→Emergence of American Orthodoxy (1943-1970): 1963
*1825 First native priest, [[Jacob Netsvetov]].
*1834 Fr. [[Innocent of Alaska|John Veniaminov]] moves to Sitka, Alaska; liturgy and catechism translated into Aleut.
*1836 Imperial ''[[ukaz]]'' regarding Alaskan education issued from Czar Nicholas I that students were to become faithful members of the Orthodox Church, loyal subjects of the Czar, and loyal citizens; Fr. John Veniaminov returns to Russia.
*1837 Death of [[Herman of Alaska]] on Spruce Island.
*1848 [[Consecration]] of St. Michael Cathedral in Sitka; Pacific Southwest won from Mexico by United States.
*1850 Alaskan episcopal see and seminary moved to Yakutsk, Russia.
*1858 [[Peter (
Sysakoff) of Sitka|Peter ( Sysakoff)]] consecrated as [[auxiliary bishop]] for Alaska with Innocent's primary see moved to Yakutsk.
*1864 [http://holytrinitycathedral.org/history.html Holy Trinity Church], first Orthodox [[parish]] established on United States soil in New Orleans, Louisiana, by Greeks.
*1865 First [[Divine Liturgy]] celebrated in New York City, by Fr. [[Agapius Honcharenko]].
*1891 Fr. [[Alexis of Wilkes-Barre|Alexis Toth]], a [[Uniate]] priest, petitions to be received along with his parish in Minneapolis into the Russian church; Bp. Nicholas (Adoratsky) assigned as Bishop of Alaska but is transferred before taking up his post; [[Nicholas (Ziorov) of Warsaw|Nicholas (Ziorov)]] becomes ruling bishop of the Alaskan diocese.
*1892 Fr. [[Alexis of Wilkes-Barre|Alexis Toth]] and his parish in Minneapolis received into Russian church; Carpatho-Russian [[Uniate]] parishes in Illinois, Connecticut, and several in Pennsylvania soon follow; first Serbian parish established in Jackson, California; Holy Trinity Greek Orthodox parish founded in New York City; Greek and Russian parishes founded in Chicago; first American-born person ordained, Fr. [[Sebastian Dabovich]].
*1895 Archim. [[Raphael of Brooklyn|Raphael (Hawaweeny)]] arrives in America; Fr. [[John Kochurov]] arrives in America and becomes priest of the Russian parish in Chicago; Fr. [[
Anatolii Kamenskii]] arrives in Alaska; first Syrian parish in Brooklyn, New York, founded by [[Raphael of Brooklyn]]; first clergy conference, in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania.*1896 Bp. [[Nicholas (Ziorov) of Warsaw|Nicholas (Ziorov)]] reports to the [[Church of Russia#The Synodical Church (1700-1917)|Holy Synod of Russia]] that "the commemoration of the Emperor and the Reigning House during the divine services brings forth dismay and apprehension among Orthodox in America of non-Russian background"; [[Alexander Hotovitsky]] appointed as [[rector]] in New York.
*1897 Bp. [[Nicholas (Ziorov) of Warsaw|Nicholas (Ziorov)]] and Fr. [[Sebastian Dabovich]] petition [[Church of Serbia]] to oversee Serbian parishes in America, but are rebuffed due to an inability to support the infrastructure.
*1898 Bp. [[Nicholas (Ziorov) of Warsaw|Nicholas (Ziorov)]] returns to Russia; [[Tikhon of Moscow|Tikhon (Belavin)]] becomes Bishop of the Aleutians and Alaska; American annexation of Hawaii.
*1901 First Orthodox church in Canada, in Vostok, Alberta.
*1902 Building of St. Nicholas Cathedral in [[Diocese of New York and New Jersey (OCA)|New York]]; first Romanian parish in North America founded in Regina, Saskatchewan.
*1904 [[Innocent (
Pustinsky) of Sitka|Innocent ( Pustinsky)]] consecrated as Bishop of Alaska; [[Raphael of Brooklyn|Raphael (Hawaweeny)]] consecrated as Bishop of Brooklyn, becoming the first Orthodox bishop to be consecrated in America; first Romanian-American parish founded in Cleveland, Ohio.
*1905 [[St. Tikhon's Orthodox Monastery (South Canaan, Pennsylvania)]] founded; Bp. [[Tikhon of Moscow|Tikhon (Belavin)]] raised to rank of archbishop; seminary opened in Minneapolis; Russian see transferred to [[Diocese of New York and New Jersey (OCA)|New York]]; Fr. [[Sebastian Dabovich]] elevated to [[archimandrite]] and given charge over Serbian parishes by Tikhon; Episcopal priest of nearly 30 years Dr. [[Ingram Irvine]] converted to Orthodoxy, assigned to "English work."
*1906 Holy Synod of Russia confirms practice of commemorating the American president by name, and not the Russian Tsar, during divine services; blessing of [[St. Tikhon's Orthodox Monastery (South Canaan, Pennsylvania)|St. Tikhon's Orthodox Monastery]] by hierarchs Tikhon, Raphael and Innocent; translation of ''Service Book'' by [[Isabel Hapgood]].
*1907 [[All-American_Sobor#First_All-American_Sobor|1st All-American Sobor]] held in Mayfield, PA, at which name of the Russian mission was declared to be ''The Russian Orthodox Greek-Catholic Church in North America under the Hierarchy of the Russian Church''; Abp. [[Tikhon of Moscow|Tikhon (Belavin)]] returns to Russia and is succeeded by [[Platon (Rozhdestvensky) of New York|Platon (Rozhdestvensky)]]; Uniate Bp. Stephen Ortinsky sent to the US by Rome to stem the tide of Uniate returns to Orthodoxy; Papal decree ''Ea Semper'' issued, mandating all Uniate priests in American be celibate; first [[Sunday of Orthodoxy]] service in New York; first Bulgarian parish in Madison, Illinois; ordination in Constantinople of first Black American Orthodox priest, the Very Rev. Fr. [[Raphael Morgan]], ''[[Missionary|Priest-Apostolic]] to America and the West Indies.''
*1908 [[Church of Constantinople|Constantinople]] gives temporary care of American Greek parishes to [[Church of Greece|Greece]]; Fr. [[Theophan Noli]] celebrates first [[Divine Liturgy]] in the Albanian language; first Albanian parish founded in Boston.
*1909 Bp. [[Innocent (
Pustinsky) of Sitka|Innocent ( Pustinsky)]] transferred to Russia, succeeded by [[Alexander (Nemolovsky) of the Aleutians|Alexander (Nemolovsky)]] as Bishop of Alaska; death of Fr. [[Alexis of Wilkes-Barre|Alexis Toth]].
*1911 Minneapolis seminary transferred to Tenafly, New Jersey.
*1913 Serbian clergy vote to come under [[Church of Serbia]] but meet with no response.
*1914 Abp. [[Platon (Rozhdestvensky) of New York|Platon (Rozhdestvensky)]] recalled to Russia and made bishop of Kishinev, after having received 72 communities (mainly ex-Uniate Carpatho-Russians) into Orthodoxy during his rule; [[Church of Antioch|Antiochian]] Metr. [[Germanos (Shehadi) of Zahle]] comes to US to raise funds for an agricultural school in Syria.
*1915 Death of [[Raphael of Brooklyn]]; Abp. [[Evdokim (Meschersky) of the Aleutians|Evdokim (Meschersky)]] succeeds Platon; first [[monastery]] for women in Springfield, Vermont.
*1916 Consecration of [[Philip (Stavitsky) of
Sitka]]; [[Alexander (Nemolovsky) of the Aleutians|Alexander (Nemolovsky)]] appointed Bishop of Canada with his see in Winnipeg; organization of [[Syrian Holy Orthodox Greek Catholic Mission in North America]] by [[Germanos (Shehadi) of Zahle|Germanos (Shehadi)]] with founding of St. Mary's Cathedral in Brooklyn, New York; death of Rev. [[Agapius Honcharenko]].
*1917 Ex-Uniate priest [[Stephen (Dzubay) of Pittsburgh|Alexander Dzubay]] consecrated with the name ''Stephen'' as Bishop of Pittsburgh; Archim. [[Aftimios Ofiesh|Aftimios (Ofiesh)]] consecrated as Bishop of Brooklyn; Abp. [[Tikhon of Moscow|Tikhon (Belavin)]] elected Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia at the [[All-Russian Church Council of 1917-1918|All Russian Sobor of 1917-1918]].
*1918-24 Emigration of 70,000 Greeks to the United States.
*1927 ROCOR synod sends epistle to American parishes [[suspension|suspending]] Platon and his [[clergy]]; founding of [[American Orthodox Catholic Church]] by the [[Orthodox Church in America|Russian Metropolia]] under [[Aftimios Ofiesh]]; founding of [[Federated Russian Orthodox Clubs]] (FROC) in Pittsburgh; consecration of [[Emmanuel (Abo-Hatab) of Brooklyn|Emmanuel (Abo-Hatab)]].
*1928 Ukrainian diocese established; consecration of [[Sophronios (Beshara) of Los Angeles|Sophronios (Beshara)]].
*1929 [[Romanian Orthodox Episcopate (OCA)|Romanian Orthodox Episcopate]] established.
*1930 Abp. [[Joasaph (Skorodumov) of Canada and Argentina|Joasaph (Skorodumov)]] ("The Enlightener of Canada") becomes the founding bishop of the Canadian Diocese of [[ROCOR]]; [[Emmanuel (Abo-Hatab) of Brooklyn|Emmanuel (Abo-Hatab)]] leaves [[American Orthodox Catholic Church|AOCC]] and returns to [[OCA|Metropolia]], re-establishing Brooklyn diocese.
*1931 [[Athenagoras I (Spyrou) of Constantinople|Athenagoras (Spyrou)]] becomes primate of [[Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America|Greek Archdiocese]].
*1951 [[Michael (Konstantinides) of America|Michael (Konstantinides)]] heads [[GOA]]; independent Romanian diocese established; arrival of Fr. [[Alexander Schmemann]] in the United States from Paris, taking up teaching duties at [[St. Vladimir's Orthodox Theological Seminary (Crestwood, New York)]].
*1954 Recognition of Toledo archdiocese by [[Church of Antioch]].
Founding of [[Council of Eastern Orthodox Churches of Central Massachusetts]]; [[All-American_Sobor#Ninth_All-American_Sobor|9th All-American Sobor]] of Metropolia held in New York City.
*1956 Dr. Constantine Cavarnos founds the [http://www.orthodoxinfo.com/ibmgs/index.html Institute for Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies] in Belmont, Massachusetts.
*1957 Abp. [[Michael (Konstantinides) of America|Michael (Konstantinides)]] offered the first Orthodox prayer at a U. S. Presidential inauguration in January 20, 1957.
*1961 Consecration of [[Michael (Shaheen) of Toledo]]; first ever visit of a Greek Orthodox Patriarch to Canada, as Patr. [[Benedict of Jerusalem]] begins a North-American tour to raise funds for the restoration of the shrines in the [[Holy Land]].
*1962 Antiochian Toledo archdiocese recognized by the [[Church of Antioch]] as equal to the New York archdiocese.
*1963 Autonomous Serbian diocese created; [[All-American_Sobor#Eleventh_All-America_Sobor|11th All-American Sobor]] held in New York City; beginning of
[[rapprochement ]] between Metropolia and Moscow Patriarchate; arguing that the Metropolia's 1924 declaration of "temporary self-government" amounted to a canonical declaration of [[autocephaly]], ''Toward an American Orthodox Church'' published by St. Vladimir's professor Alexander Bogolepov, galvanizing the Metropolia to seek autocephaly; Abp. [[Iakovos (Coucouzis) of America|Iakovos (Coucouzis)]] vigorously supported the passage of the [[w:Civil Rights Act of 1964|Civil Rights Act of 1964]] that was introduced by President John F. Kennedy in his civil rights speech of June 11, 1963.
*1964 [[Bulgarian Diocese in Exile]] established under the [[ROCOR]].
*1965 [[SCOBA]] appeals to mother churches to allow concrete steps to be taken toward American Orthodox unity; at [[All-American_Sobor#Twelfth_All-American_Sobor|12th All-American Sobor]], [[Ireney (Bekish) of New York|Ireney (Bekish)]] chosen to succeed [[Leonty (Turkevich) of New York|Leonty (Turkevich)]] as [[primate]] of [[OCA|Metropolia]]; North American Orthodox-Catholic Theological Consultation founded; Abp. [[Iakovos (Coucouzis) of America|Iakovos (Coucouzis)]] marched next to Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. in the [[w:Selma to Montgomery marches |Selma to Montgomery marches]], captured on the cover of LIFE Magazine, March 26, 1965.
*1982 Calendar [[schism]] in [[Diocese of Eastern Pennsylvania (OCA)|OCA Diocese of E. Pennsylvania]], [[ROCOR]] receiving multiple parishes in the area.
*1983 [[All-American_Council#Seventh_All-American_Council|7th All-American Council]] of OCA was held Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
*1985 Founding of [[Orthodox Christian Mission Center]] (OCMC) as Greek Archdiocesan Mission Center.
*1986 [[All-American_Council#Eighth_All-American_Council|8th All-American Council]] of OCA held in Washington, D.C.
*1987 Majority of [[parish]]es of the [[Evangelical Orthodox Church]] received into [[Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of North America|Antiochian Archdiocese]] by Metr. [[Philip (Saliba) of New York|Philip (Saliba)]], becoming the Antiochian Evangelical Orthodox Mission (AEOM).
*1989 [[Glorification]] in Russia of [[Tikhon of Moscow]]; [[Ephraim of Philotheou|Elder Ephraim]] begins founding [[Mount Athos|Athonite]]-style monasteries in North America; [[All-American_Council#Ninth_All-American_Council|9th All-American Council]] of OCA held in Saint Louis, Missouri.
*1990 Contact between [[Church of Constantinople|Constantinople]] and [[OCA]] resumes.
*1992 Founding of [[International Orthodox Christian Charities]] (IOCC); [[All-American_Council#Tenth_All-American_Council|10th All-American Council]] of OCA held in Miami, Florida.
==Ligonier and Beyond (1994-present)==
*1999 Retirement of [[Spyridon (Papageorge) of Chaldea|Spyridon (Papageorge)]], Greek Archbishop of America, being replaced by [[Demetrios (Trakatellis) of America|Demetrios (Trakatellis)]]; reception of dissident group from Ben Lomond crisis by the [[Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Jerusalem in North and South America|Jerusalem Patriarchate]], including re-ordination of some of the excommunicated and/or deposed clergy; [[All-American_Council#Twelfth_All-American_Council|12th All-American Council]] of OCA held in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
*2000 [[Glorification]] of [[Raphael of Brooklyn]] at [[St. Tikhon's Orthodox Monastery (South Canaan, Pennsylvania)]] by the [[OCA]] jointly with Antiochian hierarchs; reception of multiple former parishes of the [[Holy Order of MANS|Holy Order of MANS/Christ the Saviour Brotherhood]] into the patriarchal [[Bulgarian Eastern Orthodox Diocese of the USA, Canada and Australia|Bulgarian diocese]].
*2001 Second meeting of most bishops associated with [[SCOBA]].
*2002 Retirement of [[Theodosius (Lazor) of Washington|Theodosius (Lazor)]] and election of [[Herman (Swaiko) of Washington and New York|Herman (Swaiko)]] as Metropolitan of the [[OCA]] at [[All-American_Council#Thirteenth_All-American_Council|13th All-American Council]] held in Orlando, Florida.
*2003 [[Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of North America]] is granted "self-rule" (similar but not identical to [[autonomy]]) by [[Church of Antioch|Antioch]], establishing 9 new [[diocese]]s in North America and promoting its [[titular bishop]]s to diocesan ones; after years of inactivity, refounding of [[OISM]].
*2008 [[Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Jerusalem in North and South America|Jerusalem jurisdiction]] transferred to [[Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America|Greek Archdiocese]], forming [[Vicariate for Palestinian-Jordanian Communities in the USA|Vicariate for Palestinian/Jordanian Communities in the USA]]; Metr. [[Herman (Swaiko) of Washington and New York|Herman (Swaiko)]] retired by OCA amidst financial scandal; [[Jonah (Paffhausen) of Washington and New York|Jonah (Paffhausen)]] elected primate of OCA; [[All-American Council#Fifteenth All-American Council|Fifteenth All-American Council]] held in Pittsburgh, PA.
*2009 [[Church of Georgia]] names Metr. [[Dimitri (Shiolashvili) of Batumi and Lazeti]] as bishop for North America; visit of Abp. [[Demetrios (Trakatellis) of America|Demetios (Trakatellis)]] to [[ROCOR]] headquarters, the first visit of a Greek archbishop in more than 40 years; [[Orthodox Christian Mission Center|OCMC]] opens training center; Fourth Pre-Conciliar Pan-Orthodox Conference in Chambesy, Switzerland mandates "Episcopal Assemblies" for various regions of the world, including North America; OCA reestablishes dioceses for [[Diocese of Washington (OCA)|Washington]] and [[Diocese of New York and New Jersey (OCA)|New York and New Jersey]]; visit to US of Ecumenical Patr. [[Bartholomew I (Archontonis) of Constantinople|Batholomew I (Archontonis)]].
*2010 Consecration of Bp. [[Michael (Dahulich) of New York]]; formation of [[Episcopal Assembly of North and Central America]]; [[ROCOR]] marks its 90th anniversary.
*[[Timeline of Orthodoxy in Japan]]
*[[Timeline of Orthodox Church and Roman Catholic relations]]