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The term '''''Catholic Church''''' refers to those Churches (including the [[Eastern Catholic Churches]] and other non-Latin rite churches) in communion with the [[Bishop]] of Rome, the [[Pope]]. It arose in Western Europe, parts of Eastern Europe, and parts of the Middle East (particularly in the area of modern day Lebanon) after the Great Schism in 1054 A.D. In 1054 a [[Great Schism|schism]] between Rome and the other patriarchal sees resulted from widening differences between the Eastern and Western Churches. The cause of the schism was initially a dispute over papal authority and the soundness of theology surrounding the term ''[[filioque]]'', a word which was interpolated by the Western Church to the [[Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed|Creed]] for use in its own
particular liturgy without the consent of the Eastern bishops. Nevertheless, the effects of the schism were not immediately felt everywhere, and it was only over time that the current complete lack of communion between the Eastern Orthodox Churches and Catholic Church became widespread.
Today, the main differences between the [[Orthodox Church]] and the Roman Catholic Church continue to be the inclusion of ''filioque'' in the Creed and the scope of papal authority. However, most Orthodox also believe that there is a distinct difference in spirit and attitude, which is expressed in the manner of doing theology as well as concrete differences in pastoral care. Additionally, the Catholic Church has made pronouncements of [[
dogma]] since the Great Schism (such as [[Purgatory]], the [[Immaculate Conception]], and papal infallibility ), and other matters of doctrine (such as original sin), which are regarded as false by some in the Eastern Orthodox Churches. These pronouncements, and the theological understanding behind them, present another obstacle to the unity of Catholic and Orthodox.