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Apostolos Makrakis

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In the summer of 1894 he made his tenth and last Gospel tour, visiting Thebes, St. Theodore, Levadeia, Atalante, Chalkis, Kyme, Aliverion, Kariston, Gaurion on the islands of Andros, Syros, and his birthplace Siphnos.<ref>Andronis, Constantine (Ed.). ''Apostolos Makrakis: An Evaluation of Half a Century.'' Chicago: Orthodox Christian Educational Society, 1966 pp.20.</ref>
===Christology-Philosophy and Controversy===
He criticized contemporary prelates of [[w:Simony|Simony]], and also upheld the theory of the ''Trisyntheto'' (triple constitution of humanity, i.e, ''Psyche'' (soul), ''Pneuma'' (spirit), ''Soma'' (body). He was arguably one of the most important religious personalities of the 19th century, and one whose innovations turned the Holy Synod against him, resulting in his being condemned and jailed several times<ref>Tolika, Olympia N. ''Epitomo Enkyklopaidiko Lexiko Tes Byzantines Musikes.'' Athena, 1993.</ref>. He was also an extremely prolific writer whose works were widely translated outside of Greece.
:"Makrakis intended to be a teacher of the people of Greece,...this child of the [[w:Greek War of Independence|revolution of 1821]]. The [[w:Søren Kierkegaard|Kierkegaard]]<ref>'''Kierkegaard, Soren,''' ''b. Copenhagen, Denmark, 1813; d. 1855''. Philosopher and religious writer. He was a precursor of the existentialists and a major influence on Protestant theology. He argued that advancing through the three stages of the aesthetic, the ethical and the religious by means of an "existential dialectic" brings the individual closer to God. A leap of faith is required; reason is not a help. But awareness of the relationship to God leads to despair as the individual contrasts temporality with eternal truth. His major works include ''Either/Or'' (1843) and ''Fear and Trembling'' (1843). (''The New York Times Guide to Essential Knowledge''. 1st Ed.. St. Martin's Press, NY, Oct. 2004. pp.1020.)</ref> who speaks here has a Hellenistic soul. Philosophy, "the love and science of the [[w:Christ the Logos|God-equal WORD]], or [[w:Christ the Logos|Logos]]", has as its purpose "the acquisition of God's omniscience...and the deification of the philosophical investigator". Its object is the same as that of religion and government. The system traces the journey of the soul in its ascent from the "primary cognition [noein]" through the philosophical sciences to its deification. The means of ascent are provided by the "right reason" that is the object of logic and is incarnate in [[Jesus Christ]].....right reason being the nexus between temporal fact and eternal being. In this system, the primary cognition, or what [[w:Phenomenology|phenomenology]] might call the basic intellectual intuition, is that I exist, the world exists, and God exists... The soul is conscious of its own existence, perceives the world, and knows God's existence, but it does not know the nature of each of them. The aim of science is to make the unknown known. Philosophy as [[w:Christology|Christology]] and Christology as Philosophy, it is at least a theme that makes one think."<ref>Scharlemann, R.P.. Peer Reviewed Book Review of Makrakis': ''The Logos and Holy Spirit in the Unity of Christian Thought, 5 Vols: Vol 1:The Orthodox Approach to Philosophy, Vol 2:Psychology An Orthodox Christian Perspective, Vol 3: Logic An Orthodox Christian Approach, Vol 4: Theology An Orthodox Standpoint, Vol 5:Philosophy An Orthodox Christian Understanding.'' Translated from the Greek by Denver Cummings: Orthodox Christian Education Society, 1977. '''Journal of Religion''' 59 no 4 O 1979, p 488-490.</ref>
====Excommunication====
There has been some confusion as to whether or not Apostolos Makrakis was in fact put out by the Church or not. The sources show in actuality that he was condemned by the Synod, but '''not''' formally [[Excommunication|excommunicated]] by them.
As for the Holy Synod, on December 18th, 1878, the Council of Athens was convened and presided over by Metropolitan Bishop Procopius I of Athens, resulting in formal condemnation of the Makrakists. The Synod succeeded in obtaining from the governement of Koumoundouros a decree dissolving Makakris' ''' ''"School of the Logos"'' ''' on the pretext that it taught doctrines opposed to the tenets of the Church, that is, that man is composed of body, soul, and spirit, and that Christ attained perfection in the Jordan. The Holy Synod likewise addressed an encyclical to the whole body of Christians in Greece that was read in the churches, charging Makrakis with attempting to introduce innovations. On January 8, 1879, his trial was held, and without his presence he was condemned by default to three months' imprisonment. On February 6, 1879, the Holy Synod also issued a decree condemning the clergy of the College to confinement (exile) for five to ten years in various monasteries and refrainment from all sacramental acts. On June 13, 1879 Makrakis' term of imprisonment for resistence and insolence to the authorities expired, but he later insulted the Holy Synod again, and on November 26, 1879 he was again sentenced to imprisonment, this time for eight months. From the jail in Amphissa he wrote letters to all his brethren in Christ urging them to be of good cheers and to feel glad because he was suffering in behalf of truth and justice. In many cities of Greece the citizenry expressed indignation at the persecution of the educator, and submitted a petition to the Chamber of Deputies bearing 4530 signatures. Makrakis himself submitted a memoir to the Minister of Justice Athanasios Potmezas from jail with the hope of obtaining his release. In 1880 he was absolved by decree of the court of appeals in Athens, and beginning on October 6, 1880, he resumed instruction in the ''' ''"School of the Logos"'' ''' after a two year interruption.<ref>Andronis, Constantine (Ed.). ''Apostolos Makrakis: An Evaluation of Half a Century.'' Chicago: Orthodox Christian Educational Society, 1966 pp.16-17.</ref>
===Criticisms and Apologetics=== '''Criticisms'''
* British Orientalist and Professor of Theology at the University of Oxford [[w:Frederick Cornwallis Conybeare|Frederick Cornwallis Conybeare]], a contemporary of Makrakis writing in 1903, proposed that if we cut through the many mists of spiteful exaggeration often attributed to Makrakis' life story,
::we can discern that his teaching exactly agrees with that ascribed to the [[w:Ebionites|Ebionites]] and to [[w:Theodotus of Byzantium|Theodotus of Rome]] by [[Hippolytus of Rome]] in his ''[[w:Refutation of all Heresies|Philosophumena]] (Refutation of all Heresies)'', Book VII, chap. 34. A not very dissimilar form of [[Adoptionism|Adoptionist doctrine]] still survives among the dissenters of Russia and of Armenia, and I suspect that Makrakis had come into contact with them.<ref>*[[w:Frederick Cornwallis Conybeare|Conybeare, Frederick Cornwallis]]. Reviewed Works: ''The Student's History of the Greek Church'' by Rev. A.H. Hore (M.A.). London and Oxford: James Parker, 1902. 514 pp.; ''Geschichte der Orientalischen Kirchen von 1453-1898'' by Prof. A. Diomedes Kyriakos. Leipzig, 1902. '''American Journal of Theology, Vol.7, No,3 (July 1903). p.562.'''</ref>.
* Dr. Constantine Cavarnos although referring to Makrakis as "perhaps the most outstanding philosopher and religious teacher of modern Greece," in reviewing Makrakis' important treatise on [[Soteriology]], the ''"Divine and Sacred Catechism"'', states that Makrakis' teaching is marred by the exaggerated importance he attributes to the Devil, by his narrow conception of Orthodoxy, and his invective against other religious denominations.<refname=Cavarnos>Cavarnos, Constantine (Dr). Reviewed Work: ''Divine and Sacred Catechism by Apostolos Makrakis''. Transl. from the Greek by the Hellenic Christian Society, Chicago, Illinois. New York: Cosmos Greek-American Printing Co., 1946. '''Journal of the American Academy of Religion''', 1949; XVII-265-266.</ref>
* Blessed Elder [[Philotheos (Zervakos)]] has written ''The Errors of Apostolos Makrakis.'' Although not yet in English translation, it is summarized in part in Dr. Constantine Cavarnos's book ''"Blessed Elder Philotheos Zervakos"''. In his criticism the Elder emphasises that he does not mean to say that there is nothing of value in Makrakis' writings, especially the earlier ones, but that they must be approached with caution.
* In 1882 Chrysanthos Makris, later an Archimandrite, wrote a book against the tenet of Makrakis relative to the tricomposite nature of man, entitled ''"The Bicomposite Nature of Man Proved by Reference to the Great Fathers of the Church"''. This was refuted by Makrakis in a series of articles in the ''Logos'', which were reprinted in a separate book 302 pages long under the title ''"The Tricomposite Nature of Man Verified also by Reference to the Great Fathers of the Church"''<ref>Andronis, Constantine (Ed.). ''Apostolos Makrakis: An Evaluation of Half a Century.'' Chicago: Orthodox Christian Educational Society, 1966 pp.18-19.</ref>
'''===Apologetics'''===
* In 1869 Makrakis issued a work entitled ''"Refutation of an Ironclad Refutation"'' in reply to Theocletos Bimpos, professor of Theology at the University of Athens who undertook to criticize Makrakis' doctrine concerning the threefold nature of man.
* In 1873 Makrakis wrote the ''"Apology of A. Makrakis Concerning His Feelings, Views, and Acts"'', in particularly refuting all that had been advanced against him by Professor K. Nestorides regarding his view of the soul. Makrakis maintained that his view concerning the nature of the soul and of man's three constituent parts (body, soul, and spirit) is in accordance wth the Holy Scriptures, of which he cites many passages in proof.
* Dr. Constantine Cavarnos identifies that there are a number of things in his vigorously written book the ''"Divine and Sacred Catechism"'' that should interest the student of religion, including the lucid and systematic exposition of the doctrines of the Eastern Church by a conservative representative of it; the firm belief in perfect divine justice; the very high conception of man — man, according to Makrakis is the most perfect work of God, higher even than the angels; and the profound conviction in, and the attempt throughout the book to show, the perfect harmony between experience, reason, and religion.<ref>name=Cavarnos, Constantine (Dr). Reviewed Work: ''Divine and Sacred Catechism by Apostolos Makrakis''. Transl. from the Greek by the Hellenic Christian Society, Chicago, Illinois. New York: Cosmos Greek-American Printing Co., 1946. ''Journal of the American Academy of Religion'', 1949; XVII-265-266.</ref>
===Legacy===
Makrakis' ideas and the particular pietistic ethos which he promoted however did survive him in the [[Brotherhoods|Brotherhood]] Movements, which in the 20th century played a significant role in education and catechetical schools. These however unguardedly allied themselves with right-wing dictatorships, pure Greek patriotism being a key element in their ideology).<ref>Simonopetritis, Very Rev. Archiman. Isaias. "[http://www.aegeantimes.gr/pigizois/agglika/inegl_27.htm The Orthodox Church and Proselytism]." ''Orthodox Herald'', Official Publication of the Archdiocese of Thyateira and Great Britain, September–October 2001, No. 120-121.</ref>
==Complete List of Works of Apostolos Makrakis==
The following catalog of Makrakis' massive writing repertoire is based on the list found in Constantine Andronis' ''Apostolos Makrakis: An Evaluation of Half a Century'' (1966).<ref>Andronis, Constantine (Ed.). ''Apostolos Makrakis: An Evaluation of Half a Century''. Chicago: Orthodox Christian Educational Society, 1966. pp.337-339.</ref>.
===Periodcals Published and Edited===
* ''Justice'', 1866-67.
* ''The Logos'', 1868-1905.
* ''Peace'', 1874-76.
===Works Translated Into In EnglishTranslation===
* 1) ''A New Original Philosophical System'', [3 Vols, Divided into 6 Books], viz., ''Introduction to Philosophy; Psychology; Logic; Ethics; Theology;'' and ''Philosophy''. Athens, 1876, 1883, and 1886. 2,075 pp.
:: Transl: Vol. I, ''An Invitation to Philosophy, Psychology and Logic''; Vol. II, ''Ethics''; Vol. III, ''Theology and Philosophy''. 1940.
::* ''The [[w:Christ the Logos|Logos]] and the Holy Spirit in the Unity of Christian Thought: According to the Teachings of the Orthodox Church''. 5 Vols. Chicago : Orthodox Christian Educational Society, c.1977.
::: Vol 1. ''The Orthodox Approach to Philosophy''.
::: Vol 2. ''Psychology: An Orthodox Christian Perspective''. ISBN 9780938366058
::: Vol 3. ''Logic: an Orthodox Christian approach''.
::: Vol 4. ''Theology: An Orthodox Standpoint''. ISBN 9780938366034
::: Vol 5. ''Philosophy: An Orthodox Christian Understanding''.
* 2) ''A Commentary on the Revelation of John the Divine''.
* 3) ''Interpretation of the Gospel Law'', and, ''Our Duties to God and Christ''. b) ''A Commentary on the Epistle to the Hebrews''. Two vols. in one.
* 4) ''Divine and Sacred Catechism''. ISBN 9781432516703
* 5) ''The Foundation of Philosophy''.
* 6) ''The Bible and the World, An interpretation of the first three chapters of Genesis '''in extenso''' and from a philosophical point of view'', and, ''Triluminal Science, Surveying the Universe and Explaining Everything'' (1 vol). ISBN 9780938366188* 7) ''Interpretation of the Entire New Testament'' (except the ''Book of Revelation''). 2 vols. ISBN 9780938366089
* 8) ''An Interpretation of the Book of Revelation''.
* 9) ''The Paramount Doctrine of Orthodoxy'' (3 books in one vol).
* 10) ''Commentary on the Psalms of David and the Nine Odes''. ISBN 9780938366195
* 11) ''Kyriakodromion, or Sunday Sermonary, and Festal Sermons''. (A collection of sermons on the [[Gospels]], the Acts of the Apostles, and the [[Apostolos|epistles]] appointed to be read in Orthodox Christian Churches every Sunday from [[Pascha|Easter]] to [[Palm Sunday]]).
* 12) All in one volume:
:VII. ''Testimonies Concerning the Super Holy Virgin''.
* 13) ''Freemasonry Known by Masonic Diploma''.
* 14) ''Papal Primacy and Innovations of Roman Catholic Church''. ISBN 9780938366393
* 15) ''Scriptural Refutations of Pope's Primacy'', and, ''Misc. Studies and Speeches''.
* 16) ''Memoir on the Nature of the Church of Christ''. ISBN 9780938366218
* 17) ''The Two Contrariant Schools'', and, ''Concerning the Establishment of a Christian University''.
* 18) ''An Orthodox-Protestant Debate''.
* 24) ''Philosophical Discussions''.
* 25) ''The Real Truth Concerning Apostolos Makrakis''.
* 26) ''[[The Rudder|The RUDDER]] or PEDALION, of the Metaphorical Ship of the Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church of Orthodox Christians (All the Sacred and Divine Canons)''. (Editor). ISBN 9780938366003
* 27) ''The Trial of Jesus Christ (by Abba Aristarchus)''.
* 28) ''The Idea of Being''.
* 35) ''Hellenism and the Unfinished Revolution: Twenty Addresses Delivered in Concord Square, Athens, Greece in 1866''.
* 36) ''Homily on the Eight Beatitudes, or The Sermon on the Mountain: A Summary Teaching Delivered by Apostolos Makrakis in the Island of Leukas, Greece, on August 29, 1886, During his Second Gospel-Tour''.
* 37) ''[http://www.orthodoxresearchinstitute.org/articles/dogmatics/makrakis_truth_christianity.htm The Truth in Christianity: The One True Doctrine and The Many False Ones].''===Untranslated or Unpublished Works===
* 1) ''A New Educational System'', in three volumes, comprising the Formation, Meaning, and Use of Words. 885 pp.
* 2) ''Interpretative Logical System''; or, ''Interpretation of the Whole New Testament, verse by verse, including Revelation''. 3,100 pp.
==References==
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==Sources and External links==
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