
'''Nicephorus Callistus'''<br>
A second The traditional account is given recorded by [[w:Nikephoros Kallistos Xanthopoulos|Nikephoros Kallistos Xanthopoulos]], the last of the Greek ecclesiastical historians, who flourished around 1320. This tradition begins with a miracle that occurred involving a soldier named Leo Marcellus, who would later become the Byzantine Emperor [[Leo I (emperor)|Leo I the Thracian]] (457-474). While Leo was on his way to Constantinople he encountered a blind man near the [[w:Walls_of_Constantinople#Golden_Gate_and_the_Yedikule_Fortress|Golden Gate]] who was thirsty. Though he agreed to search for water, he was unable to find any. A female voice was then heard who told the future Emperor that there was water nearby. Looking about, he could see no one, and neither could he see any water. Then he heard the voice again:
:"Emperor Leo, go into the deepest part of the woods, and you will find water there. Take some of the cloudy water in your hands and give it to the blind man to drink. Then take the clay and put it on his eyes. Then you shall know who I am."<ref name="OCA">OCA - Feasts and Saints. ''[http://ocafs.oca.org/FeastSaintsLife.asp?FSID=32 Bright Friday. The Life Giving Spring of the Mother of God].''</ref>
The same voice added that she had chosen that very place to be worshiped and prophesied that he would one day receive the crown to the empire. Leo followed her order and at once the blind man recovered his eyesight. After his accession to the throne, the Emperor erected a magnificent church on this place, and the water continued to work miraculous cures. Therefore, it was called "The Life-Giving Spring."  '''Procopius'''<br> A second account is given by the prominent Byzantine scholar [[w:Procopius|Procopius of Caesarea]] (flourishing ca.500-565).<ref group="note">The 11th century Byzantine historian [[w:George Kedrenos|George Cedrenus]] also mentions this version.</ref> In this version, the Emperor [[Justinian]] was out hunting when he came upon a small [[chapel]] in a beautiful wooded area, surrounded by a large crowd of people and a priest in front of a spring. Inquiring about this site, he was told that this was the “source of miracles”. He at once ordered that a magnificent church be built there, utilizing materials that had remained after the erection of the [[Hagia Sophia (Constantinople)|Hagia Sophia]].<ref name="JANIN">Raymond Janin (in French). ''La Géographie ecclésiastique de l'Empire byzantin. 1. Part: Le Siège de Constantinople et le Patriarcat Oecuménique. 3rd Vol.: Les Églises et les Monastères.'' Paris: Institut Français d'Etudes Byzantines. 1953. p.232-37.</ref> The church was erected in the last years of his reign, ca.559-560, near the holy spring.<ref group="note">In this context, "Holy Spring/Holy Font/Holy Source" becomes synonymous with the Greek: ἁγίασμα, ''hagiasma''; Lit.: 'sanctuary'.</ref> After the erection of the sanctuary, the Gate that was situated outside the [[w:Walls_of_Constantinople#Theodosian_Walls|walls of Theodosius II]] was named by the Byzantines ''Gate of the Spring'' (Greek: Πύλη τῆς Πηγῆς).<ref>Wolfgang Müller-Wiener (in German). ''Bildlexikon zur Topographie Istanbuls: Byzantion, Konstantinupolis, Istanbul bis zum Beginn d. 17 Jh..'' Tübingen: Wasmuth, 1977. pp.416.</ref>
==The Icon==
[[Image:Panagia Argokiliotissa.JPG|thumb|right|Modern Greek icon of the Theotokos of the Life-giving Spring ("Panagia Argokiliotissa", Naxos).]]
The icon representing the Virgin of the Spring shows the Virgin blessing and embracing the Child. She is surrounded by two angels, and is sitting on the more elevated of two basins, presumably representing the "living water" which is [[Christ]].<ref group="note">This living water is contained in the [[Cross]] which must be born by all those who follow Him, just as He did.</ref> The living water from the more elevated basin flows into a larger marble basin below, which is in the shape of a [[cross]].<ref group="note">In the early Church, the baptismal font was actually in the form of a cross, just like the cross depicted in this icon. Christians would enter from the base of the cross and come out at the top, and then re-enter from the left of the cross and come out on the right of the cross; then the priest, who would be standing in the middle of the cross/baptismal font, would commune them.</ref>
In one modern Greek version of the icon that was found on Naxos island, Greece,<ref group="note">Icon of "Panagia Argokiliotissa", from Naxos island, Greece (Greek: Παναγία η Αργοκοιλιώτισσα - Νάξος).</ref> some differences are shown with respect to the ancient type. Around the cross-shaped basin stands the Emperor with his guard, while on the right there is the Patriarch with his bishops. In the background, is represented Leo I with the blind man, together with and the walls of the City. Under the basin a paralytic and a madman are healed with the spring’s water.
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The fish in this pool, it is said, are descended from the fishes that miraculously jumped out of the frying-pan and into this spring ... (NOTE - research to find this story in more detail).
==Hymn==
In Orthodox hymnography, the ''Theotokos'' is frequently compared with a ''Holy Fountain''. The hymns and prayers of the feast are combined with the Paschal hymns, and there is often a Lesser [[Holy water|Blessing of Waters]] performed after the [[Divine Liturgy]] on [[w:Easter Friday|Bright Friday]].In old [[Church of Russia|Russia]], continuing Greek traditions, there was a custom to sanctify springs that were located near churches, dedicate them to the [[Theotokos|Holy Mother]], and paint icons of her under [[Theotokonymia|the title]] ''The Life Giving Spring''.<ref>Kristina Kondratieva (Global Art Communications project). ''[http://www.iconkuznetsov.com/index.php?sid=341&did=264&lang=eng Panagia The Life Giving Spring].'' Yuriy Kuznetsov: Icons of the XXI Century. Accessed: 2011-05-19.</ref>
 [[Troparion|Apolytikion]] in the Third (Tone3)<ref name="GOARCHOMHKSEA">[[Greek Orthodox Archdiocese Metropolitanate of AmericaHong Kong and Southeast Asia]]. ''[http://www.goarchomhksea.org/chapel2011/saints_view?contentid=850&PCode=1PF&D=F&date=405/29bright-friday/2011 Renewal Bright Friday: Theotokos of the Lifegiving Font].''Accessed: 2011-09-28.</ref>
:As a life-giving fount, thou didst conceive the Dew that is transcendent in essence,
:Rejoice, O thou Spring of life for all men.
[[Kontakion]] ([[Tone]] 8)<ref name="OCA"/><ref name="GOARCH"/>
[[Kontakion]] (Plagal of Tone 4)<ref name="OMHKSEA"/>:O most favored Lady graced by God, :You confer on you reward me by letting gush forth, beyond reason, :the healing ever-flowing waters of your grace from your inexhaustible perpetual Spring. :Therefore, since I entreat you gave birth incomprehensibly to , who bore the WordLogos, in a manner beyond comprehension, :I implore you to refresh me with the dew of in your grace that I might may cry to you: out, :Hail, O Water of salvation“Hail redemptive waters.
==See also==
*[[Church of the Life-Giving Font of the Theotokos (Istanbul)]]
*[[Panagia Blachernitissa]]
*[[Holy water]]
*[[Panagia Blachernitissa]]
==Notes==
*[[w:Holy well|Holy well]]
'''Other'''
*[http://iconreader.wordpress.com/2011/04/28/theotokos-of-the-life-giving-spring/ Gallery of Life-Giving Spring Icons]
*[http://www.mgr.org/TheVeil.html The Miracle of The Veil] in Constantinople 911 AD.
*[http://www.orthodox.net/questions/bright_week_1.html#a5 Question 5. "What feast is celebrated Bright Friday?"], St Nicholas Russian Orthodox Church, Dallas Texas.
'''Greek Wikipedia'''
*[http://el.wikipedia.org/wiki/%CE%96%CF%89%CE%BF%CE%B4%CF%8C%CF%87%CE%BF%CF%82_%CE%A0%CE%B7%CE%B3%CE%AE_%CF%84%CE%BF%CF%85_%CE%9C%CF%80%CE%B1%CE%BB%CE%BF%CF%85%CE%BA%CE%BB%CE%AE Ζωοδόχος Πηγή του Μπαλουκλή]
'''Russian Orthodox Encyclopedia'''
*[http://www.pravenc.ru/text/182259.html «ЖИВОНОСНЫЙ ИСТОЧНИК»]. Православная Энциклопедия.
[[Category:Feasts]]
[[Category:Icons of the Theotokos]]
[[Category:Theotokonymia]]
 
[[ro:Izvorul Tămăduirii]]
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