The movement arose in 1754 out of a dispute within the [[St. Anne's Skete (Athos)|Skete of St. Anne]] at Mount Athos when a group of monks objected to the scheduling of the commemoration of the dead on Sunday, the day that represented the [[Resurrection]] and Christ's victory over death, instead of Saturday or weekdays as it had been according to ancient custom. Other monks held that the commemoration of the dead has a Resurrection theme in every Liturgical celebration. While much animosity developed between the groups, the movement of the Kollyvades, as they became known, became part of an attempt to address deficiencies in spiritual life that had arisen in the Church since Byzantine times.
In addition to the issue of following proper ritualistic traditions, there was a concern for return to a Eucharistic-centered spirituality and to the precepts preached by the [[Hesychasm|Hesychasts]] of the fourteenth century. The Kollyvades movement strove for a rediscovery of Patristic theology and a liturgical life that included frequent communion. The movement came under assault by many at Mount Athos and elsewhere, attacks that became, at times, vicious and beyond what one would expect from monastics and [[clergy]] of any rank. In 1776, during this conflict, Fr. [[Athanasius Parios]] was condemned as a [[heretic]], defrocked, and excommunicated by [[Patriarch]] Sophronios II and the [[Holy Synod]] of Constantinople, before Patr. Gabriel IV and the Holy Synod, in 1781, found the charges against him absurd and unfounded and lifted his suspension. He was restored to his priestly rank.
The Holy Fathers of the Kollyvades movement included : Neophytos Kavsokalyvites, St. [[Nikodemus of the Holy Mountain]], St. Makaruios (Notaras) of Corinth, St. [[Nektarios of Pentapolis]], St. Kosmas Aitolos, St. Sabbas of Kalymnos, St. Athanasius of Parios, St. Paisios Velitchovsky, and St. [[Papa-Nicholas (Planas) of Athens|Nicholas Planas]],