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Timeline of Church History (Communist Era (1917-1991))

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*1917-40 [[w:Persecution of Christians in the Soviet Union|Persecution of the Orthodox Church in Russia]] begins, with 130,000 priests arrested, 95,000 of whom were executed by firing squad.
*1917-21 [[w:USSR Anti-Religious Campaign (1917–1921)|USSR Anti-Religious Campaign.]]
*1918 Tsar [[Nicholas II of Russia]] murdered together with his wife [[Alexandra Romanov|Alexandra]] and children; Metr. [[Vladimir (Bogoyavlensky) of Kiev and Gallich]] first bishop to be tortured and slain by Russian Communists; deaths of of Hieromartyr [[Andronik of Perm|Andronik, Archbishop of Perm]] and [[Elizabeth the New Martyr]]; after the [[w:Armistice Day|Armistice]], in Britain the "St. Sophia Redemption Committee" is formed, whose members included two future Foreign Secretaries and many prominent public figures, seeking to restore [[Hagia Sophia (Constantinople)|Hagia Sophia]] into an Orthodox Church (1918-1922). *1918-1923 Allied [[w:Occupation of Constantinople|Occupation of Constantinople]].
*1919-1922 [[w:Greco-Turkish War (1919-1922)|Greco-Turkish War]]; a million refugees flee to Greece joining half a million Greeks who had fled earlier; [[w:Pontic Greek Genocide|Pontic Greek Genocide]] eliminates the Christian population of Trebizond.
*1920 Death of [[Nektarios of Aegina]]; publication of Encyclical Letters by Constantinople on Christian unity and on the Ecumenical Movement; re-establishment of the [[Church of Serbia|Patriarchate of Serbia]] with the unification of the [[w:Patriarchate of Karlovci|Patriarchate of Karlovci]] (in the Habsburg Monarchy) with the [[w:Metropolitanate of Belgrade|Metropolitanate of Belgrade]] (in the Kingdom of Serbia) and the election of Patr. [[Dimitrije (Pavlovic) of Serbia|Dimitrije (Pavlovic)]].
*1921-28 [[w:USSR Anti-Religious Campaign (1921–1928)|USSR Anti-Religious Campaign]].
*1921 [[Church of Constantinople|Constantinople]] renounces all claims to jurisdiction in any part of Africa, with Alexandrian primate thenceforth known as ''Pope and Patriarch of [[Church of Alexandria|Alexandria and All Africa]]''; [[Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America|Greek Archdiocese of America]] formed ; Abp. [[Tikhon of Moscow|Tikhon (Belavin)]] elected Patriarch of Moscow; [[Gorazd (Pavlik) of Prague|Gorazd (Pavlik)]] consecrated as bishop for Western Rite Diocese of Moravia and Silesia; an all-Ukrainian Synod is called in Kyiv and the [[Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church]] (UAOC) (as yet unrecognized) is declared independent from the Moscow Patriarchate (MP).
*1923 [[Church of the Czech Lands and Slovakia]] granted [[autonomy]] by [[Church of Constantinople]]; [[w:Treaty of Lausanne|Treaty of Lausanne]] affirmed the international status of the [[Church of Constantinople|Ecumenical Patriarchate]], with Turkey guaranteeing respect and the Patriarchate’s full protection; [[w:Psychoanalysis|Psychoanalyst]] Sigmund Freud defines the [[w:Id, ego, and super-ego|Id–Ego-Super-ego]] as the three theoretical constructs of the Psyche.
*1924 [[Church of Constantinople]] recognizes [[autocephaly]] of [[Church of Poland]]; death of [[Arsenios the Cappadocian]], the Wonderworker; Bp. [[Daniel William Alexander]] convenes meeting in Kimberley, South Africa, which decides to secede from the African Church (a Protestant denomination) and affiliate with the (non-canonical) ''"African Orthodox Church"'' in New York under [[George Alexander McGuire]]; Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church in the USA splits into two separate jurisdictions, one for those from Galicia, and another for those from Carpatho-Ukraine, Croatia, Hungary and Slovakia.
*1925 [[Church of Romania]] becomes a [[patriarchate]]; first Africans in sub-Saharan Africa baptized in Tanganyika by Fr. [[Nikodemos Sarikas]]; death of [[Tikhon of Moscow]]; death of [[Jonah of Manchuria]].
*1926 Polish Catholic National Church received as a [[Western Rite]] diocese in Poland of [[Church of Russia]] under Bp. Alexis of Grodno; [[John Maximovitch]] tonsured by [[ROCOR]] Metr. [[Anthony (Khrapovitsky) of Kiev]]; the Benedictine monastery [[w:Chevetogne Abbey|Chevetogne Abbey]] is founded in Belgium, dedicated to Christian unity, being a ‘double rite’ monastery having both Western (Latin rite) and Eastern (Byzantine rite) churches holding services every day.
*1927 [[Daniel William Alexander ]] travels from South Africa to America to be consecrated a bishop of African Orthodox Church; Orthodox Archbishopric of Johannesburg established; bishops of Russian church in America authorize formation of [[American Orthodox Catholic Church]], including a [[Western Rite]] missionary outreach; death of [[Ambrose (Khelaia) the Confessor]].
*1928-41 [[w:USSR Anti-Religious Campaign (1928–1941)|USSR Anti-Religious Campaign]].
*1928 [[Fellowship of St. Alban and St. Sergius]] founded.
*1929 Papal Bull ''Cum data fuerit'' regulates Uniate clergy in the US, mandating celibacy, resulting in the return of several parishes back to Orthodoxy in 1938; kingdom of Italy and Papacy ratify [[w:Lateran Treaty|Lateran Treaty]], recognizing sovereignty of Papacy within the new state of the [[w:Vatican City|Vatican City]]; "[[w:Collegium Russicum|Russicum]]" (Russian College or 'College of St. Therese') founded in Vatican City by Pope Pius XI and run by the [[w:Society of Jesus|Jesuits]]; Russian Fraternity of Saint Irenee in France celebrates [[Western Rite]].
*1930 Patr. [[Meletius IV (Metaxakis) of Constantinople|Meletios Metaxakis]] attended the Seventh [[w:Lambeth Conferences|Lambeth Conference]] in England as an observer.
*1931 Reception of [[Patriarchal Exarchate for Orthodox Parishes of Russian Tradition in Western Europe]] into the [[Ecumenical Patriarchate]], led by Metr. [[Eulogius (Georgievsky) of Paris]]; USSR bans sale or importation of [[Holy Scripture|Bibles]]; the [[w:Bonn Agreement (religion)|Bonn Agreement]] established full communion between the [[Anglican Communion|Church of England]] and [[w:Old Catholic Church|Old Catholic Churches]] of the [[w:Utrecht Union|Union of Utrecht]].
*1932 Daniel William Alexander travels to [[Uganda ]] to meet Reuben Spartas, establishing African Orthodox Church there.
*1933 [[Church of Greece]] bans [[Freemasonry]]; opening of the new Patriarchal Palace in Cairo by Patriarch [[Meletius IV (Metaxakis) of Constantinople|Meletios]], built at the expense of [[w:Greeks_in_Egypt#Egyptiot_Greek_benefactors|Egyptiot Greek benefactor]] Theodore Kotsikas; Vatican and Germany sign the [[w:Reichskonkordat|Reich Concordat]], guaranteeing the rights of the Roman Catholic Church in Germany.
*1934 [[Hieromartyr]] [[John (Pommers) of Riga]]; episcopal consecration of [[John Maximovitch]]; Daniel William Alexander travels to Kenya, establishing African Orthodox Church led by Arthur Gathuna; clergy opposing Nazi regime in Germany have homes raided by secret police.
*1936 Ukase of Moscow Patriarchate establishes Western Orthodox Church in France using [[Western Rite]].
*1936-37 Many Russian Orthodox Clerics die in Joseph Stalin's [[w:Great Purge|Great Purge]].
*1937 [[Church of Constantinople]] recognizes [[autocephaly]] of [[Church of Albania]]; [[Holy Cross Greek Orthodox School of Theology (Brookline, Massachusetts)|Holy Cross Greek Orthodox School of Theology]] founded; arrest of [[Alexander Hotovitzky]], missionary of America and [[Saint titles|hieromartyr]] of the Bolshevik yoke; Hieromartyr Bp. [[Seraphim (Zvezdinsky) of Dimitrov]] executed by firing squad (canonized by the [[Church of Russia|Russian Orthodox Church]] in 2000); Hieromartyr Bp. [[Peter (Polyansky) of Moscow and Krutitsy]] executed by firing squad.
*1938 [[St. Vladimir's Orthodox Theological Seminary (Crestwood, New York)]] and [[St. Tikhon's Orthodox Theological Seminary (South Canaan, Pennsylvania)]] founded; death of [[Silouan the Athonite]]; [[American Carpatho-Russian Orthodox Diocese]] founded, when a group of 37 Carpatho-Russian Eastern Catholic parishes, under the leadership of Fr. [[Orestes (Chornock) of Agathonikeia|Orestes Chornock]], were received into the jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarchate; Swiss psychoanalyst [[w:Carl Jung|Carl Jung]] authors [[w:Psychology_of_religion#Carl_Jung|''Psychology and Religion'']].
*1939 [[w:Galicia (Central Europe)|Galicia]] is divided as Poland gets partitioned between the German Empire and Soviet Union approximately along the Curzon Line, so that Western Galicia goes to the German Empire, and Eastern Galicia is affiliated with Soviet Ukraine.
*1941 Martyrdom of [[Gorazd (Pavlik) of Prague]] by Nazis; [[Nicholas (Ono) of Japan]] is the first Japanese national to be consecrated an Orthodox bishop.
*1941-44 [[Pskov Orthodox Mission]] works for the revival of Orthodox Church life in North-Western Russia and the three neighbouring Baltic republics (the 'Liberated Regions of Russia'), during their occupation by Nazi Germany .
*1941-45 Croatian [[w:Ustaše|Ustasa]] terrorists kill 500,000 Orthodox Serbs, expel 250,000 and force 250,000 to convert to [[Roman Catholic Church|Catholicism]].
*1943 [[Church of Russia]] recognizes [[autocephaly]] of [[Church of Georgia]]; first constitution of the African Orthodox Church in East Africa signed by [[Christopher Reuben Spartas |Reuben Spartas]] and Arthur Gathuna; Joseph Stalin meets with hierarchs of Russian Orthodox Church to establish a "patriotic union," granting concessions to the church, including the gathering of the holy synod and the election of [[Sergius I (Stragorodsky) of Moscow|Sergius I]] as patriarch of Moscow. *1943-44 1944 Hundreds of Orthodox priests of the [[Church of Ukraine|Ukrainian Orthodox Church]] eliminated, tortured and drowned by Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists - [[w:Ukrainian Insurgent Army|Ukrainian Rebel Army]], aided by [[Eastern Catholic Churches|Uniate]] Metr. Josyf Slipyj who was a spiritual leader of Nazi military units that were later condemned by the Nuremberg tribunal, and who was imprisoned by Soviet authorities for aiding the UPA. *1944 Fr. [[Jean-Nectaire (Kovalevsky) of Saint-Denis|Evgraph (Kovalevsky)]] completes restoration of [[Divine Liturgy according to St. Germanus of Paris|Liturgy of St. Germaine de Paris]]. *1945 [[Church of Bulgaria]]'s [[autocephaly]] generally recognized; library of early Christian texts discovered at Nag Hammadi in Egypt; Soviet Union annexes Czechoslovakia; [[Church of Russia]] claims jurisdiction over the [[Church of the Czech Lands and Slovakia]].*1945-58 1958 In the post-war era the official organization of the [[Church of Russia]] was greatly expanded (although individual members of the clergy were occasionally arrested and exiled), with the number of open churches reaching ca. 25,000. *1945-90 1990 Persecution of the [[Church of Albania|Orthodox Church in Albania]]. *1946 Reuben Spartas of the African Orthodox Church visits Alexandria; Holy Synod of the [[Church of Alexandria]] officially recognizes and accepts the African Greek Orthodox Church in Kenya and Uganda; state-sponsored synod is held at Lviv, Ukraine in March, which officially dissolves the [[Union of Brest-Litovsk]] and integrates the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church into the Russian Orthodox Church, Soviet authorities arresting resisters or deporting them to Siberia; first post-war ROCOR Council of Bishops is convened in Munich. *1947 [[Dead Sea Scrolls]] discovered near Qumran in Egypt, pre-dating the Masoretic text by about a millenium, many fragments of which agree with the [[Septuagint]] version of the Bible over and against the Masoretic Text, proving that many of the variants in the Greek were also present in ancient Hebrew manuscripts; death of [[Alexis (Kabaliuk) of Carpathia|Alexei Kabalyiuk]], who played a major role in reviving Orthodoxy in [[w:Zakarpattia Oblast|Transcarpathia]] in the early 20th century. *1948 Establishment Martyrdom of Protopresbyter Dr. [[w:State of Israel|State of IsraelGabriel Kostelnik]] and end , a Carpatho-Russian priest who returned to the Orthodox Church soon after the end of World War II, having presided over the Lvov Assembly in March 1946 calling for the return of all Uniates to the Orthodox Faith; establishment of [[w:British Mandate State of PalestineIsrael|State of Israel]] and end of [[w:British Mandate of Palestine|British Mandate of Palestine]]; [[Church of Russia]] re-grants [[autocephaly]] to the [[Church of Poland]] (after having revoked it in the aftermath of World War II); [[w:World Council of Churches|World Council of Churches]] is founded; [[Council of Moscow (1948)|Council of Moscow]] is held on the occasion of the 500th anniversary of the independence of the [[Church of Russia|Russian Church]] from [[Church of Constantinople|Constantinople]], with representatives of the local Orthodox Churches rejecting all participation in the World Council of Churches. *1949 ; after the Soviet authorities revoke Union recognized the [[w:Union of Uzhhorod|Union of Uzhhorodstate of Israel, Israel returned all Russian church properties on its territory to the [[Moscow Patriarchate]] of 1646, creating including the Orthodox [[w:Russian Compound|Russian Compound]]. * 1949 Soviet authorities revoke the [[w:Union of Uzhhorod|Union of Uzhhorod]] of 1646, creating the Orthodox Eparchy of Mukachiv-Uzhhorod, under the Patriarch of Moscow; Communist takeover of China leads to oppression of religious groups. *1950 Pope [[w:Pope Pius XII|Pope Pius XII]] proclaims the [[w:Bodily Assumption|Bodily Assumption]] of the Virgin Mary as a dogma; [[Symeon (Du) of Shanghai|Symeon (Du)]] is consecrated Bishop of Tianjin in July, becoming the first Chinese Orthodox bishop, transferred in September to be Bishop of Shanghai (1950-1965). *1951 [[Church of Russia]] grants [[autocephaly]] to the [[Church of the Czech Lands and Slovakia|Czechoslovakian Orthodox Church]]; 1500th anniversary celebration of the [[Church of Jerusalem|Patriarchate of Jerusalem]]. *1952 New Death of [[Matrona of Moscow|Matrona the Wonderworker of Moscow]]; new Monastery of Panagia Soumela built in the village of Kastania, in Macedonia, Greece, housing the wonderworking icon of [[Panagia Soumela]], becoming a center of religious pilgrimage; Dr. Carl Jung publishes his ''[[w:Answer to Job|Answer to Job]],'' addressing the 'problem of evil'; the [[w:Bible translations (Amharic)|Revised Amharic Bible]] (''H.I.M. Haile Sellassie I Authorized Royal Amharic Bible'') is produced under the [ patronage of Emperor Haile Selassie], being presented to him on April 19th, 1952, and first published in 1961.*1953 Metr. 1952-1960 With the onset of the [[Antony w:Mau Mau Uprising|Mau-Mau Movement]] in Kenya (Bashir) ''British East Africa Protectorate'') the [[Orthodox Church]] is banished by the British Colonial Government, suffering severe oppression.* 1953 Metr. [[Antony (Bashir) of New York|Antony (Bashir)]] accepts three [[Western Rite]] parishes into Syrian Metropolitanate in America. *1956 [[Church of China]] under Chinese administration is established under pressure from the Chinese authorities.*1957 [[Church of Russia]] grants [[autonomy]] to [[Church of China]]. *1958-64 1964 In the USSR [[w:Nikita Khrushchev|Nikita KhrushchevKhrushchov]] initiated his own campaign against the [[Church of Russia|Russian Orthodox Church]] and forced the closure of about 12,000 churches. Many closed churches were deastoyed. *1958 Patr. of Antioch adopts provisions of Russian synods of 1879 and 1907 for use by [[Western Rite]] in America ; Western Orthodox Church of France comes under Abp. [[John Maximovitch]], who authorizes the use of the restored Gallican rite. *1959 Abp. [[Anastasios (Yannoulatos) of Albania]] establishes inter-Orthodox mission agency ''Porefthentes'' (''Go Ye'') to revive the church's mission activities; autocephaly granted to the [[Church of Ethiopia]] by Coptic Pope [[Cyril VI (Atta) of Alexandria]]. *1961 Creation of [[Western Rite Vicariate]] in the [[Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of North America]]; death of [[Luke (Voino-Yasenetsky) of Simferopol]]; consecration of first Orthodox Church in Uganda; first Pan-Orthodox Conference in Rhodes; Yuri Gagarin becomes the first man ever visit of a Greek Orthodox Patriarch to fly in outer space; death of eminent psychologist DrCanada, as Patr. [[w:Carl Jung|Carl JungBenedict of Jerusalem]] begins a North-American tour to raise funds for the restoration of the shrines in the [[Holy Land]], often considered the first modern psychologist to state that the ; [[:w:Psyche (psychology)Yuri Gagarin|human psycheYuri Gagarin]] is "by nature religious" and becomes the first man to explore it fly in depthouter space; death of eminent psychologist Dr.*1962 Philosopher and historian of science [[[w:Thomas Samuel KuhnCarl Jung|Thomas KuhnCarl Jung]] publishes '', often considered the first modern psychologist to state that the [[w:The Structure of Scientific RevolutionsPsyche (psychology)|The Structure of Scientific Revolutionshuman psyche]],'' a landmark study is "by nature religious" and to explore it in the [[depth.* 1962 Philosopher and historian of science [[w:Sociology of knowledgeThomas Samuel Kuhn|sociology of knowledgeThomas Kuhn]] publishes ''[[w:The Structure of Scientific Revolutions|The Structure of Scientific Revolutions]], popularizing the terms "paradigm" and "paradigm shift", seeking to debunk '' a landmark study in the conception [[w:Sociology of knowledge|sociology of knowledge]], popularizing the terms "paradigm" and "paradigm shift", seeking to debunk the conception of cumulative scientific development as a myth.*1962-1965 Second Vatican Council held in Rome, initiating major modernist liturgical and theological reforms for the [[Roman Catholic Church]], including restriction of ancient [[Tridentine Mass]] and introduction of the Novus Ordo. *1963 1900th anniversary of martyrdom of [[Apostle Mark]]; second Pan-Orthodox Conference in Rhodes; 1000th anniversary celebration of founding of [[Mount Athos]]. *1964 Meeting ; independence of Pope Kenya from British colonial rule eases the situation of the Orthodox Church, which is eventually recognized by President [[Paul VI of Romew:Jomo Kenyatta|Jomo Kenyatta]] and Patr. receives help from the [[Athenagoras I (Spyrou) Church of ConstantinopleCyprus]] in Jerusalem; third Pan-Orthodox Conference in Rhodesover time; on the [[Synaxis Sunday of the Saints of RostovOrthodoxy]] established by resolution March 3rd 1963 an assembly of His Holiness Patriarch [[Alexei I (Simansky) of Moscow|Alexis I]] priests and laypeople from Kenya and Uganda was held in Kampala, reaffirming their full support and attachment to the Holy Synod Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Alexandria.* 1964 Meeting of the Pope [[Church Paul VI of Russia|Russian Orthodox ChurchRome]]and Patr. *1965 Pope Paul VI of Rome and Patriarch [[Athenagoras I (Spyrou) of Constantinople]] mutually nullify the [[excommunication]]s of 1054 in Jerusalem; third Pan-Orthodox Conference in Rhodes; Abp. [[John MaximovitchSynaxis of the Saints of Rostov]] consecrates established by resolution of His Holiness Patriarch [[Jean-Nectaire Alexei I (KovalevskySimansky) of Saint-DenisMoscow|Jean-Nectaire (Kovalevsky)Alexis I]] for Western and the Holy Synod of the [[Church of Russia|Russian Orthodox Church of France]]; the office of ''[[w:Latin Patriarch of ConstantinopleRussian Compound|Latin Patriarch of ConstantinopleRussian Compound]]'' is officially abolished.*1966 The was purchased by the government of Israel from the [[w:Cultural Revolution|Cultural Revolution]] almost totally destroyed Moscow Patriarchate]] (except for the young [[Church cathedral and one building), paid for in $3.5 million worth of China|Chinese Orthodox Church]oranges (The "Orange Deal").* 1965 Pope Paul VI of Rome and Patriarch [[Athenagoras I (Spyrou) of Constantinople]; ] mutually nullify the ''[[w:Index Librorum Prohibitorum|Index Librorum Prohibitorumexcommunication]]]'' ("List s of Prohibited Books") is formally abolished on 14 June by Pope Paul VI1054; Abp.*1967 [[Macedonian Orthodox Church |Church of MacedoniaJohn Maximovitch]]] unilaterally declares its consecrates [[autocephalyJean-Nectaire (Kovalevsky) of Saint-Denis|Jean-Nectaire (Kovalevsky)]], making it independent for Western Orthodox Church of France; the office of ''[[Church w:Latin Patriarch of Constantinople|Latin Patriarch of SerbiaConstantinople]] '' is officially abolished.* 1966 [[Translation (as yet unrecognizedrelics); Albania is declared an atheist state, closing all religious institutions and forbiding any religious practices.*1968 Visit to |Translation]] of the sacred [[Patriarchate of Alexandriarelics]] by Vatican representatives; fourth Pan-Orthodox Conference in Chambesy, Switzerlandof the Holy [[Apostle Titus]] of Crete, from Venice (which took them in 1669), back to the Greek Orthodox [[Archdiocese of Crete]]; the [[w:Cultural Revolution|Cultural Revolution]] almost totally destroyed the young [[Church of China|Chinese Orthodox Church]]; the ''[[w:Index Librorum Prohibitorum|Index Librorum Prohibitorum]]'' ("List of Prohibited Books") is formally abolished on 14 June by Pope Paul VI.* 1967 [[Macedonian Orthodox Church |Church of Macedonia]] unilaterally declares its [[autocephaly]], making it independent of the [[Church of Serbia]] (as yet unrecognized); Albania is declared an atheist state, closing all religious institutions and forbiding any religious practices.* 1968 Visit to [[Patriarchate of Alexandria]] by Vatican representatives, who give Patr. [[Nicholas VI of Alexandria|Nicholas VI]] a part of the relics of [[Apostle Mark|St Mark]] from Venice, on behalf of Pope [[Paul VI of Rome|Paul VI]]; fourth Pan-Orthodox Conference in Chambesy, Switzerland. * 1968-1971 Millions of Christians, Muslims, Jews and others witness apparitions of the [[Theotokos|Virgin Mary]] many times over a three year period over the Coptic Orthodox Church of St. *1968-71 Millions of ChristiansMary at [[Zeitun]], MuslimsCairo, Jews and others witness apparitions of the [[Theotokos|Virgin Mary]] many times over a three year period over the Coptic Orthodox Church of St. Mary at [[Zeitun]], Cairo, recognized recognized as authentic by the [[Church of Alexandria (Coptic)|Coptic Orthodox Church]] and other churches.*1969 Metr. [[Philaret (Voznesensky) of New York]] ([[ROCOR]]) issues the first of a series of "Sorrowful Epistles" (1969,1971,1975) to the primates of the local Orthodox Churches, condemning forays into [[ecumenism]]. *1970 [[Orthodox Church in America|Russian-American Metropolia]] reconciles with [[Church of Russia]] and is granted [[autocephaly]], renamed as the Orthodox Church in America, returning control of [[Church of Japan]] to Moscow, which grants it [[autonomy]]; glorification of [[Herman of Alaska]] in separate services by the ROCOR and the OCA; Abp. [[Makarios III (Mouskos) of Cyprus]] baptizes 10,000 into the Orthodox Church in Kenya. *1971 [[Theological School of Halki|Halki Seminary]] closed by Turkish authorities; inauguration of the new Patriarchal Palace of the [[Church of Alexandria]] at St Savva Monastery (21 November). *1972 Death of pioneer missionary Archim. [[Chrysostomos Papasarantopoulos]], having laboured to spread the Orthodox faith in [[Archdiocese of Kampala and All Uganda|Uganda]], [[Archdiocese of Kenya|Kenya]], [[Archdiocese of Mwanza|Tanzania]], and [[Archdiocese of Central Africa|Congo]]. *1973 Anglican-Orthodox dialogue began, when the Anglican-Orthodox Joint Doctrinal Discussions (A/OJDD) held its first meeting in Oxford.*1974 1600th anniversary of death of [[Athanasius the Great]]. *1975 Division in the Antiochian church in North America overcome by the uniting of the two Antiochian archdioceses into one by Metr. [[Philip (Saliba) of New York]] and Abp. [[Michael (Shaheen) of Toledo]]; Joint Commission of Orthodox and Old Catholic theologians is established. *1976 First Pre-Synodal Pan-Orthodox Conference at Orthodox Centre of the Ecumenical Patriarchate in Chambesy, Switzerland; the first phase of the Anglican-Orthodox dialogue was concluded by the publication of ''The Moscow Agreed Statement;'' the General Convention of the Episcopal Church of the USA (ECUSA) approves ordination of women to all three orders: bishop, priest, and deacon.*1977 The ''New Oxford Annotated Bible with the [[Apocrypha ]] - [[w:Revised Standard Version|Revised Standard Version]] (Expanded Edition)'' is published, endorsed by Abp. [[Athenagoras (Kokkinakis) of Thyateira and Great Britain|Athenagoras (Kokkinakis)]] of Thyateira and Great Britain; [[w:Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia|Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia]] (BHS, 4th ed.) is published, including footnotes with possible corrections to the [[Masoretic text|Hebrew text]] based on the Samaritan Pentateuch, [[Dead Sea Scrolls]], [[Septuagint]], [[Vulgate]], and Peshitta. *1979 Pope [[John Paul II]] visits Ecumenical Patriarchate; torture and martyrdom of Archim. [[Philoumenos (Hasapis) of Jacob's Well|Philoumenos (Hasapis)]], keeper of the Greek monastery of [[Jacob's Well]] in Samaria (Nablus, West Bank), by Zionist extremists who also desecrate the church; Joint Commission of Orthodox and Roman Catholic Churches for Theological Dialogue established by Pope [[John Paul II]] and Patr. [[Demetrius I (Papadopoulos) of Constantinople]]. *1980 Orthodox-Roman Catholic Joint Commission for Theological Dialogue, 1st plenary, met in Patmos and Rhodes; Greek priest-monk Fr. Athanasios Anthides travelled to India to begin a systematic Orthodox Mission in the rural area of Arambah, in West Bengal; Jamaican singer-songwriter and musician [[w:Bob Marley|Bob Marley]] (+1981) is baptized by Abp. [[w:Abuna Yesehaq|Abuna Yesehaq]] of the [[Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church|Ethiopian Orthodox Church]] in Kingston, Jamaica, on November 4, 1980.*1981 Lutheran-Orthodox Joint Commission meets for the first time in Espoo, Finland.
*1982 Orthodox-Roman Catholic Joint Commission publishes in Munich first official common document, "The Mystery of the Church and of the Eucharist in Light of the Mystery of the Holy Trinity"; second Pre-Synodal Pan-Orthodox Conference in Chambesy, Switzerland; formal founding of [[Makarios III (Mouskos) of Cyprus|Makarios III]] Patriarchal Seminary in Nairobi, [[Archdiocese of Kenya|Kenya]].
*1984 Orthodox-Roman Catholic Joint Commission, 3rd plenary, meets in Khania, Crete; the second phase of the Anglican-Orthodox dialogue was concluded with the publication of ''The Dublin Agreed Statement; '' [[New Martyrs|neomartyr]] Bp. [[Paul (de Ballester-Convallier) of Nazianzus]].*1985 Founding of [[Orthodox Christian Mission Center]] (OCMC) as Greek Archdiocesan Mission Center; Lutheran-Orthodox Joint Commission issues statement "Divine Revelation"; [[Martyr|martyrdom]] of Father [[John (Karastamatis) of Santa Cruz]], California." *1986 Third Pre-Synodal Pan-Orthodox Conference in Chambesy, Switzerland. *1987 Visit by Ecumenical Patr. [[Demetrius I (Papadopoulos) of Constantinople]] to Vatican; Orthodox-Roman Catholic Joint Commission issues common document "Faith, Sacraments and the Unity of the Church"; group of twenty parishes of the [[Evangelical Orthodox Church]], originally formed by former Campus Crusade for Christ leaders [[Peter Gillquist]] and [[Jon Braun]], are received into [[Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of North America|Antiochian Archdiocese]] in US, becoming the Antiochian Evangelical Orthodox Mission; Lutheran-Orthodox Joint Commission issues the statement "Scripture and Tradition;" [[Optina Monastery]] was officially re-established; on [[August 19]] Patr. [[Pimen I (Izvekov) of Moscow|Pimen]] of Moscow and All Russia, and Ec. Patr. [[Demetrius I (Papadopoulos) of Constantinople|Demetrios I]] of Constantinople co-celebrated the [[Divine Liturgy]] on the Feast of the [[Transfiguration]] at the [[w:Holy Trinity Lavra of -St. SergiusLavra|Holy Trinity St. Sergius Monastery]] for the first time in 398 years (since January 1589); death of noted Russian iconographer [[Leonid Alexandrovich Ouspensky]].*1988 1000th anniversary of Orthodoxy in Russia; the beginning of renaissance the Orthodoxy in USSR; Orthodox-Roman Catholic Joint Commission publishes common document "The Sacrament of Order in the Sacramental Structure of the Church"; Indonesian Muslim convert to Orthodoxy Fr. [[Daniel (Bambang Dwi) Byantoro|Daniel Byantoro]] begins his mission in Indonesia, sparking the rebirth of Orthodoxy there; [[Mount Athos]] is designated a UNESCO World Heritage site.*1989 [[Church of Constantinople]] recognizes [[autocephaly]] of the [[Church of Georgia]]; [[Ephraim of Philotheou|Elder Ephraim]] begins founding [[Mount Athos|Athonite]]-style monasteries in North America; Lutheran-Orthodox Joint Commission issues statement "The Canon and the Inspiration of the Holy Scripture"; glorification in Russia of [[Tikhon of Moscow]]; Uniate Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church legalized, with Greek Catholics beginning seizure of property from Russian Orthodox Church, which they claimed as theirs prior to the synod of 1946; the third phase of the Anglican-Orthodox dialogue began, when the commission was re-constituted as The International Commission for Anglican-Orthodox Theological Dialogue (ICAOTD), under the chairmanship of Metr. [[John (Zizioulas) of Pergamon|John of Pergamon]] and Bp. Henry Hill (succeeded in 1990 by Bp. Mark Dyer); Orthodox-Oriental Orthodox Joint Commission adopts the first Agreed Statement on Christology, at a historic meeting at the Anba Bishoy Monastery, Egypt from June 20-24, 1989.*1990 Orthodox-Roman Catholic Joint Theological Commission meets in Freising, Germany; first Orthodox service in seventy years held in [[St. Basil's Cathedral (Moscow)|St. Basil's Cathedral]]; martyrdom murder of Fr. [[Alexander Men]]; [[Church of Ukraine (Kiev Patriarchate)|Ukrainian Orthodox Church-Kiev Patriarchate]] (UOC-KP) self-proclaims its independance from the [[Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church|UAOC]] (both groups unrecognized); death of Fr. Athanasios Anthides, first Greek Orthodox Missionary to India, suceeded a year later by priest-monk Fr. [[Ignatios (Sennis) of Madagascar|Ignatios Sennis]], who came to Calcutta to continue the mission; Orthodox-Oriental Orthodox Joint Commission adopts the Second Agreed Statement; commemoration of the [[Optina Monastery]] [[Geronta|startsistartsy]] was approved by the Synod of the [[Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia|Russian Church Abroad]] in 1990 (''and by [[Church of Russia|MP]] in 1996'').
* [[Alexander Schmemann|Schmemann, Alexander]]. ''The Historical Road of Eastern Orthodoxy''.
* [[Kallistos (Ware) of Diokleia|Ware, Timothy]]. ''The Orthodox Church: New Edition''. (ISBN 0140146563)
* Nikolas K. Gvosdev. ''Emperors and Elections: Reconciling the Orthodox Tradition with Modern Politics.'' Huntington, NY: Troitsa Books, 2000.
* Theodore Papadopoullos. ''Orthodox Church and Civil Authority.'' '''Journal of Contemporary History.''' Vol. 2, No. 4, Church and Politics (Oct., 1967), pp.201-209.
'''From a [[Heterodox]] perspective'''

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