In 1937, the [[Church of Russia]] received a small group under the former Liberal Catholic bishop, Louis-Charles (Irénée) Winnaert (1880-1937), dubbing them ''l'Eglise Orthodoxe Occidentale'' ("Western Orthodox Church"). Upon his repose, the leadership of the Church was turned over to [[Jean-Nectaire (Kovalevsky) of Saint-Denis|Evgraph Kovalevsky]] (1905-1970). Also in the French Church were [[Denis (Chambault)|Lucien Chambault]], who oversaw a small Orthodox Benedictine community in the rue d'Alleray in Paris (as Pére Denis), and the former Benedictine monk, Archimandrite [[Alexis van der Mensbrugghe]] (1899-1980), who favorably viewed the restoration of the ancient Roman rite cleansed of medieval accretions and supplemented by Gallican and Byzantine interpolations. In 1948, he published his ''Liturgie Orthodoxe de Rite Occidental'' and in 1962 the ''Missel Orthodoxe Rite Occidental''.
Fr Evgraph worked for several years on restoring the ancient rite of the Gauls, which came to be known as the [[Divine Liturgy according to St Germanus of Paris]]. After the French church broke with Moscow to preserve the Western character of its liturgy, Archimandrite Alexis remained with the [[Church of Russia]] and was consecrated to the episcopacy in 1960, continuing his Western Rite work under the auspices of the Moscow Patriarchate.