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Kollyva

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[[Image:Orthodoxer Gottesdienst.jpg|right|thumb|Postcard, undated (ca.1916), showing an Orthodox service with the blessing of Kollyva.]]
{{spirituality}}
'''Kollyva''' (Greek: ''' ''Κολλυβα,'' ''' (kólliva); Serbian: ''' ''кољиво,'' ''' (koljivo); Romanian: ''' ''colivă'' '''; Bulgarian: ''' ''коливо,''' '' (kolivo); Ukrainian and Russian: ''' ''Kutya'' ''' (or Kutia)) is an offering closely connected of boiled wheat that is blessed liturgically in connection with the '''[[Memorial Services]]''' in Church for the benefit of one's departed, thereby offering unto [[God]], as it were, a sacrifice of propitiation (atonement) for the dead person, and in honor of the Sovereign [[Lord]] over life and [[death]].<ref>[http://www.stlukeorthodox.com/html/parishinfo/commemorationofthedeparted.cfm Recipe For Kutya (Koliva)---Alaskan Tradition]. St. Luke the Evangelist Orthodox Church (Palos Hills, IL). </ref>
==Recipe==While recipes may vary widely, the primary ingredient in today's Kollyva consists of wheat kernels which have been boiled until they are soft. These are usually mixed with a variety of ingredients which may include pomegranate seeds, sesame seeds, almonds, ground walnuts, cinnamon, sugar, raisins, anise and parsley. The Kollyva mixture is then placed on a platter and shaped into a mound or cake, to resemble a grave. The whole is then decorated with a powdered sugar covering, with raisins decoratively placed on the surface. A [[cross]] is traced on the top, and on its sides are placed the initials of the departed for whom the memorial is held. A candle, usually placed in the center of the Kollyva, is lit at the beginning of the [[Memorial Services|requiem service]] and extinguished at its end.
The Kollyva mixture is then placed on a platter and shaped into a mound or cake, to resemble a grave. The whole is then decorated with a powdered sugar covering, with raisins decoratively placed on the surface. A [[cross]] is traced on the top, and on its sides are placed the initials of the departed for whom the memorial is held. A candle, usually placed in the center of the Kollyva, is lit at the beginning of the [[Memorial Services|requiem service]] and extinguished at its end; the candle symbolizes the light wherewith the Christian is illumined in [[Baptism]], and also the light of the world to come, which knows no setting. Some Orthodox parishes have a designated individual charged with making the Kollyva. This is in part due to the health risk of fermented wheat if the Kollyva is not prepared correctly. Sometimes Kollyva is made with rice instead of wheat. This custom began as a practical response to a famine that occurred in Soviet Russia, when the faithful did not have wheat available for Kollyva, so they used rice instead. Some communities continue to use rice for their Kollyva to this day. In the [[Church of Japan|Japanese Orthodox Church]] where rice is mainly eaten, Kollyva is commonly made from rice sweetened with sugar and decorated with raisins, without reference to famine. The size and decoration of the platter varies according to the time elapsed from the date of death. The '''fortieth day ''' [[Memorial Services|memorial service]] is the most important which practically no Orthodox neglects to hold for the repose of the soul of their beloved. This ritual food is blessed after the memorial [[Divine Liturgy]], performed at various intervals after a death. The Kollyva are then distributed to the congregtion [[congregation]] after the service, who in return say ''"may God forgive his soul!"''. The practice  It is also customary for the [[priest]] to pour wine, oil, and some of offering the Kollyva is frequent onto the grave site at the cemetery, following the [[Memorial Services|Memorial Service]] in Greece church.<ref group="note">The Church uses bread, wine, wheat, oil, water, flowers and is known fruits as signs of God's love, mercy, goodness, life and the very presence given to man in Russia creation and many Balkan countriessalvation. Indeed, all elements of creation find the "truth" of their very being and existence as expressions and manifestations of God, as "symbols" of his presence and action in the world for man. This is the reason for their use in this way in the Church. (''[http://www.oca.org/OCchapter.asp?SID=2&ID=49 Christian Symbols].'' The Orthodox Church in America. )</ref>
==Origins==
Their ===Ancient World===The origin goes back of the religious use of Kollyva predates [[Introduction to Orthodox Christianity|Christianity]]. The word stems from the time Ancient Greek word κόλλυβo (kollyvo), which originally meant cereal grain.  The Ancient Greek [[w:First Fruits|first fruits]] offerings (or dedications) known as ''panspermia,''<ref group="note">For this reason, in Greece, Kollyva is also called ''sperma'' (i.e., "seed"). The ancients also used the word ''pankarpia''.</ref> consisted of a mixture of cooked seeds and nuts ([[Julian w:Pulse (legume)|Pulse]]) which were offered during the Apostatefestival of the [[w:Anthesteria|Anthesteria]]. The [[w:Anthesteria|Anthesteria]]<ref group="note">The name Anthesteria (Ἀνθεστήρια) is usually connected etymologically with the Greek ''anthos'' (ἄνθος; plural: ἄνθη or ἄνθεα; root: ἀνθεσ-), when "flower" or "bloom", cognate to the Sanskrit ''andhas'' ("[[w:Soma|Soma]] plant/juice").</ref> was one of the four Athenian festivals in 362 AD he withdrew honour of Dionysus (collectively the ''[[w:Dionysia|Dionysia]]''), held annually for three days, from the market in Constantinople foodeleventh to the thirteenth of the month of [[w:Anthesterion#List_of_months|Anthesterion]] (February-stuffs prescribed March). The festival predates the Ionian colonisation of the early eleventh century B.C.,<ref group="note">"The traditional date of the [[w:Ionians|Ionian]] migration is the early eleventh century B.C. (1086/85 or 1076/75; Jacoby, ''Mar. Par.'' 27, pp. 151-52 and ''FGrH'' No. 239, Comm. on 27) or in its third quarter (1044/43 according to [[w:Eratosthenes|Eratosthenes]], who placed it four generations after [[w:Trojan War|the fall of Troy]]; 1045/44 for Ephesus and 1039/38 for the first other cities according to [[Eusebius of Caesarea|Eusebius]] 1. 187. 36). These chronological indications have been accepted by most historians who regard the migration as a consequence of the [[w:Dorians|Dorian]] invasion of mainland Greece." (Carl Roebuck. ''The Early Ionian League.'' '''Classical Philology'''. Vol.50, No.1 (Jan.,1955), pp.26-40. p.37.)</ref> making it the oldest datable part of the [[w:Eleusinian Mysteries|Eleusinian Mysteries]]. Although its name indicates a Festival of Flowers (''anthos''), the festival focused primarily on opening the new wine and on placating the spirits of the dead. Wheat, like barley, was also associated with the Egyptian cult of [[w:Osiris|Osiris]]. Grain was planted in the ground on the same day traditionally commemorating the death of the god,<ref group="note">The 17th of Athyr (November 13).</ref> while the germinating seed symbolized Osiris rising from the dead. The association between [[death]] and life, between that which is planted in the ground and that which emerges, is deeply embedded in the making and eating of Kollyva. The ritual food passed from [[paganism]] to early Christianity in [[Byzantine Empire|Byzantium]] and later spread to the entire Orthodox world. ===St. Theodore Saturday===The tradition of blessing and eating Kollyva at the end of the first week of [[Great Lent]], is connected with an event in the reign of [[Clean MondayJulian the Apostate]] in 362 AD. The tradition states that the Emperor knew that the Christians would be hungry after the first week of strict [[fasting]], and would go to the marketplaces of Constantinople on Saturday, to buy food. Therefore he ordered that they [[Blood in the Bible|blood]] from pagan sacrifices be substituted with sprinkled over all the food that was sold there, making it ''"polluted sacrificial food"'' (food "polluted" with the blood of idolatry), in an attempt to force upon the people the [[paganism]] of which he was an ardent supporter.  However St. [[Theodore the Soldier|St. Theodore of TyreTyro]] suggested appeared in a dream to the Patriarch of Constantinople [[Eudoxius of Antioch|Eudoxios]] , ordering him to inform all the Christians that he ordain boiled no one should buy anything at the market, but rather to boil the wheat (already called ''Kollyva'') as that they had at home and eat it sweetened with honey. As a substitute result, this first Saturday of Great Lent has come to Lenten be known as Theodore Saturday. After the service, the Kollyva is distributed to all who are present and, after [[Holy Communion]] and the [[antidoron]], is the first food-stuffs taken from eaten after the market by emperor Julianstrict fasting of the first week.  Since then Kollyva, having become connected with celebrating the memory of saints, were are brought to church and were blessed are ordained by the priest during memorial prayers known today as [[Memorial Services]].
==Symbolism==
The Kollyva are symbolic of the [[resurrection ]] of the dead on the day of the Second Coming of the Lord. St. [[Apostle Paul|Paul]] said, ''' ''"what you sow does not come to life unless it dies"'' ''' (I Corinthians 15:3436), and St. [[Apostle John|John]], ''' ''"unless a grain of wheat falls into the earth and dies, it remains alone; but if it dies, it bears much fruit"'' ''' (John 12:24). Thus, as the wheat is buried in the soil and disintegrates without really dying but is later regenerated into a new plant that bears much more fruit than itself, so the Christian's body will be raised again from the very corruptible matter from which it is now made; however, it will be raised not in its previous fleshy substance but in an incorruptible essence which ''"will clad the mortal body with an immortal garment"'', in the words of St. Paul (I Corinthians 15:53).
Thus, as the wheat is buried in the soil and disintegrates without really dying but is later regenerated into a new plant that bears much more fruit than itself, so the Christian's body will be raised again from the very corruptible matter from which it is now made; however, it will be raised not in its previous fleshy substance but in an incorruptible essence which ''"will clad the mortal body with an immortal garment"'', in the words of St. Paul (I Corinthians 15:53). The Kollyva then, symbolize the Apostolically rooted hope in the [[resurrection ]] of the dead as the only eventuality that gives meaning and attains the longed perfection on the part of the individual who takes his life to be a divinely ordained meaningful living forever.<ref>Rev. Dr. Nicon D. Patrinacos (M.A., D.Phil. (Oxon)). ''A Dictionary of Greek Orthodoxy - Λεξικον Ελληνικης Ορθοδοξιας''. Light & Life Publishing, Minnesota, 1984. pp.225-226.</ref> The 16th century Archbishop Gabriel of [[Philadelphia (Asia Minor)|Philadelphia]]<ref group="note">Consecrated by Patriarch [[Jeremias II (Tranos) of Constantinople|Jeremias II]].</ref> wrote that the Kollyva are symbols of the general resurrection, and the several ingredients added to the wheat signify so many different virtues.<ref>Chambers, Ephraim (1680-ca.1740). ''[http://digicoll.library.wisc.edu/cgi-bin/HistSciTech/HistSciTech-idx?type=turn&id=HistSciTech.Cyclopaedia01&entity=HistSciTech.Cyclopaedia01.p0420&q1=colyba COLYBA].'' In: Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences. 1728. Pg. 266.)</ref>
==Occasions of Use==
===Memorial Services===
During [[Memorial Services|memorial services]] (requiem services), the family or friends of the departed will often prepare a Kollyva which is placed in front of the memorial table before which the service is chanted, while submitting a list of first names of the deceased loved ones to the [[priest]]. Memorial services are served on the '''third''', '''ninth''', and '''fortieth ''' days after the repose of an Orthodox Christian, as well as on the '''one-year ''' anniversary.
In addition, there are several [[Saturday of the Souls|Soul Saturdays]] (''Psychosabbaton'') during the church year, including the two Saturdays prior to [[Great Lent]], the first Saturday of [[Great Lent]], and the Saturday before [[Pentecost]], during which general commemorations are made for all the departed, as well as on [[Radonitsa]], the second Tuesday after [[Pascha]]. These prescribed times are still observed in most Orthodox places.
===Commemoration of Saints===
It is also customary in the Slavic practice on the feast of the Patron Saint of a church or of a family, or on the feast of saints of special significance to offer Kollyva. Instead of serving a [[Memorial Services|memorial service]], the Kollyva is set in front of an icon of the saint and a [[Molieben|Moleben]] is served to that saint.
 
There is also a practice on [[Mount Athos]] whereby the icons of saints are incorporated onto the surface of the Kollyva offerings made in their honour.
 
==Gallery==
<gallery>
Image:Κόλλυβα.jpg|Kollyva, with the initials of the deceased on the surface.
 
Image:Kollyva3.jpg|Kollyva.
 
Image:Koliva1.jpg|Kollyva offering at [[Vatopedi Monastery (Athos)]], for the Righteous Eudokimos of Cappadocia (feast day [[July 31]]).
 
Image:Koliva.jpg|Kollyva. (Vatopedi Monastery (Athos)).
 
Image:Koliva4.jpg|Kollyva.
 
Image:Sveti Jovan.jpg|[[Slava]], Serbian family feast in the name of Patron Saint St. John the Baptist.
 
Image:Kollyva-Saturday of Souls.jpg|Kollyva offerings during a Saturday of the Souls.
 
</gallery>
==See also==
* [[Memorial Services]](''Mnemósynon; Panikhida'')
* [[Prayer#Prayer_for_the_dead|Prayer for the Dead]]
* [[PrayerSaturday of the Souls]] (''Psychosabbaton'')* [[Radonitsa]]* [[Slava]]
* [[Birnstan of Winchester]]
* [[Prosphora]]
'''Wikipedia'''
* [[w:Koliva|Koliva]]
* [[w:Colyba|Colyba]]
* [[w:Kutia|Kutia]] (also: ''Kutya'', ''Kutja''; similar to Kollyva; a sweet grain pudding, traditionally served in Ukrainian, Lithuanian, Belarusian and Polish cultures. Kutia was also part of a common Eastern Orthodox tradition in the Russian Empire, and to this day Kutia is served at funerals across Russia as a dish of remembrance.)
* [[w:Cuccìa|Cuccìa]] (a traditional Sicilian dish containing boiled wheat berries, which is eaten on Saint [[Lucy of Syracuse|Lucy]]'s feast day (December 13).
* [[w:Saturday of Souls|Saturday of Souls]]
* [[w:All Souls' Day|All Souls' Day]]
* [[w:Requiem|Requiem]] (''funeral Mass in the Roman Catholic Church'')
 
==Notes==
<references group="note" />
==References==
<div class="small"><references/></div>
==SourceSources==
* Rev. Dr. Nicon D. Patrinacos (M.A., D.Phil. (Oxon)). ''A Dictionary of Greek Orthodoxy - Λεξικον Ελληνικης Ορθοδοξιας''. Light & Life Publishing, Minnesota, 1984.
* Chambers, Ephraim (1680-ca.1740). ''[http://digicoll.library.wisc.edu/cgi-bin/HistSciTech/HistSciTech-idx?type=turn&id=HistSciTech.Cyclopaedia01&entity=HistSciTech.Cyclopaedia01.p0420&q1=colyba COLYBA].'' In: Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences. 1728. Pg. 266.
* ''[http://www.stlukeorthodox.com/html/parishinfo/commemorationofthedeparted.cfm Recipe For Kutya (Koliva)---Alaskan Tradition].'' St. Luke the Evangelist Orthodox Church (Palos Hills, IL).
* ''[http://www.oca.org/OCchapter.asp?SID=2&ID=49 Christian Symbols].'' The Orthodox Church in America.
* ''[http://www.religionfacts.com/greco-roman/festivals/anthesteria.htm Anthesteria]'' at Religion Facts.
 
==External Links==
* [http://www.holytrinitymaine.org/index_files/Page1050.htm KOLIVA: A SYMBOL OF THE RESURRECTION OF THE DEAD]. Holy Trinity Greek Orthodox Church (Lewiston, ME).
* [http://www.historyofpainters.com/wheat.htm The Symbolic Meaning of Wheat]. HistoryofPainters.com.
* [http://www.enotes.com/food-encyclopedia/bread-symbolism Bread, Symbolism of]. eNotes.com (Encyclopedia of Food and Culture).
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