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Timeline of Orthodoxy in China

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*1242 Greek Orthodox Russians in the Western Army of the Mongols entered China; they are said to have established a small church in the far western region, site now unknown.
*1270 The Mongol Emperor of China imported a group of Russian goldsmiths.
*1406-20 The [[w:Temple of Heaven|Temple of Heaven]] (literally the "Altar of Heaven"), also known as the "Hall of Prayer for Good Harvests", was constructed during the reign of the [[w:Yongle Emperor|Yongle Emperor]] (,<ref group="note">This emperor was also responsible for the construction of the [[w:Forbidden City|Forbidden City]] in Beijing), .</ref> regarded as a Taoist temple, although '''[[w:Heaven worship|Chinese Heaven worship]],''' pre-dates Taoism; the Temple of Heaven it contains the inscription ''' ''"Heavenly Sovereign [[w:Shangdi|Shangdi]]"'' ''' in the Imperial Vault, ''[[w:Shangdi|Shangdi]]'' being a term used from the '''second millennium BC''' to the present day, referring to the ''"Above Emperor"'' or ''"Above Sovereign",'' which is taken to mean ''"Lord On High",'' ''"Highest Lord",'' ''"the God above",'' ''"the Supreme God",'' ''"Above ",'' or ''"Celestial Lord".''
*1584 Russian army defeats the [[w:Khanate of Sibir|Khanate of Siberia]], opening up the overland way to the east; initial development of Russian settlements in the area to the south and east of Lake Baikal ([[w:Transbaikal|Transbaikal]]) begins, with Cossacks and others under service contract to the state (''sluzhilye liudi'') exploring new trading routes to China.<ref>William C. Brumfield. ''[ Photographic Documentation of Architectural Monuments in the Siberian Republic of Buriatiia].'' '''Visual Resources'''. Vol. XX, No. 4, December 2004, pp. 315-364.</ref>
*1587 Russians found [[w:Tobolsk|Tobolsk]], the historic capital of [[w:Siberia|Siberia]].
*1665 The earliest known Orthodox Church, the ''Church of the Resurrection'', and a monastery is founded in the Russian fort-town of Albazin (Yakela) in Northeast China.
*1670 [[w:Kangxi Emperor|Emperor Kangxi]] (1661-1722) issued the ''[ Sacred Edict]'', consisting of 16 moral maxims based on Confucian teachings.
*'''1685 ''' Chinese capture Albazin, razing ''Church of the Resurrection''; Group of 45 Albazin Russians, including [[Priest]] [[Maxim Leontiev]], are re-settled to Beijing by Chinese; [[w:Kangxi Emperor|Emperor Kangxi]] ordered the Buddhist temple of Guangi Miao (Temple of the War God) in the northeast corner of the imperial city to be cleared for the Russian inhabitants, becoming known as the ''Nikolsky Chapel'' (''"Sheng Ni Gula"''; later consecrated as the ''Church of Hagia Sophia'')<refgroup="note">The chapel was originally named the Nikolsky Church because of a wonderworking icon Fr. Maximus brought with him (thaumaturgical image of St. Nicolas, Bishop of Mirlikysk). However the church was consecrated in 1698 in the name of Hagia Sophia, or Divine Wisdom.</ref>, '''the first Orthodox Church in China'''.
*1689 [[w:Treaty of Nerchinsk|Treaty of Nerchinsk]] established Amur River as boundary between Russia and China, recognzing Russia's sovereignty over eastern Siberia.
*1691 Qing control of [[w:Inner Mongolia|Inner Mongolia]].
*1721 [[w:Kangxi Emperor|Emperor Kangxi]] issued a decree indicating he wished to proscribe [[w:Chinese_Rites_Controversy#Kangxi.27s_ban|Western Christian missions in China]].
*1724 [[w:Yongzheng Emperor|Emperor Yongcheng]] issues imperial edict promoting Confucianism as the proper way of life, and proscribing Roman Catholicism, and to some degree Buddhism and Taoism as heterodox cults; foreign missionaries were deported to Canton, and later to Macao, and urban churches were gradually closed; during this time the Orthodox were certainly treated more favourably, as persecution of the Western Christian missionaries was never extended to the Orthodox.
*1727 The first mission is recorded in the [[w:Treaty of Kyakhta|Russo-Chinese treaty]] of 1727 (Treaty of Kyakhta), in ''Article V,''<refgroup="note">The fifth article of the treaty provided for four priests and six students to live in Peking until they felt like returning to Russia, at which time they would be replaced by a new contingent. The mission was to be supported in various ways by both countries. In return, it answered a mutual need for continuous contact between the capitals of St. Petersburg and Peking. (Eric Widmer. [ The Russian ecclesiastical mission in Peking during the eighteenth century]. Harvard Univ Asia Center, 1976. p.4).</ref> allowing for the legal establishment of a Russian religious institution in Beijing, as well as defining official trade ties and demarcating the border.
*1729 Archimandrite Antony (Platkovsky) arrives as head of the '''second Mission''' (1729-35), along with Fr. Ioann Filimonov, Hierodeacon Ioasaf Ivanovsky, and nine junior monks.
*1730 The mission reported that there were more than 50 baptized persons among the Chinese and Manchus, excluding women; construction of the [[w:Siberian Route|Tea Road (Siberian Route)]] begun, starting in Moscow and terminating at [[w:Kyakhta|Kyakhta]], a trading point on the border between the Russian and Qing Empires.
*1747 Under [[w:Qianlong Emperor|Emperor Qianlong]] persecution recommenced in 1747, extending over all the provinces, with no more (Western) missionaries being permitted to enter the country.
*1755 Archimandrite Amvrosy (Yumatov) arrives in Beijing as head of the '''fifth Mission''' (1755-71), along with Hieromonk Silvestr Spitsyn, Hieromonk Sophrony Argievsky, and Hierodeacon Sergei.
*1768 [[w:Qianlong Emperor|Emperor Qianlong]] issued a very stern decree, prohibiting all Manchurians, Chinese, Mongolians and Koreans to convert into a foreign faith under pain of terrible punishment;<refgroup="note">During the periods of persecutions, Chinese converts would sometimes mask themselves as Albazinians: "...With God's help and protection, the measures of the Chinese government have not affected our Orthodox Christians of Albazinian origin: it is well known that they are Russian descendants. Thus, other Chinese and Manchurian Christians could safely go to the Church, pretending they were also Albazinians." (V.P. Petrov. ''Rossijskaja Duhovnaja Missija v Kitae''. Victor Kamkin, 1968, p.14.)</ref> Sino-Russian protocol of [[October 18]], 1768 amended Article X of the Treaty of 1727, dealing with border traffic between the two states.
*1771 Archimandrite Amvrosy (Yumatov) reposed in Beijing.
*1771 Archimandrite Nikolai (Tsvet) arrives in Beijing as head of the '''sixth Mission''' (1771-81), along with Hieromonk Iust, Hieromonk Ioanniki Protopopov, Hierodeacon Nikifor, and four junior monks.
*1830 Hieromonk Veniamin (Morachevich) arrives in Beijing as head of the '''eleventh Mission''' (1830-40).
*1835 The [ Manchu New Testament] was published, translated by Stepan Vaciliyevich Lipovtsov (1770-1841) who learned Manchu after journeying to Beijing in 1794 as a member of the eighth Russian Ecclesiastical Mission.
*1839 In September, persecutions against Christians broke out in [[w:Hubei|Hou-Pé]].
*1839-42 First Opium War; Hong Kong was ceded to Great Britain from China as part of the concessions from the Opium War.
*1840 Archimandrite Policarp (Tugarinov) arrives in Beijing as head of the '''twelfth Mission''' (1840-49).
[[Image:Mitrophan.jpg|right|thumb|Hieromartyr Fr. Mitrophan Yang, the first Chinese ordained a priest in the Church of China.]]
*1858 Archimandrite [[Gury (Karpov)]] arrives in Beijing as head of the '''fourteenth Mission''' (1858-64); the status of the mission changed after the [[w:Treaties of Tianjin|Treaty of Tianjin]] in that its diplomatic activities on behalf of Russia became obsolete; the treaty also allowed missionaries to leave Beijing for other provinces of the country, having a positive impact on the activity of the Beijing mission; the Russian-Chinese [[w:Treaty of Aigun|Treaty of Aigun]] established much of the modern border between the Russian Far East and Northeastern China ([[w:Manchuria|Manchuria]]), its provisions being confirmed by the [[w:Convention of Peking|Treath of Peking]] in 1860, reversing the Treaty of Nerchinsk (1689) by ceding parts of [[w:Outer Manchuria|Outer Manchuria]] to the Russian Empire.
*1858-71 Hieromonk [[Isaiah (Polikin)]] arrives in Beijing, becoming a tireless preacher and gifted administrator (1858-71), organizing parishes south of Beijing and leaving behind an array of Chinese language texts.<refgroup="note">The Book of Hours (almost complete), Short Notebook of Paschal Services, the basic chants of the Twelve Feasts and the first week of Lent as well as the Bright Week and Pascha, the Psalter (translated from the Greek into the vernacular), the Paraclesis Service, the Akathist to the Mother of God, the beginning of the Service Book, the Panachida Service, the Canon of Saint Andrew of Crete (both in classical language and vernacular), Russian-Chinese Dictionary of Theological and Ecclesiastical Terms. The enormous amount of work undertaken took its toll in the quality of some of the translations, which (as was discovered later) were abundant with imprecision. (Ν. Α. [Hieromonk Nikolai (Adoratsky)]. ''The present state and the contemporary activity of the Orthodox Spiritual Mission in China'' // The Orthodox Collocutor. Kazan, 1884. August. Pg. 378).</ref>
*1860 About 150 missionaries worked in the mission, although it is estimated that there were not more than 200 Orthodox in Beijing, including the descendants of naturalized Russians; after the [[w:Convention of Peking|Treaty of Peking]] other countries as well as Russia were allowed to open diplomatic embassies; the old Russian presence in Beijing became known as the Northern Yard (''Beiguan'' - reserved for the Russian Orthodox priests), and a Southern Yard (''Nannguan'') was established for the Ambassador, both remaining important.
*1864 Archimandrite [[Gury (Karpov)]] completes translation of the [[New Testament]] and church services into Chinese; the proper foundation of the mission was completed when it was separated from Russian politics, and in 1864 answered directly to the Holy Synod only.
*1898 The modern city of [[w:Harbin|Harbin]] is founded, with the start of the construction of the [[w:Chinese Eastern Railway|Chinese Eastern Railway]] by Russia (an extension of the Trans-Siberian Railway), eventually becoming a major centre of [[w:White movement|White Russian]] émigrés, and Imperial Russia’s only colony; 200th anniversary of the consecration of the first Orthodox church in China.
*1900 Yihetuan (Boxer) revolt, an anti-Western and anti-missionary uprising in China, results in destruction of Orthodox Mission and death of [[Martyrs of China|222 Chinese Orthodox martyrs]]; the Guan Miao area where the Albazine community lived was laid to rubble, including destruction of its famous library and printing press, where nearly 30,000 engraved Chinese signs were lost, together with service books and the mission archive; the Church of China lost about 1,000 followers either through martyrdom or due to abandonement of the faith.
*1902 Archimandrite [[Innocent (Figurovsky) of Beijing|Innocent (Figurovsky)]] consecrated Bishop in Russia, and returned as first bishop in China.<refgroup="note">According to Fr. Dionisy Pozdnyaev, the first Orthodox Bishop of China Metropolitan Innokenty (Figurovsky) was ordained to the rank of Bishop on [[Pentecost|Holy Spirit Day]] and count that Day also as the day the Chinese Church was established;</ref> Patriarchate of Moscow glorifiies the [[Martyrs of China|222 Chinese Orthodox martyrs]] on [[April 22]], 1902 (decree №2874).
*1903 Orthodox communities in [[w:Manchuria|Manchuria]] (Harbin) placed under Bp. Innocent, Bishop of Beijing; church of the [ All Holy Martyrs of the Yihetuan Uprising] is built on the grounds of the Russian Ecclesiastical Mission in Beijing where many of the [[Martyrs of China|222 martyrs]] were slain.
*1907 [[St. Sophia Cathedral (Harbin, China)|St. Sophia Cathedral]] is built in Harbin City, expanded and renovated from 1923-32, becoming the largest Orthodox church in the far east.
*1919 [[w:May Fourth Movement|May Fourth Movement]]; anti-foreign demonstrations.
*1920 His Eminence [[Methodius (Gerasimov) of Harbin|Methodius (Gerasimov)]] becomes Metropolitan of Harbin, 1920-30, (ROCOR).
*1921 Harbin had a population of 300,000, including 100,000 Russians.<ref>''"[ Memories of Dr. Wu Lien-teh, plague fighter]"''. Yu-lin Wu (1995). [[w:World Scientific|World Scientific]]. p.68. ISBN 9810222874</ref>
*1922 Orthodox bishops in China came under the jurisdiction of the Synod of Russian Bishops Outside Russia [[ROCOR]] (''from 1922-1945 in Harbin, 1922-49 in Shanghai''); formation of [[Diocese of Beijing]] (including the vicariates of Shanghai and Tianjin, and later Hankou), and of the [[Diocese of Harbin]] (including Qiqihar and Hailar vicariates), under [[ROCOR]]; [[w:Church of the Intercession in Harbin| Protection (Pokrov) of the Theotokos Church]] is founded in Harbin City.[[Image:Meletius-harbin.jpg|right|thumb|[[Meletius (Zaborosky) of Harbin and Manchuria|Meletius (Zaborosky)]], [[Diocese of Harbin|Metropolitan of Harbin]], 1931-46, (ROCOR).]][[Image:John Maximovitch.jpg|right|thumb|St. [[John Maximovitch|John (Maximovitch)]], Bishop of Shanghai, 1934-46.]][[Image:SymeonDu.jpg|right|thumb|[[Symeon (Du) of Shanghai|Symeon (Du)]], first Chinese Orthodox Bishop, Bp. of Shanghai 1950-65.]]
*1925 Death of St. [[Jonah of Manchuria]], Bishop of Hankou (1922-1925).
*1969 [[w:Sino-Soviet border conflict|Clashes between China and Russia]] on the northern border.
*1970 Death of Archpriest [ Stefan Wu Zhiquan], the new martyr.
*1978 The ''Constitution of the People's Republic of China'' guaranteed "freedom of religion" with a number of restrictions; the five recognized religions by the state include Buddhism, Taoism, Islam, Catholicism<refgroup="note">While the [[Roman Catholic Church ]] is officially banned in the country, the Chinese government demands that all Chinese "Catholics" must be loyal to the State, and that worship must legally be conducted through State-approved churches belonging to the "[[w:Chinese Catholic Patriotic Association|Chinese Catholic Patriotic Association]]", established in 1957 by the People's Republic of China's Religious Affairs Bureau to exercise state supervision over mainland China's Catholics.</ref><refgroup="note">According to 2003 estimated statistics of the Chinese Catholic Church by ''China Bridge: Observations on China from the Holy Spirit Study Centre'', the Church in China has 12 million Roman Catholics, 138 dioceses, 74 bishops in the official (state) Church, and 46 bishops in the unofficial (Papal) Church. The same report also says that there are 1,740 priests in the official Church and 1,000 in the unofficial Church, as well as 3,500 sisters in the official Church and 1,700 sisters in the unofficial Church.</ref> and Protestantism;<refgroup="note">In ''"Onward, Christian Soldiers,"'' an article appearing in the May 10, 2004 issue of '''Newsweek''' magazine, Chinese academics say China now has at least 45 million Christians, most of whom are Protestants. However, Western researchers put the number closer to 90 million. The article notes that there are about 6 million members of the official, government-recognized Roman Catholic Church. China's overall population is about 1.3 billion.(Newsweek)</ref> (Orthodoxy not registered as of yet<refgroup="note">The officially declared reason for the government's non-recognition of The Orthodox Church is the government's fear that external political forces from outside nations — in this case, primarily Russia — could achieve influence within China. This places the Church to the legal status of ''religia-illicitata''. ([ Encyclopedia - Chinese Orthodox Church], at Global Oneness).</ref>).
==Revival of the Church (1984-Present)==
*2005 As of 2005 there were only five priests, a number expected to grow because several Chinese nationals are currently studying in Orthodox seminaries with the intention of returning to China to serve as priests (depending on the blessing of the Chinese government).
*2006 Currently there are around 13,000 Orthodox Christians in China<ref>According to the External Church Relations Department of the Moscow Patriarchate.</ref>, with an estimated 400 residing in the capital Beijing, but they are not recognized as an official religious community;<ref> [ Russian Orthodox church to be set up in Beijing shortly]. '''', July 06, 2006.</ref> 13 Chinese Orthodox students are undergoing studies at the ''Sretenskaya Theological Academy'' in Moscow and the ''Academy of St Petersburg'', to pave the way for a minimal presence of clergy in China; the Russian Orthodox Church did its utmost through president Vladimir Putin, to gain recognition of Orthodoxy in China before the 2008 Olympics in Beijing; Publication of [ first Orthodox prayer book in both Chinese and Russian], following the editions of 1948 and 1910; the ''Orthodox Fellowship of All Saints of China'' ([ OFASC]) is launched in the US, with the strategic vision of producing easy-to-read and accurate modern Chinese translations of important Orthodox texts.
*2007 50th anniversary of the autonomy of the Orthodox Church in China; the Holy Synod of the [[Church of Russia|Russian Orthodox Church]] decided to open a department concerned with the [[Church of China|Chinese Orthodox Autonomous Church]] (COAC), stressing the need to continue efforts taken by its ''Department for External Church Relations'' in the dialogue with the Chinese authorities to normalize the situation of the Orthodox Church in China; Easter liturgies were offered in Russia’s diplomatic missions in China, with over 300 walking in an Easter procession in the Russian Embassy in Beijing, and 120 more attending the Easter liturgy in the Russian Consulate General in Shanghai; the Municipal Housing Bureau of Shanghai mandated the restoration of the [ Shanghai Cathedral] to prepare it as a historical museum; death of Protopresbyter [[Elias Wen]]; world's first [ Russian-Chinese dictionary of Orthodox vocabulary] is printed in Moscow; Patr. [[Alexei II (Ridiger) of Moscow|Alexei II]] criticized the People's Republic of China for the fate of China’s Orthodox Church, which is denied freedom of religion and deprived of clergy<refname="ALEXEI"> [ Aleksej II criticises China, Taiwan accepts to open a church]. '''', April 12, 2007.</ref>; Metr. [[Nikitas (Lulias) of Dardanellia]] called on the government of Beijing to recognise Orthodoxy among the country’s official religions and expressed [ concern about the plight of Christians in Asia].
*2008 Fr. [[Michael (Wang) Quansheng|Mikhail Wang Quansheng]] and Protodeacon [[Evangelos (Lu) Yaofu|Evangelos Lu Yaofu]], the only indigenous Orthodox clergy left in China, took part in Divine Services for the first time in 46 years, at the Russian consulate in Shanghai, and were awarded medals of the Venerable [[Sergius of Radonezh]] (I Degree) by Patr. [[Alexei II (Ridiger) of Moscow|Alexei of Moscow]]; Metr. [[Nektarios (Tsilis) of Hong Kong|Nektarios (Tsilis)]] becomes new Orthodox Bishop of Diocese of Hong Kong; Holy Synod of the [[Church of Ukraine|Ukrainian Orthodox Church]] glorifies Archimandrite [[Gury (Karpov)]]; an Orthodox Liturgy was Celebrated at the Olympic Village in Beijing; a [[Memorial Services|Memorial Service]] in memory of those killed during WWII was served at the Cross Shrine on the grounds of the Embassy of the Russian Embassy, on [[w:Victory in Europe Day|Victory Day]].
[[Image:Book-Orthodoxy in China-325th anniversary.jpg|right|thumb|''"Orthodoxy in China",'' presented by Prime Minister V. Putin to Premier Wen Jiabao on the 325th anniversary of Orthodoxy in China.]]*2009 Archpriest [[Georges Florovsky|Georges Florovsky's]] book ''"Christianity and Culture"'' is published in the Chinese language; solemn [[Pascha|Paschal]] night Divine Services took place in several Chinese cities including Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Shenzhen and Hong Kong; in Beijing, Divine Services of Passion Week and Holy Pascha were performed by Archpriest [[Dionisy (Pozdnyaev)]] ([[Church of Russia|MP]]) and Fr. Alexis Dyuka ([[Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia|ROCOR]]) in the house church of St. Innocent of Irkutsk (Red Fangzi) on the territory of the Russian Embassy; Patr. [[Kyrill I (Gundyayev) of Moscow|Kirill]] met with Ye Xiaowen, China’s Religious Affairs minister, in trying to breathe new life into China’s Orthodox Church.<ref> [ Patriarch Kirill meets Ye Xiaowen, China’s Religious Affairs minister]. '''', February 12. 2009.</ref>; the Church of St. Innokenty of Irkutsk was consecrated on Sunday [[August 30]] in Labdarin (Inner Mongolia), being the first Orthodox Church consecrated in mainland China in over 50 years, mainly for Russian descendants;<ref>Interfax-Religion. ''[ Orthodox Church consecrated in China for first time in 50 years].'' 31 August, 2009.</ref> Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin visited the newly consecrated church of the Dormition of the Blessed Virgin, on the territory of Russian Federation Embassy in Beijing; <ref>The Voice of Russia. ''[ First Russian Orthodox church opens in Beijing].'' Oct 13, 2009 15:20 Moscow Time.</ref> Abp. [[Hilarion (Alfeyev) of Volokolamsk]], chairman of the Moscow Patriarchate's DECR, visited Beijing to hold talks with officials of the State Administration for Religious Affairs aimed at developing Russian-Chinese exchanges and cooperation in the religious sphere.*2010 On 11 April, St. Thomas Sunday, Fr. [[Michael (Wang) Quansheng|Michael Wang Quansheng]], who lives in retirement in Shanghai, celebrated the [[Divine Liturgy]] at the Church of the Protecting Veil in Harbin for the Orthodox community, with the permission of the state authorities; during the XI session of the intergovernmental Russian-Chinese committee on humanitarian cooperation in St. Petersburg, Russian Prime Minister V. Putin gave Premier Wen Jiabao of the People's Republic of China the gift album ''"Orthodoxy in China",'' dedicated to 325th anniversary of the Orthodox presence in China.<ref group="note">This publication was prepared by the Department for External Church Relations (DECR), in cooperation with the Institute for Far Eastern Studies, and with the support of the Russian-Chinese Business Council. ''"Orthodoxy in China"'' is a scientific publication in the Russian and Chinese languages, with rich illustrative material, published on a high polygraph level. The book discusses the development of cultural, economic and political ties between the two brotherly peoples, the long history of Orthodoxy in China, and the contribution that the Russian Orthodox Church has made in establishing and developing good-neighborly relations between Russia and China. (''[ The book "Orthodoxy in China" awarded to senior officials of China].'' November 25, 2010.)</ref>*2011 Abp.[[Hilarion (Alfeyev) of Volokolamsk]], head of the DECR, stated that China has up to 15,000 Orthodox believers who live in Beijing, Shanghai, Heilongjiang Province, and the autonomous districts Xinjiang and Inner Mongolia, however the Chinese Orthodox Church has only two Chinese priests aged over 80.<ref>Interfax-Religion. ''[ Up to 15 thsd Orthodox believers live in China].'' 16 March 2011, 15:51.</ref>*2013 Patr. [[Kyrill (Gundyayev) of Moscow|Kirill of Moscow and All Russia]] conducted an official visit to China from May 10 to 15, 2013, the first visit in history of a Primate of the Russian Church to China, by invitation of the country’s secular leadership;<ref>Maria Senchukova. ''[ The Patriarchal Visit to China: An Interview with Fr. Dionisy Pozdnyaev].'' May 16th, 2013.</ref> in Moscow, Patr. [[Kyrill (Gundyayev) of Moscow|Kirill of Moscow and All Russia]] met with a delegation of monks from the Shaolin Monastery in China, headed by the vice president of the Chinese Buddhist Association Shi Yongxin, after first meeting Shi Yongxin on a visit to China in May.<ref>Maxim Blinov. ''[ Russians Can Learn From Chinese Warrior Monks – Church Leader].'' '''RIA Novosti'''. September 5, 2013.</ref>
==Notes== *Some of these dates are necessarily a bit vague, as records for some periods are particularly difficult to piece together accurately. *The division of Church History into separate eras as done here will always be to some extent arbitrary, though it was attempted to group periods according to major watershed events. *This timeline is necessarily biased toward the history of the [[Orthodox Church]], though a number of non-Orthodox or purely political events are mentioned for their importance in history related to Orthodoxy or for reference. ===Presence of Orthodox Communities in China===
[[Image:ChineseProvinces.gif|right|thumb|350px|People's Republic of China (PRC): Administrative Divisions, and Territorial Disputes.]]
:# '''Ergun''' (''Labdarin'') in [[w:Hulunbuir|Hulunbuir]] Province, (Inner Mongolia).
:# '''[[w:Yining|Ghulja]]''' (''Yining, Kulj, Kulj-i''), in [[w:Xinjiang|Xinjiang]] Province, of north west China (in the [[w:Tacheng Prefecture|Tacheng Prefecture]]).
:# '''[[w:Ürümqi|Urumqi]]''', in [[w:Xinjiang|Xinjiang]] Province, of north west China.<ref> [ Aleksej II criticises China, Taiwan accepts to open a church]. '''', April 12, 2007.<"ALEXEI"/ref>
===Qing Dynasty Emperors (1644-1912)===
* [[Holy Martyrs of China]]
* [[Timeline of Church History]]
<references group="note" />
==External Links==
:* [[w:Born Again Movement (China)|Born Again Movement (China)]]
:* [[w:List of Chinese Bible translations|List of Chinese Bible translations]]
:* [[w:Chinese Union Version|Chinese Union Version]](1919; considered by many to be ''the'' Chinese Protestant’s Bible)<refbr>::<small>Currently there is no modern Chinese translation of the Orthodox Bible or [[Septuagint ]] in use. The ''Chinese Union Version'' with traditional punctuation is a Protestant translation from the [[w:Revised Version|English Revised Version]] by C.W. Mateer, C. Goodrich, F.W. Baller, G. Owen, S. Lewis, et al, first published in 1919. 94 scholars participated in the translation (1890-1919), taking an average of 11 hours per verse; it was published in two slightly different editions -- the Shen Edition (神版) and the [ Shangdi Edition] (上帝版) -- differing in how “God” is translated. According to Nelson Mitrophan Chin's website, when quoting from the Protestant Bible, use the ''Shangdi edition'' of the Chinese Union Version (CUV), instead of the ''Shen edition'', as [[w:Shangdi|Shangdi]] is the preferred modern Chinese Orthodox term for God since the turn of the 20th century.</refsmall> (1919; considered by many to be ''the'' Chinese Protestant’s Bible).
:* [[w:Amity Foundation, China|Amity Foundation, China]] (known for its Amity Printing Company (APC), the largest Bible producer in China).
:* The New York Times. [ Christian Martyrs: The Murdering of Missionaries by the Boxers -- A Chinese Nero.] August 8, 1903.
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[[Category: Church History]]

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