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Eighth Ecumenical Council

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The '''Eighth Ecumenical Council''' was a reunion council held at Constantinople in 879-880. This council was originally accepted and fully endorsed by the [[papacy]] in Rome (whose legates were present at the behest of [[Pope]] John VIII), but later repudiated by Rome in the 11th century, retroactively regarding the [[robber council of 869-870]] to be [[ecumenical]]. The council of 879-880 restored St. [[Photius the Great]] to his see and anathematized any who altered the [[Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed]], thus condemning the [[Filioque]].
 
== Ecumenical? ==
This council is not regarded as ecumenical by all Orthodox Christians, but some major voices in the Orthodox world do so, including 20th century theologians Fr. [[John S. Romanides]] and Fr. [[George Metallinos]] (both of whom refer repeatedly to the "Eighth and Ninth Ecumenical Councils"), Fr. [[George Dragas]], and the 1848 [[Encyclical of the Eastern Patriarchs]] (which refers explicitly to the "Eighth Ecumenical Council" and was signed by the [[patriarch]]s of [[Church of Constantinople|Constantinople]], [[Church of Jerusalem|Jerusalem]], [[Church of Antioch|Antioch]], and [[Church of Alexandria|Alexandria]] as well as the [[Holy Synod]]s of the first three), regard other synods beyond the [[Seventh Ecumenical Council]] as being ecumenical. Those who regard these councils as ecumenical often characterize the limitation of Ecumenical Councils to only seven to be the result of Jesuit influence in Russia, part of the so-called "[[Western Captivity of Orthodoxy]]."
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