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Byzantine Creation Era

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/Literal Creation Days
:"Thus then, if it is said, “''In the beginning God created,''” it is to teach us that at the will of God the world arose in less than an instant,..."<ref>St. [[Basil the Great]]. ''[http://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/npnf208.viii.ii.html Hexæmeron]''. Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church, 2nd Series (NPNF2). Transl. Philip Schaff, D.D., LL.D. (1819-1893): '''VOLUME VIII - BASIL: LETTERS AND SELECT WORKS'''. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., Grand Rapids, Michigan.</ref>
Additionally Typical of the Christian conviction on this point, St. [[Hilary of Poitiers]] also affirms that the [[w:Creation according to Genesis|Creation]] was performed [[w:Ex nihilo|ex nihilo]]: :"For all things, as the Prophet says, were made out of nothing; it is interesting was no transformation of existing things, but the creation of the non-being into a perfect form".<ref>St. [[Hilary of Poitiers]]. ''On the Trinity''. Book IV, 16.</ref>The prophet cited by St. Hilary was the mother of the Maccabean martyrs, who said to note one of her tortured sons, ''"I beseech you, my child, to look at heaven and earth and see everything in them, and know that God made them out of nothing; so also He made the race of man in this way"''<ref>''The [[Orthodox Study Bible]]'' ([[Septuagint]]). St. Athanasius Academy of Orthodox Theology. Elk Grove, California, 2008. (2 Maccabees 7:28), p.653.</ref> (2 Maccabees 7:28).<ref>Fr. [[Patrick Henry Reardon]]. ''Creation and the Patriarchal Histories: Orthodox Christian Reflections on the Book of Genesis''. Conciliar Press, 2008. p.34</ref> This text from 2 Maccabees was the standard biblical proof text for the Christian Church in respect to [[w:Ex nihilo|creation from nothingness]]. We find the thesis in late Judaism, from which it passed into the Christian faith as an essential teaching.<ref>Fr. [[Patrick Henry Reardon]]. ''Creation and the Patriarchal Histories: Orthodox Christian Reflections on the Book of Genesis''. Conciliar Press, 2008. pp.34-35.</ref> In addition the traditional Jewish understanding of the creation "days" of Genesis is that they are literal as well, as virtually all the Rabbis have understood in commentaries from Talmudic, Midrashic and Rabbinic sources.<ref>Paul James-Griffiths. ''[http://www.answersingenesis.org/creation/v26/i2/tradition.asp Creation days and Orthodox Jewish Tradition]''. AnswersinGenesis.org. March 2004.</ref><ref>[[w:Abraham ibn Ezra|Ibn Ezra]], Abraham ben Meïr, (1092-1167). ''Ibn Ezra's Commentary on the Pentateuch: Genesis (Bereshit)''. Vol.1 (Genesis). Transl. and annotated by H. Norman Strickman & Arthur M. Silver. Menorah Pub. Co., New York, N.Y., 1988. ISBN 9780932232076</ref>.
* [[w:Niketas Choniates|Niketas Choniates]]. ''O City of Byzantium, Annals of Niketas Choniates.'' Transl. by Harry J. Magoulias. Wayne State University Press, Detroit, 1984.
* St. [[Basil the Great]]. ''[http://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/npnf208.viii.i.html Hexæmeron]''. Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church, 2nd Series (NPNF2). Transl. Philip Schaff, D.D., LL.D. (1819-1893): '''Volume VIII - Basil: Letters and Select Works'''. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., Grand Rapids, Michigan.
* St. [[Hilary of Poitiers]]. ''On the Trinity''. Book IV.
* ''[[The Rudder]] (Pedalion)'': Of the metaphorical ship of the One Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church of the Orthodox Christians, or all the sacred and divine canons of the holy and renowned Apostles, of the holy Councils, ecumenical as well as regional, and of individual fathers, as embodied in the original Greek text, for the sake of authenticity, and explained in the vernacular by way of rendering them more intelligible to the less educated. Comp. Agapius a Hieromonk and Nicodemus a Monk. First printed and published A.D.1800. Trans. D. Cummings, from the 5th edition published by John Nicolaides (Kesisoglou the Caesarian) in Athens, Greece in 1908, (Chicago: The Orthodox Christian Educational Society, 1957; Repr., New York, N.Y.: Luna Printing Co., 1983).
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