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Dioscorus of Alexandria

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'''Dioscorus I of Alexandria''' was the [[Patriarch of Alexandria]] (from 444-to 451). His actions during the continuation of the Christological controversies following the [[deposition]] of [[Nestorius]] resulted in his deposition at the [[Fourth Ecumenical Council]] in Chalcedon in 451 which led to the later [[schism]] in the [[Church of Alexandria]].
==Controversy==
Dioscorus I of Alexandria is considered a [[saint]] by the [[Coptic]], [[Syriac Orthodox Church|Syriac]], and other [[Oriental Orthodox]] churches. He is generally considered a [[heretic]] by the [[Eastern Orthodox]], though some commentators like Anatolius and [[John S. Romanides]] think that Dioscorus was deposed at [[Council of Chalcedon|Chalcedon]] (in 451) not because of the faith, but for his grave administrative errors at the [[Robber Council of Ephesus]] (449), which included restoring [[Eutyches]] the heretic and the attack on [[Flavian the Confessor|Flavian]], and because he (Dioscorus) had excommunicated Pope [[Leo the Great|Leo I of Rome]], and also because at [[Chalcedon]] he refused to appear in front of the Council although he was summoned to it three times.<ref>[http://www.romanity.org/htm/rom.06.en.orthodox_and_oriental_orthodox_consultation.htm Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox Consultation: Leo of Rome's Support of Theodoret, Dioscorus of Alexandria's Support of Eutyches and the Lifting of the Anathemas] by John S. Romanides</ref>
His character and stance are subject to contravention between the Oriental Orthodox churches on one side and the Eastern Orthodox and [[Roman Catholic]] churches on the other.
In recent research it was suggested that both Leo and Dioscoros are Orthodox because they agree with St.[[Cyril of Alexandria]], especially with his Twelve Chapters, even though both had been considered heretical by the other side <ref>[http://www.romanity.org/htm/rom.06.en.orthodox_and_oriental_orthodox_consultation.htm Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox Consultation: Leo of Rome's Support of Theodoret, Dioscorus of Alexandria's Support of Eutyches and the Lifting of the Anathemas] by John S. Romanides</ref>.
In May 1973 After fifteen centuries, Pope [[Shenouda III (Gayyid) of Alexandria]] visited Pope [[Paul VI of Rome|Paul VI]] of Rome and declared a common faith in the nature of Christ, the issue which caused the schism of the church in the [[Council of Chalcedon]].<ref>[http://www.coptic.net/articles/MonophysitismReconsidered.txt Coptic.net Monophysitism Reconsidered]</ref> However, this is disputed, due to the fact that the main leaders of the Non-Chalcedonian schism specifically condemned St. Cyril's agreements with St. John of Antioch. For example, Timothy Ailouros Aelurus (Dioscorus' disciple and successor, wrote: "Cyril... having excellently articulated the wise proclamation of Orthodoxy, showed himself to be fickle and is to be censured for teaching contrary doctrine: after previously proposing that we should speak of one nature of God the Word, he destroyed the dogma that he had formulated and is caught professing two Natures of Christ."<ref>Timothy AilourosAelurus, "Epistles to Kalonymos," ''Patrologia Graeca'', Vol LXXXVI, Col. 276; quoted in The Non Chalcedonian Heretics, p. 13. See also [http://orthodoxinfo.com/ecumenism/mono_history.aspx "The History of the Persistant Monophysite Rejection of St. Cyril of Alexandria's Teaching on the Two Natures of Christ"]</ref>
A similar declaration was reached between the Oriental Orthodoxy churches and the Eastern Orthodoxy churches in the 1990s. In the summer of 2001, the Coptic Orthodox and Greek Orthodox Patriarchates of Alexandria agreed to mutually recognize baptisms performed in each other's churches<ref>[[Church of Alexandria (Coptic)#Council of Chalcedon]]</ref>.
A struggle occurred between Eutyches and [[Theodoret]]. Eutyches was an [[archimandrite]] of a [[monastery]] in Constantinople. He defended the formula "one nature" against that of "two natures." He concluded that the Godhead absorbed the manhood of Christ. Theodoret accused Eutyches and Cyril, and published a long attack on them. The council of Constantinople was held in 448, and Eutyches was condemned and exiled.
Leo originally wrote to Eutyches praising his zeal in opposing the Nestorian dualism. But he later changed his mind; perhaps when he heard that the emperor wrote to Dioscorus calling him to a council to be held to discuss that matter. Leo, who was not part of the conflict between the Alexandrian and the Antiochian [[Christology]], sent his famous Tome (letter) to Constantinople -- not to work for reconciliation of the parties, but to defame the Alexandrian theologians.
==Second Council of Ephesus==
It was the emperor's favor that the council had to draw out Alexandria and declare a new formula to bring the entire Church in the east under the leadership of Constantinople. They used Leo as a tool to accomplish their objective through his enmity to Alexandria, looking upon it as an obstacle in realizing his papal authority on the Church over the world.
The verdict of the commissioners was announced: Dioscorus of Alexandria, [[Juvenal of Jerusalem]], Thalassius of [[Caesarea]], Eusebius of Ancyra, Eutathius of Berytus, and Basil of Seleucia&mdash;these were the men who had been responsible for the decisions of the second council of Ephesus, and should as such all be deposed. Thus the Patriarch of Alexandria was exiled to Gangra Island. In fact, Dioscorus was not condemned by name at Chalcedon because of his theological heresy, but specifically due to his canonical violations at the Robber Synod of Ephesus.
==New formula of faith==
title=[[Patriarch of Alexandria]]|
years=444-451|
after=Proterios [[‎Proterius of Alexandria|Proterius]] (Chalcedonian succession)<br>Timothy II ([[List of Coptic Popes|Non-Chalcedonian succession]])|}}
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