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'''Arius''' was a [[hereticpresbyter]] of the early fourth century who taught is considered to be a [[heretic]] by the Orthodox Church. His heresy originated in his teaching that the Son of God was not eternal, that the Son but was rather a created being, and was subordinate to God the Father. This belief was considered a [[heresy]], called [[Arianism]]. that , was condemned by the [[First Ecumenical Council ]] at [[Nicea]] in 325as a [[heresy]]. Yet However, the controversy over the Arius' heresy continued long after the Council , as Arius its proponent eventually returned to the Emperor's favor of the Emperor. Only the Arius's' unusual death of Arius, followed a year later by the death of Constantine, temporarily overshadowed the controversy.
==LifeEarly life==Arius was apparently of Lybian and Berber descent, born about 250 in North Africa. His father is known as Ammonius. Arius grew up in Alexandria, Egypt ; at the time the city was the center of Christian scholarship. He was a pupil of Lucian of Antioch, a celebrated Christian teacher and [[martyr]]. These also were the times when a theological explanation of the relationship between the Father and Son was being developed. Thus, and Arius' teachings became one of the views that were proposed during these ''Christological'' controversies. Arius was a pupil of Lucian of Antioch, a celebrated Christian teacher and [[martyr]]. In 306, Arius sided with Meletius, another Egyptian schismatic, against the [[Bishop]] of Alexandria, [[Peter of Alexandria|Peter]]. But, their dispute was soon reconciled , and Peter [[ordination|ordain]]ed Arius a [[deacon]]. Later, having fallen out again with Peter, Arius gained the friendship of Peter's successor, Achillas, who ordained Arius a [[priest]] in 313, thus giving Arius him an official status. Apparently, Arius also had hopes of succeeding Achillas as [[patriarch]] of Alexandria. It was under Bishop Achillas that Arius first became controversial , as reported by the historian Socrates Scholasticus. This occurred when Arius presented his syllogism :''If the Father begat the Son, he that was begotten had a beginning of existence. From this it is evident that there was a time when the Son was not. It therefore necessarily follows that he had his substance from nothing''.
==The Arian controversy==In 318, Arius came entered into a dispute with Bishop [[Alexander of Alexandria]], who had succeeded Achillas, over his teachings of the fundamental truth about God's divine Sonship and substance. While Arius developed a following among the some Syrian prelates, an Alexandrian synod of some 100 bishops condemned him in 321. He was [[excommunication|excommunicated]] and fled to Palestine. There he entered into a friendship with [[Eusebius of Nicomedia]]. Arius, a proficient writer, produced many compositions, in both prose and verse defending his belief, in including a media poem that he called the ''Thalia''. Most of these writings are not extant, having been were destroyed as being heretical, though portions of the ''Thalia'' and a few other Arian texts survive.
In oppositionto Arius, Alexander of Alexandria presented his case to [[Alexander of Constantinople]] and [[Eusebius of Nicomedia]], where the emperor was in residence. The arguments continued and became a powerful divisive force within the Roman empire, such that the emperor Constantine could no longer ignore it. To settle the arguments dilemma, he called a [[synod|council]] with delegates drawn from all the empire. The purpose of this, the [[First Ecumenical Council|First Council of Nicea]], was to determine as far as possible what had been taught from the beginning. The Council met in Nicea, near Constantinople in 325. Here the confession of faith presented by Arius was cut to pieces. Then, under the guidance of Constantine, the Council developed a [[creed]], the [[Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed|Nicene Creed]] for use in catechetical instruction and at baptisms, that rendered Arius' language heretical.
With this decision, Arius and his followers were [[deposition|deposed]] and sent into exile. Yet, much concern remained over the use of the word ''homoousios'' that was used in formulating the case against Arius. The early, ill -defined definitions of ''homoousios '' were part of the arguments used in deposing [[Paul of Samosata]] in 269 , which at the time were considered to have Sabellian tendencies. In his arguments against Arius, Alexander of Alexandria refined the definition to mollify the earlier objections. However, not all of his contemporaries agreedwith Alexander's approach.
So, the decision at Nicea almost immediately came under attack , and after Alexander died in 327 many of the Arius's supporters of Arius were allowed to returned to their old positions which . This allowed Eusebius of [[Nicomedia]] again to influence Constantine. Even Arius himself was allowed to return to Alexandria in 331, . Many of the proponents of the Nicene decision began to be deposed , as they found it impossible to defend the decision without apparently falling into Sabellianism. Eustathius of Antioch, Marcellus of Ancyra, and others, —who were supporters of [[Athanasius the Great|St. Anthanasius of Alexandria, ]]—were among them.
==Later years and death==With Constantine now favoring Arius, he commanded Anthanasius to readmit Arius to communion. This Anthanasius refused, thus leading to charges of treason to against the emperor and exile to Trier. With their acceptance by the emperor, the supporters of Arius began disturbances in Alexandria toward gaining power. The emperor then directed Alexander of Constantinople to receive Arius into communion. Opposed to the reinstatement of Arius, Alexander asked his supporters to pray for removal of either him or Arius from this world before Arius was re-admitted to communion. And, the day before Arius was to receive communion, he died suddenly. That was 336.
The death of Arius and then that of Constantine a year later led to a lull in the controversy, but the ‘'Christological'' controversies would continue for several more centuries. Arius is still considered by the Orthodox church (and most of the rest of Christianity) to be one of its greatest heretics; in icons of the First Ecumenical Council, he is usually portrayed lying prostrate beneath the feet of [[Jesus Christ|the Lord]] and/or the bishops.
==External links==

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