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Cyril Lucaris

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'''Cyrillos Lukaris''' or , also '''Cyril I Lucaris''' or '''Cyril Lucar''' (1572 – June 1638) , was a Greek prelate and [[theologian]] and a native of Crete. He later became the was [[Patriarch of Alexandria]] as '''Cyril III''' from 1601 to 1620 and [[Patriarch of Constantinople]] as '''Cyril I'''for five different periods from 1620 until 1638. He was the first great name in the Orthodox Church since after the [[fall of Constantinople ]] in 1453, and dominated its history in the 17th seventeenth century. His Calvinist confession caused much great controversy in the Orthodox Church.
==Life==
Cyril Lucaris was born in Candia (Heraklion), Crete on [[November 13]], 1572 during the time Crete was occupied by the Venetian Republic. In his early youth he studied under a number of eminent scholars including Maximus Marguius, Bishop of Kythira. For his later education he traveled through Europe, studying studied at Venice and , Padua, and at Geneva where . In Geneva, he came under the influence of the reformed faith as represented by [[John Calvin]]. In 1602 He developed a great antipathy toward [[Roman Cathilic]]ism after he was elected Patriarch of Alexandriahad pursued theological studies in Venice, Padua, Wittenberg, and Geneva. In addition to being fluent in 1621 Patriarch of ConstantinopleGreek, he learned Latin thoroughly during his student days.
Due to Turkish oppression combined with the prosyletization of the Orthodox faithful by Jesuit He was [[missionaryordination|missionariesordained]] a [[deacon]]in 1593, when he was 21 years old and, later, there was ordained a shortage of schools which taught the Orthodox faith and Greek language. [[Roman Catholic|Catholicpriest]] schools were set up and Catholic churches were built next to Orthodox ones; since Orthodox by Patriarch [[priestMeletius Pegas]]s were in short supply something had to be done. Due to good relations with the Anglicans, in 1677 Bishop Henry Compton Patriarch of London built a church for the Greek Orthodox in London but in 1682 the Greek Orthodox Church in London closed. But in 1694 renewed sympathy for the Greeks drew up plans for Worcester College, Oxford (then Gloucester Hall), to become a college for the Greeks, but these plans never came to fruitionAlexandria.
In 1753 Patr. Meletius Pegas sent Cyril to Poland in 1596 to lead the opposition by the Orthodox to the Patriarch Cyril Lukaris opened a school of thought called "Athoniada" at [[Mount AthosUnion of Brest]]that proposed a union of Kiev with Rome. During this time, but he was a professor at the Orthodox and Catholics insisted to academy in Vilnus, now the Turkish authorities that this should be closedcapital of Lithuania. In 1759 the Athos School 1601, he was closedelected Patriarch of Alexandria, succeeding Patr. The next option was to send students abroad to studyMeletius Pegas, as long as it was not Catholic thoughta position he filled with dedication for nineteen years. The Calvinists were appealing because their beliefs were very similar During this time he re-organized the finances of the patriarchate and repaired churches in addition to Orthodox onespreaching and maintaining constant correspondence with the Patriarch of Jerusalem and Cyprus.
It is alleged that the great aim In 1612, he was [[locus tenens]] of his life was to reform the Church on of Constantinople for a short time. On [[Calvinism|CalvinisticNovember 4]] lines, and 1620, the [[Holy Synod]] of Constantinople elected Cyril Patriarch of Constantinople. His patriarchate was broken into five different periods: 1620 to this end he sent many young Greek theologians 1623, 1623 to the universities of Switzerland1633, the northern Netherlands and England. In 1629 he published his famous ''Confessio'' (Calvinistic in doctrine)1633 to 1634, but as far as possible accommodated 1634 to the language 1635, and creeds of 1637 to 1638, by intrigues involving the Orthodox Church. It appeared the same year in two Latin editionspapacy, four Frenchreformists, one German and one EnglishJesuits, and in the Eastern Church started Ottoman sultan that included schemes against Cyril to discredit him by spreading rumors he was a controversy which culminated in 1672 in the convocation by Calvinist. After each [[Dositheus II of Jerusalem|Dositheusdeposition]], Patr. Cyril was re-elected by the [[Patriarch of Jerusalem]], of a [[synodclergy]] supported by which the Calvinistic doctrines were condemnedOrthodox population.
Cyril It is alleged that the great aim of his life was also particularly well disposed towards to reform the Anglican Churchon [[Calvinism|Calvinistic]] lines, and to this end he sent many young Greek theologians to the universities of Switzerland, the northern Netherlands and England. In 1629, his correspondence with famous ''Confessio'' (Calvinistic in doctrine) was published in Latin, but as far as possible accommodated to the language and creeds of the Orthodox Church. From 1629 to 1633, it appeared in two Latin editions, four French, one German and one English. The "Confession" started a controversy in the Eastern Church which culminated in 1672 in the convocation by [[Archbishop Dositheus II of CanterburyJerusalem|Archbishops Dositheus]], [[Patriarch of CanterburyJerusalem]], of a [[synod]] is extremely interestingby which the Calvinistic doctrines were condemned. It Since then, eminent historians, theologians, and researchers have attempted to clarify whether Cyril Lucaris was the actual author of the "Confession" attributed by the Calvinists to him. While Cyril denied it verbally a number of times and proclaimed his Orthodox faith in his time that Mitrophanis Kritopoulos—later letters as well by his attitude, he did not disavow the "Confession" in writing. The orthodoxy of Cyril Lucaris himself has continued to become Patriarch be a matter of Alexandria (1636-1639)—was sent to England to studydebate in the Eastern Church. Both Lucaris and Kritopoulos were lovers Even Dositheus, in view of the reputation of books and manuscriptsthe great patriarch, and acquired manuscripts that today adorn thought it expedient to gloss over his [[heterodoxy]] in the interests of the Patriarchal LibraryChurch.
Lucaris Cyril was several times temporarily also particularly well disposed towards the Anglican Church, and his correspondence with the [[depositionArchbishop of Canterbury|deposedArchbishops of Canterbury]] and banished at is extremely interesting. Through his contacts with the instigation Church of his orthodox opponents and England, he also set up a program of sending young Greeks to England to study. Among these students was the youth from Macedonia, [[JesuitMetrophanes (Kritopoulos) of Alexandria|Metrophanes Kritopoulos]]s, who later would become Patriarch of Alexandria. Both Cyril and Metrophanes were his bitterest enemies. Finallylovers of books and manuscripts, when and acquired manuscripts that today adorn the Ottoman Sultan Murad III was about to set out for the Persian War, the [[patriarch]] was accused Patriarchal Library. Cyril also presented King James I of England with a design to stir up fine manuscript of the CossacksHoly Bible, and to avoid trouble during his absence the sultan had him killed by known as Codex Alexandrinus. He also sent a manuscript of the [[JanissariesPentateuch]] in June 1638. His body was thrown into the sea, recovered and buried at a distance from the capital by his friendswith Arabic translation, and only brought back to Constantinople after many yearsLaud, Archbishop of Canterbury.
The orthodoxy While Cyril was several times [[deposition|deposed]] temporarily and banished at the instigation of Lucaris himself continued to be a matter his orthodox opponents and of debate in the Eastern Church[[Jesuit]]s, who were his bitterest enemies, even Dositheushis death came suddenly. When the Ottoman Sultan Murad IV was about to set out for the Persian War, in view of the reputation [[patriarch]] was accused of a design to stir up the great patriarchCossacks. Thus, thinking it expedient to gloss over avoid trouble during his absence, the sultan had Cyril strangled by the [[heterodoxyJanissaries]] in [[June 27]], 1638. His body was thrown into the Bosporus and was later recovered after being washed ashore on Halki Island. His body was buried at the interests Monastery of the ChurchPanagia Kamariotissa on Halki by Patr. Parthenius I.
{{start box}}
{{succession|
before=[[Meletios Meletius I of Alexandria|Meletios Meletius I]]|
title=[[List of Patriarchs of Alexandria|Patriarch of Alexandria]]|
years=1601-1620|
after=[[Gerassimos Gerassimus I of Alexandria|Gerassimos Gerassimus I]]|}}
{{succession|
before=[[Neophytus I II of Constantinople|Neophytus III]]<br>|title=[[Timothy II List of Patriarchs of Constantinople|TimotheusPatriarch of Constantinople]]<br>locus tenens|years= 1612-1612|after=[[Anthimus Timothy II of Constantinople|Anthimus Timothy II]]<br>[[Cyril }}{{succession|before=Timothy II |title=Patriarch of Constantinople|Cyril II Kontares]]<br>years=1620-1623|after=[[Athanasius III Gregory IV of Constantinople|Athanasius III PatelarosGregory IV]]<br>}}{{succession|before=[[Neophytus III Anthimus II of Constantinople|Neophytus IIIAnthimus II]]|title=[[List of Patriarchs of Constantinople|Patriarch of Constantinople]]|years=1612<br>1620-1623<br>1623-1633<br>1633-1634<br>1634-1635<br>1637-1638|after=[[Timothy Cyril II of Constantinople|TimotheusCyril II Kontares]]<br>[[Gregory IV of Constantinople}}{{succession|Gregory IV]]<br>[[before=Cyril II Kontares|title=Patriarch of Constantinople|Cyril II Kontares]]<br>years=1633-1634|after=[[Athanasius III of Constantinople|Athanasius III Patelaros]]<br>[[Cyril II }}{{succession|before=Athanasius III Patelaros|title=Patriarch of Constantinople|years=1634-1635|after=Cyril II Kontares}}{{succession|before=[[Neophytus III of Constantinople|Neophytus III]]<br>[[Cyril II |title=Patriarch of Constantinople|years=1637-1638|after=Cyril II Kontares]]|}}
{{end box}}
==Sources==
*[http://www.ec-patr.org/list/index.php?lang=en&id=202 Ec-patr: Cyril Lucarius] - [[Church of Constantinople]] website
*[[w:Cyril_Lucaris|''Cyril Lucaris'' at Wikipedia]]
*This article incorporates text from the 1911 ''Encyclopædia Britannica'', which is in the public domain (see also [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9049229/Cyril-Lucaris entry] in the latest online edition of ''Encyclopædia Britannica'').
*[http://anglicanhistory.org/orthodoxy/germanos1929.html Progress Towards the Re-Union of the Orthodox and Anglican Churches] by the Most Rev. Archbishop Germanos, Metropolitan of Thyatira
*[http://anglicanhistory.org/orthodoxy/jad_germanos1929.html Archbishop Germanos on Anglicanism] by Canon J. A. Douglas, Ph.D. (a response to the above "Progress Towards the Re-Union of the Orthodox and Anglican Churches"
*[http://www.ec-patr.org/list/index.php?lang=en&id=202 Cyril I Lucaris] - [[Church of Constantinople]] website
===Writings===
16,951
edits

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