In 1921, a council was called in Athens, led by Metropolitan [[Germanos of Demetrias]], the Vice-President of the Holy Synod, deposing Archbishop [[Meletios_IV_(Metaxakis)_of_Constantinople|Meletios (Metaxakis)]] of Athens, who had previously known for ecumenical activity, for recognizing the revolutionary Venizelos government in Greece
[http://orthodoxwiki.org/Meletios_IV_(Metaxakis)_of_Constantinople#Archbishop_of_Athens]. In a bizzare twist, Meletios was recognized as Patriarch of Constantinople on November 21, 1921, where he began his programs anew, though previously his candidacy was declined by the Holy Synod of Constantinople in 1912.
In 1923, a "Pan-Orthodox Congress" was held under the presidency of Meletios
which comprised members -- six Bishops, two laymen, and an archimandrite -- of a few of the local Churches (none of the members of the Pentarchy save Constantinople sent representatives). [[Anastasy (Gribanovsky) of Kishinev|Metropolitan Anastassy]] of the Russian Church Abroad attended its initial meeting, having been in the area , declared that the Synod had given him no instructions on the matter , and soon departed. In total, less than half of the local Churches were represented by so much as a layman. (see [http://www.orthodoxinfo.com/ecumenism/photii_2.aspx Bishop Photii of Triaditsa, "The 70th Anniversary of the Pan-Orthodox Congress", Orthodox Life, 1&2, 1994 ]). The purpose of the meeting was to implement the suggestions of the 1920 document, along with other uncanonical changes which were largely rejected, such as the elevation of married men to the Episcopate and the remarriage of widowed priests (sessions three and four). Finally, the Anglicans were present at the final meetings in the person of former Bishop Gore of Oxford, where it was decided that nothing stood in the way of reunion. In response, a five-member commission in Greece (of whom then Archimandrite -- and later Archbishop -- Chrysostom Papadopolous of Athens) determined to study the question of the use of the New Calendar and determined "''Not a single one of them [local Orthodox Churches] can separate from the others and adopt the New Calendar without becoming schismatic in relation to the others.''" (''Journal of the Government of the Greek Kingdom'', chapter 1, 24/25. 1. 1923, No. 8, see also ''OEM'', 1989, Chapter 17, p. 73, as noted in [http://www.orthodoxinfo.com/ecumenism/photii_2.aspx Bishop Photii] .)
====The True Orthodox Church of Greece====
[[Image:1925cr1.jpg|thumb|110px|An artist's rendering of the appearance of the Sign of the Cross near Athens, 1925]]
In 1924, the [[bishop]]s of the [[Church of Greece]], under Archbishop Chrysostom (
Papadopolous), implemented the calendar change discussed at the pan-Orthodox congress of 1923. In response, Metropolitan [[Germanos of Demetrias]], retired in protest. Lay groups and [[brotherhoods]] formed to keep the use of the [[Julian calendar]] alive, despite state persecution (Greece was an Orthodox country, and the Church enjoyed certain privileges from the state).
In 1925, perhaps the most well-known
phenomena in the Old Calendar movement occurred: a large cross over an secret Old Calendar Church in 1925 during the feast of the exaltation of the Holy Cross, witnessed by approximately two thousand people, including police intent on arresting the clergy of the group, many of whom converted that night.[http://www.orthodox.net/articles/cross-in-athens.html]
In 1935, after more than 10 years, three Metropolitans, Germanos of Demetrias, the former Metropolitan of Florina, Chrysostom (Kavouridis) and Chrysostomos (Demetriou) of Zakynthos declared the Archbishop of Athens as schismatic and declared:
''"Those who now administer the Church of Greece have divided the unity of Orthodoxy through the calendar innovation, and have split the Greek Orthodox People into two opposing calendar parts. They have not only violated an Ecclesiastical Tradition which was consecrated by the Seven Ecumenical Councils and sanctioned by the age-old practice of the Eastern Orthodox Church, but have also touched the Dogma of the One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church. Therefore those who now administer the Greek Church have, by their unilateral, anticanonical and unthinking introduction of the Gregorian calendar, cut themselves off completely from the trunk of Orthodoxy, and have declared themselves to be in essence schismatics in relation to the Orthodox Churches which stand on the foundation of the Seven Ecumenical Councils and the Orthodox laws and Traditions, the Churches of Jerusalem, Antioch, Serbia, Poland, the Holy Mountain and the God-trodden Mountain of Sinai, etc....That this is so was confirmed by the Commission made up of the best jurists and theologian-professors of the National University which was appointed to study the calendar question, and one of whose members happened to be his Blessedness the Archbishop of Athens in his then capacity as professor of Church History in the National University...Since his Beatitude the Archbishop of Athens has by his own signature declared himself to be a Schismatic, what need do we have of witnesses to demonstrate that he and the hierarchs who think like him have become Schismatics, in that they have split the unity of Orthodoxy through the calendar innovation and divided the Ecclesiastical and ethnic soul of the Greek Orthodox People?"''
([http://www.orthodoxchristianbooks.com/downloads/92_NEW_ZION_IN_BABYLON_PART_3.pdf Cited in Moss, ''New Zion in Babylon'', Part 3, p. 92 ])
From April 23rd to April 26th 1935 the ordination of four new bishops took place. Ordained were the Archmandrites: Germanos (Barikopoulos) as Bishop of Kyklades, Christoforos (Hatzis) as Bishop of Megaris, Polycarp (Liosis) as Bishop of Diavleia, and Bishop Matthew (Karpathakes) of Bresthena).[http://www.hotca.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=71:the-change-in-the-calendar-of-the-church-of-greece&catid=23:goc-history&Itemid=71]
====The Florinite/Matthewite schism====
By the 1940s, two parties had formed within the Church of Greece: the [[Florinites]] (under Metropolitan [[Chrysostom (Kavourides) of Florina]]) and the [[Matthewites]] (under Bp. [[Matthew of Bresthena]]). The
issue had been the former's vacillation on whether the mysteries of the State Church were still grace-filled. Both sides had their respective justifications for their positions, and both were violently persecuted by the state. The Matthewites were holding a more consistently applied position, but were accused of ignoring the existence of flexibility within the Church 's tradition. That they labelled the Florinites as a whole as opportunists who were trying to ingratiate themselves with the state was unfortunate, and not altogether true for the followers of Metropolitan Chrysostom, and so the parties became psychologically distinct.
the end, a real physical division was formed, whereas a real doctrinal division ended: Bishop Matthew singlehandedly consecrated another bishop, and together they made more new bishops. After the death of Bishop Matthew, however, Chrysostom of Florina reaffirmed the decision of 1935 declaring the New Calendar State Church as [[schism]]atic. Two basic motivations have been given, neither of which has been universally accepted for why this was done: (1) ''Political''-- That the move was primarily political to stop any growth among the Matthewites and (2) ''Irenic''-- the more commonly accepted, that he did so in the hope of uniting all the True Orthodox Greeks into one jurisdiction. In any case, the Matthewites proceeded to elect Archbishop Agathagelos to the rank of Primate of Athens in 1958.
The Auxentios Synod''': The First Florinite Synod of the True Orthodox Church of Greece was fraught with problems by the 1970s, and two major separations occurred during the lifetime of Archbishop Auxentios. However, few doubt that Archbishop Auxentios himself was of a saintly character, albeit a poor bishop. Recently there have been attempts to rehabilitate his memory ( Archbishop Auxentios died in 1994) ; most of his synod, barely held together by the 1980s, dissolved after his death into the three jurisdictions listed below. In 1986, Auxentios was removed from the Archdiocese of Athens and the leadership of the Old Calendar Church of Greece by a majority the Florinite bishops on account of a series of controversial episcopal ordinations conducted in the early 1980s with his apparent consent. Having the support of the dissenting minority of bishops, Auxentios proceeded to re-form his Synod, appealing for help to the [[Holy Synod of Milan|Bishops of the West]], then independent, but under his omophor, for assistance. He died in 1994, having failed to reconcile with the parishes of the Florinite Synod under Chrysostom Kiousis. The remaining parishes of the Auxentios Synod, however, elected Archbishop Maximos of Kephalonia to the throne of Athens on [[January 7]], 1995. In response to Maximos' request to revisit the ROCOR investigation of Fr Panteleimon (Metropoulos) of Holy Transfiguration Monastery in Boston, the parishes loyal to Auxentios under the American Bishops organized around Holy Transfiguration Monastery in Boston ( see HOCNA) , left the Synod, and elected Makarios of Toronto as locum tenens of the see of Athens.
[[Genuine Orthodox Church of Greece (Florinite)|The Chrysostomite Synod ]]''': Amidst charges of maladministration, the majority of the Florinite synod chose in 1986 a new leader in Archbishop Chrysostom (Kiousis), who demonstrated rather effectively that the True Orthodox in Greece were a force to be reckoned with . Choosing to take on the Greek legal system, court cases were held where it was demonstrated that the Old Calendarists of Greece were not schismatics. Though their public reputation had been tarnished over nearly two decades of divisions, their legal existence was, and is presently, safe. The synod of Chrysostom of Athens is today the largest synod of the True Orthodox Church of Greece.
'''The [[Holy Synod in Resistance|Synod-in-Resistance]] of Metropolitan Cyprian of Fili''': While
this church's official [[ecclesiology]] is peculiar, the amount of work that Metropolitan Cyprian of Fili and his synod have done to assist True Orthodox throughout the world is impressive, and must be noted. The church itself is rather small, but has been very effective in presenting intellectual arguments against the New Calendar State Church. It is headed by another defector from the Auxentios Synod, Cyprian (Koutsoumbas) of Fili, and holds an ecclesiology of “sick" and “healthy" churches, thus avoiding the repercussions that inevitably follow referring to the majority as subject to a schismatic body. Their ecclesiology is considered heretical by some of the more rigorist elements of the True Orthodox, although they were only officially condemned on an ecclesiological basis by the Synod under Archbishop Chrysostom of Athens.
2008, the two bodies met for a number of high-profile meetings in the hope of developing closer ties.[ http://www. synodinresistance. org/Administration_en/E1a4028AnakoinosisDialogoy2-08. pdf]
[[Genuine Orthodox Church of Greece (Lamian Synod)|The Synod of Archbishop Makarios of Athens (Lamian Synod)]]''' : In 1995, a resistance faction of six bishops formed within the synod of Chrysostom (Kiousis) and separated itself over what they claimed to be a series of canonical infractions, headed by Metropolitan Kallinikos of Lamia. The charges related to the trial of Metropolitan of Thessaloniki Euthymios (Orphanos), who had been charged with moral infractions, and the election of Bishop Vikentios (Malamatenios) of Avlona as Metropolitan of Peiraeus. By early 1997, the bishops headed by Kallinikos of Lamia had fragmented into three groups, one of which reconciled with Archbishop Chrysostom (Kiousis). A second group, Paisios Loulourgas (Met. of America) and Vikentios Malamatenios (titular Bp. of Avlona), submitted to the Ecumenical Patiarchate. Later that same year, Kallinikos of Lamia and Euthymios of Thessaloniki proceeded to ordain five [[bishop|titular bishop]]s in an attempt to create a new synod. In 2003, they finally decided to elect a primate, and elected Makarios (Kavakides) of Athens. A good deal of their membership was then lost, as many who did not see themselves as separate from the Kiousis synod were forced to decide between the two.
'''[[True Orthodox Church of Greece (Matthewite)|The Synod of Archbishop Nicholas]]''': In February, 2003, Archbishop Andreas of Athens retired, and Archbishop Nicholas of Athens, considered by many to have a progressive vision for the Matthewite church, was elected. Extremely popular with younger Matthewites, Archbishop Nicholas seems generally poised to keep the Matthewite synod united. However, it has been advanced that Archbishop Andreas retired in violation of the canons.
'''[[Genuine Orthodox Church of Greece (Matthewite)|The Gregorian Synod]]''': Under the primacy of Andreas of Athens, there were virtually no divisions in the Matthewites until 1995, when Metropolitan Gregory of Messinia separated with a small majority of the synod (five versus four), ostensibly over the issue of the "God the Father" [[icon]] and the related issues of Western-style icons in general. However, with the deaths of three of their bishops, the remaining two split, one remaining completely alone from the eldest hierarch, and the with Gregorios of Messinia naming three more bishops (Abramios, Pavlos, and Nectarios).
'''[[Genuine Orthodox Church (Matthewite)|The Synod of Metropolitan Kirykos]]''': Originally not a schism proper, Metropolitan Kirykos and two other bishops of the synod refused to recognize the retirement of Archbishop Andreas or the enthronement of the new Archbishop, but continued to remain a member of the Synod of Archbishop Nicholas. Finally, in 2005, after several attempts, the Synod of Abp Nicholas endeavored to depose Metropolitan Kirykos, who has since added five Bishops to his Synod in a number of countries.
===Russia=== ====The Catacomb Church of Russia==== With the Declaration of Metropolitan Sergius in 1927, Orthodox bishops in Russia began to apply [[Ukaz No. 362]] of Patriarch St. [[Tikhon of Moscow|Tikhon]] and became administratively independent until such time as they could operate freely. With Metropolitan Benjamin of Petrograd in prison, [[Sergius I (Stragorodsky) of Moscow|Metropolitan Sergius]], the last of those named as locum tenens for the Patriarchal throne, began to negotiate with the Soviet authorities in what many considered to be the subordination of the Orthodox faith to the atheist state. The beginning of the Catacomb Church as a body is usually considered to be defined as the declarations of [[Metropolitan Joseph (Petrovykh) of Petrograd|St Joseph of Petrograd]], who was one of the signers of the statement of the Petrograd vicars: ''"In separating from Metropolitan Sergius and his acts, we do not separate from our lawful Chief Hierarch, Metropolitan Peter, nor from the Council, which will meet at some time in the future, of those Orthodox hierarchs who have remained faithful. May this Council, our sole competent judge, not then hold us guilty for our boldness. May it judge us, not as despisers of the sacred canons of the Fathers, but only as fearful to violate them. Even if we have erred, we have erred honestly, out of zeal for the purity of Orthodoxy in the present evil age. And if we turn out to be guilty, then may we be even especially deserving of condescension, and not of deposition."''[http:// www.theophanydesigns.com/ rcs/metropolitanjoseph.html] Ukaz No. 362 was written to preserve the Orthodox Church in times of persecution so that the Churches could survive. It gives the bishops of the Russian Church, temporarily, the right to self-govern apart from each other until such time as they can organize. It is considered by some to be a masterpiece of self-preservation in a time where the rules of canonical order could not be followed to the letter due to the difficulty of travel and so forth. The "Atheists Dictionary" (Moscow, 1966) contained the information the Soviet government was able to ascertain about the Catacomb Church, under the heading "True Orthodox Church": ''"TRUE ORTHODOX CHURCH (TOC): An Orthodox-monarchist sect, originating in the years 1922-26, which was organized in 1927, when Metr. Sergius proclaimed the principles of a loyal relation to Soviet authority. Monarchist elements, united around the Metropolitan of Leningrad Joseph (Petrovykh), or JOSEPHITES, in 1928 established a directing center of the TOC, and united all groups and elements which had come out against the Soviet order. In the country the TOC had support among the kulaks and together with other anti-Soviet elements came out against collectivization and organized terroristic acts against Party and Soviet activities, uprisings, etc. It directed into the villages a multitude of monks and nuns who roamed about the countryside spreading anti-Soviet rumors. The TOC was a widely ramified monarchist-rebellious organization. In its compositions were 613 priests and monks, 416 kulaks, 70 former tsarist officials and officers. The more fanatical members, crazy women, passing themselves off for prophets, saints, healers, members of the imperial family, spread monarchist ideas, conducted propaganda against the leadership of the Orthodox Church, called on people not to submit to Soviet laws. Basic characteristics of the sect: (1) rejection of the Orthodox Church headed by the patriarch as having 'sold itself to Antichrist,' to the world; (2) recognition as canonical of only those clergy who have been ordained by followers of Tikhon; (3) acceptance of Orthodox rites; (4) propaganda of the approaching 'end of the world;' (5) cult of members of the imperial family of Romanov: their portraits are preserved as holy objects, and believers in secret make prostrations in front of them; (6) assumption of the names of tsars and their relatives by the leaders of the sect; (7) preservation and spread of counter-revolutionary monarchist literature; (8) establishment of catacomb churches and monasteries in houses."'' (''Ibid'' [http://www.theophanydesigns.com/rcs/metropolitanjoseph.html]) As late as 1979, the Catacomb Church was, with difficulty, able to continue communications with the Russian diaspora through Russians who emigrated from the USSR. An interview with one such emigre claimed that the members of the Catacomb Church numbered in the millions[http://www.theophanydesigns.com/rcs/catacombchurch1979.html]. The number of unaffiliated catacomb churches in Russia is to date fairly large, and even today no one knows where all of them are. The history of the different catacomb [[episcopate]]s since 1927 is still not completely documented. There are also questions as to the legitimacy of certain catacomb bishops. Sadly, these questions will have to be determined by a future all-Russian Council. ====The True ("Free") Russian Orthodox Church and its divisions==== In 1990, ROCOR had announced that a bishop had secretly been consecrated to assist the believers in Russia (Bishop Varnava of Cannes), who then proceeded, with the blessing of the Synod, to make more bishops for Russia, the most prominent being Bishop Valentine of Suzdal and Lazarus of Tambov. '''[[Russian Orthodox Autonomous Church|The Russian Orthodox Autonomous Church]]''': The Russian Orthodox Autonomous Church (ROAC) is by far the largest of the Russian True Orthodox Churches, with hundreds of parishes in Russia and abroad, and also one of the most controversial. Headed by Metropolitan Valentine of Suzdal and Vladimir, the synod has twelve bishops and is enjoying a period of intense persecution on the part of the [[Church of Russia|state church] ]. One bishop, Gregory (George/Abu Asaly) of Colorado, recently parted ways with the ROAC synod after having been both canonically retired and excommunicated. He initially took 2 parishes in America with him but they have now left him along with most of his monastics and parishioners. His group refers to itself currently as the '''[[Genuine Orthodox Church of America]]'''<sup>[http://www.gocamerica.org/]</ sup> (Not to be confused with the newly autonomous Genuine Greek Orthodox Church in America headed by Metropolitan Pavlos of Astoria that is in communion with its mother Church, the GOC headed by Archbishop Chrysostomos II.) '''[[Russian True-Orthodox Church (Lazarus)|The True Russian Orthodox Church]]''': Bp. Lazarus of Tambov, himself well-known in Russia, rejoined the ROCOR after the Free Russian Orthodox Church broke communion with ROCOR then later left again after the formation of Metropolitan Vitaly's [[Russian Orthodox Church in Exile]] (ROCOR-V). He and Bishop Benjamin of Kuban consecrated a new set of bishops and currently have a couple dozen parishes in Russia. ====Russian True Orthodoxy today==== Today the situation is considerably clearer than it was 20 years ago; many of the groups that exist today have either been merged into other jurisdictions or have formed small, independent groups, administratively separate from the rest of the church. Much of their current history is tied together with ROCOR, as most of the original Catacomb bishops had been killed during state persecutions or died in hiding. ====Outside Russia==== The History of the Russian church outside Russia is best summarized by St. [[John Maximovitch|John (Maximovitch)]], Archbishop of Shanghai and San Fransisco, who reposed in 1966: :''In November of 1921 in Sremsky-Karlovtsy in Yugoslavia the first Sobor abroad was held, in which in addition to 24 bishops, representatives of the clergy and laity took part. Being thus the voice of all Russians who had succeeded in leaving the Soviet authority, the Sobor considered itself obligated to express its opinion regarding the situation in Russia, where all the rest of the population of Russia was languishing under the oppression of that authority. The Sobor appealed to the Genoa Conference with the request not to support the Bolshevik regime and to help the Russian people to become free of it.'' Thus was formed the [[Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia]] (ROCOR), which, until recently, refused to recognize the elections of the Patriarchs of Moscow as coerced by the Soviet regime. ====Divisions within Russia abroad==== The Russian Church Abroad (ROCOR) enjoyed relative stability until the death of [[Philaret (Voznesensky) of New York|Metropolitan Philaret of New York]] (+1985, regarded as a [[saint]] by many Old Calendarists); the divisions noted below occurred [http://orthodoxwiki.org/Russian_Orthodox_Church_Outside_Russia#Rapprochement_with_Moscow until the very date of union with Moscow Patriarchate in 2007]. Since the death of Metropolitan Philaret, parishes of the Russian Church Abroad separated in waves noted below. '''[[Holy Orthodox Church in North America|The Holy Orthodox Church in North America]]''': In 1986, after the monks of Holy Transfiguration Monastery in Brookline, MA were accused of moral crimes and called to spiritual court. The entire New England Deanery of ROCOR, with the exception of one priest, had repeatedly asked for a canonical investigation of the trustworthiness of the persons making the moral accusations for a period of 11 months.[[http://www.homb.org/archives/Clergy%20Letter,%20Sept.%2016-29,%201986.pdf]] These same clergy had also expressed concerns over violations of the Anathema Against Ecumenism which all the bishops of ROCOR had signed in 1983.[[http://www.homb.org/archives/November%208.pdf]] Several days before the monks were called to spiritual court [[http://www.homb.org/archives/Dec.%209,%201986.pdf]] they left the ROCOR [[http://www.homb.org/archives/Departure%20from%20ROCOR%20Letter.pdf]] and were received by Metopolitan Akakios and Metropolitan Gabriel, two bishops who had not attended the Synod meetings of Archbishop Auxentios because of various administrative problems. The monks had lost confidence that the bishops would be unbiased since they were receiving testimony from witnesses that cannot make accusations against a clergyman according to the Sacred Canons (see above). Several weeks later approximately one-thirteenth of the North American parishes of the ROCOR and one-sixth of the clergy, following Holy Transfiguration Monastery's example, also went under Metropolitans Akakios and Gabriel. Later, when cooperation ceased between Metropolitans Akakios and Gabriel in 1997, the clergy of HOCNA asked to be received directly under Archbishop Auxentios. This led to a condemnation of the monastery on the part of Metropolitan Akakios.(the [http://www.romanitas.ru/eng/TOC,%201970-2000.htm#_ftn100 full condemnation is cited in Moss], ''A Short History of the True Orthodox Christians'', 2005.) Although the Synod of Archbishop Chrysosostom II in 1986 considered Archbishop Auxentios deposed, in 1998 they rehabilitated him [[http://www.homb.org/archives/Archbishop%20Auxentios~Deposition~.pdf]]. Another group of bishops formerly under Archbishop Chrysostom II, but now known as the Lamian Synod presently under Archbishop Makarius also declared the deposition of Archbishop Auxentios uncanonical and void on April 1/14, 1997.[[http://www.homb.org/archives/Lamia%20on%20Auxentios.pdf]] It is worthy of note that HTM changed its opinion on Archbishop Auxentios after Akakios and Gabriel broke communion with each other-- raising the obvious question of whether they were intent on creating their own Synod. After obtaining 2 bishops and two suffragan bishops, the group left the successor of Archbishop Auxentios, Archbishop Maximos, after claiming they had deposed him for uncanonically consecrating two individuals to the episcopate without the permission of the rest of the synod.[[http://www.homb.org/archives/Maximus%20defrockment.pdf]] It is worth noting that Maximos claimed the "Americans were trying to take control" by not assisting in the consecrations of Bishops for Greece, which at this point were becoming sorely needed. After the "defrockment" (it is virtually impossible to defrock the first-hierarch without a majority of the votes, which in this case would have been required, as well as a canonical trial, which was also not done) they elected Athanasios of Larisa to be their Bishop, until Athanasios learned that members of the "American Church" had questioned his qualifications as a Bishop. Alone at last, the American parishes incorporporated themselves as Holy Orthodox Church in North America (HOCNA) in 1987. Currently the HOCNA synod, which in 2001 declared itself administratively independent of its extant mother Church in Greece, has five bishops. From 1999 to 2001 the Lamian Synod approached HOCNA to establish full administrative unity, but this attempt failed for various reasons. [[http://www.homb.org/Archived_Docs_HTM/LamiansToHOCNA.pdf]]
2001, the HOCNA declared itself incapable of declaring a successor to Archbishop Auxentios, and finally declared itself independent of Greece, which led to another separation, most notably that of the majority of the Russian metochia of Archbishop Auxentios, administered by Father Victor Melehov. ([http://suaiden. freehostia. com/letter. html See ''Open Letter of Fr Victor Melehov''], distributed over the internet.)
===Churches "in resistance" or "walled off"===
These churches refrain from [[concelebration]] with the mainstream Orthodox churches, but do not consider themselves schismatic, nor have they formally declared the mainstream churches without grace. In general, they set up alternative hierarchies that use the names of sees that are not used by the state Church in question[http://www.synodinresistance.org/Theology_en/Resistance.html].
It is said that they would also communicate the faithful of those churches after confession. A notable exception is the Old Calendar Orthodox Church of Romania, who receive members of the New Calendar Churches by Chrismation.
**[[Genuine Orthodox Church of Greece (Florinite)
]] ("Chrysostomite Synod "), under Archbishop Chrysostom of Athens**[[Genuine Orthodox Church of Greece (Lamian Synod )]] , under Archbishop Makarios of Athens** [[Holy Synod in Resistance ]] ("Cyprianites") , a [[Florinites|Florinite]] church ''([http://orthodoxwiki.org/Old_Calendarists#Churches_.22in_resistance.22_or_.22walled_off.22 In Resistance-- see above])
**[[True Orthodox Church of Greece (Matthewite)]]
, under Archbishop Nicholas of Athens**[[Genuine Orthodox Church of Greece (Matthewite) ]], under Metropolitan Gregory of Messinia
*[http://ctosonline.org The Center For Traditionalist Orthodox Studies:] Spiritual and monastic center for the Synod in Resistance in the U.S.
*[http://www.orthodox-christianity.net/ Matthewite Parishes in America under Abp Nicholas of Athens]
*[http://www.genuineorthodoxchurch.net/america.html Matthewite Parishes in America under Metr Kirykos of Mesogaia]
===Groups claiming "Autonomous" status within America===
These are bodies which claimed independence from their parent churches.
*[[Genuine Orthodox Church of America]], under Archbishop Gregory of Denver
geocities.com/ joesuaiden/ trueorthodox/trueorthodoxchurch. html The True Orthodox Church: A Brief Overview] ( major portions of text used by permission)
* [http://groups.yahoo.com/group/orthodox-tradition/ Paradosis: The Original Internet E-mail Forum for Traditionalists]
* [http://www.euphrosynoscafe.com/ The Euphrosynos Café: A Portal and Forum for all Old Calendar Orthodox Churches]
by Father Nikolai Stanosheck, a [[Russian Orthodox Autonomous Church|ROAC]] deacon
**[http://euphrosynoscafe.com/map/ Map of some Old Calendarist parishes in the West]
Jurisdictions===* [http://www. roac. ru/ Russian Orthodox Autonomous Church]* [http://www. roacusa.org/ Russian Orthodox Autonomous Church in America]* [http://www. ecclesiagoc. gr/ Genuine Orthodox Church of Greece], official website of Chrysostomite Synod** [http://www. thegreekorthodoxchurch . com/ Genuine Greek Orthodox Church of America], diocesan website of the Metropolis of America (Chrysostomite) * [http://www. ortodoxakyrkan. se/ Swedish Exarchate of the Holy Synod in Resistance]
[[Category:Old Calendarist Jurisdictions|*]]