Incompatibilists hold that science can be incompatible with faith. They usually argue either that science is philosophically based on a kind of naturalism or that God's specific revelation is infallible and therefore trumps the findings of human reason in the case of any conflict between them. This is often based on a suspicion of human reason to arrive at reliable conclusions in the first place.
The development of modern science dates to the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, so no [[ecumenical council]] has ever addressed how to integrate it with divine revelation in a coherent and consistent worldview. As a result, there is not a dogmatic treatment examining how to resolve conflicts, whether apparent or real, when scientific findings appear to contradict divine revelation. Many early
Fathers were happy to use the primitive science of their day to divine purposes, perhaps suggesting to modern Christians a compatibilist resolution to the question. Other Fathers, however, clearly see conflicts and contradictions which they resolve in favor of their understanding of Christian revelation.
* [[Patrick Henry Reardon|Reardon,
Archpriest Fr. Patrick Henry]], ''Creation and the Patriarchal Histories: Orthodox Christian Reflections on the Book of Genesis.'' Conciliar Press, 2008. ISBN 9781888212969
:— According to the review by Fr. Hans Jacobse, editor of OrthodoxyToday.org, the author writes that the structures of philosophical materialism (evolutionary theory and its flip-side, scientific creationism), both miss the point; that Genesis reveals that the creation is ''logo-centric'' -- it was created by the Word of God, and it is held together by the Word of God's power. The word of Scripture, then, is primarily a literary text, not history (itself a narrative) or a scientific tract.
*[[Seraphim Rose|Rose, Fr Seraphim]], ''Genesis, Creation, and Early Man'' — Contains a detailed examination of Patristic
teaching related to the discussion of evolution and argues along the lines of modern creation science. '''Incompatibilist'''
*Woloschak, Gayle, ''Beauty and Unity in Creation: The evolution of life.'' (Minneapolis: Light and Life, 1996) — Primer on the relationship between evolutionary biology and Orthodoxy by a scientist. ISBN 1880971275 '''Compatibilist'''
*[[Hierotheos (Vlachos) of Nafpaktos|Vlachos, Hierotheos]], [http://www.parembasis.gr/0000/00_88_04.htm "Orthodox Theology and Science"] From the ''Greek Orthodox Theological Review''. Brookline: Spring 1999. Vol. 44, Iss. 1-4; pg. 131, 19 pgs. A useful introduction to the broader relationship between science and Orthodox Christianity.
*Boojamra, Dr. John, [http://www.annunciationakron.org/phyllisonest/pdf/creation.pdf "The Orthodox Idea of Creation"] The Word, June 1999, pp.31-34 An overview of Orthodox cosmology, intended for teachers and youth leaders as a background for discussion of various educational segments related to creation. Concise and useful for a general understanding of Orthodox cosmology.
*Breck, Archpriest John V. [http://
www.oca.org/ CHRIST- life- article.asp?SID=6&ID=148&MONTH=February&YEAR=2008 "Ex Nihilo"] Life in Christ, February 2008 #1.
*Fritts, Kevin Basil, [http://blog.kevinbasil.com/on-the-dogma-of-creation/ "On the Dogma of Creation"] The author is a contributor to this OrthodoxWiki article.
*Hallam, Fr. Gregory, [http://antiochabouna.blogspot.com/2006/02/orthodoxy-and-creationism.html "Orthodoxy and Creationism"]
*Kalomiros, Dr. Alexandre, [http://www.zephyr.gr/stjohn/sixdawn1.htm "The Six Dawns"]
*Kuraev, Fr. Deacon Andrey, [http://www.hvmla.org/library/evolution.html "Can an Orthodox Become an Evolutionist?"]
*Kuraev, Fr. Deacon Andrey, [http://www.sullivan-county.com/id4/ort_creation.htm "Orthodoxy and Creationism"]
*Maletis, John P., [http://www.theandros.com/protozoe.html "Let There Be Light: An Orthodox Christian Theory of Human Evolution for the 21st Century"]. <i>Theandros</i> Vol. 5 No. 3.
*Metallinos, V. Rev. Prof. Dr. George, [http://www.orthodoxresearchinstitute.org/articles/patrology/metallinos_faith_and_science.htm "Faith and Science in Orthodox Gnosiology and Methodology"] Very briefly mentions evolution, but overall states the traditional Orthodox position of separation between divine and earthly knowledge.*Mileant, [[Alexander (Mileant) of Buenos Aires|Bishop Alexander of Buenos Aires]] and South America (ROCOR)
, [http://www.fatheralexander.org/booklets/english/creation_man_a_mileant_e.htm " On the Appearance"]
*Nicozisin, Fr. George, [http://www.orthodoxresearchinstitute.org/articles/dogmatics/nicozisin_creationism.htm "Creationism versus Evolution"]
*Smith, Allyne, [[H. Tristram Engelhardt|H. Tristram Engelhardt, Jr.]], Edward Hughes, and J. Henry, "Orthodoxy", in ''The History of Science and Religion in the Western Tradition'' (2000): 268-273.
*Theokritoff, George, with Elizabeth Theokritoff, [http://jbburnett.com/resources/theokritoff_rose-svtq.pdf "Genesis and Creation: Towards a debate"] (PDF) — Review of Seraphim Rose, ''Genesis, Creation and Early Man: The Orthodox Christian Vision'', in ''St. Vladimir's Theological Quarterly'', Volume 46, Number 2 (2002). George Theokritoff is a paleontologist and Elizabeth is a theological scholar, author and editor of ''The Cambridge Companion to Orthodox Christian Theology'' (ISBN 0521683388).
*[[Kallistos (Ware) of Diokleia|Ware, Metropolitan Kallistos]], [http://
www. youtube.com/ watch? v= H76rL6wN- F "Orthodoxy and Evolution"], video: answer to a question asked in a forum at Seattle Pacific University.
*Bensusan, Ephrem Hugh, [http://razilazenje.blogspot.com/2005/06/orthodox-christianity-and-post.html "Orthodox Christianity and the Post-Christian Intelligentsia: A Response to Archbishop Lazar (Puhalo): Part 1"] Bensusan deals with the Archbishop's acceptance of evolution.
*Bufeev, S. V, [http://www.creatio.orthodoxy.ru/sbornik/sbufeev_whynot_english.html "Why an Orthodox Christian cannot be an evolutionist"]
*Christensen, Fr. Damascene, [http://www.pravoslavie.ru/enarticles/060222155510 "Interview with Fr. Damascene"]
Monk Damascene speaks about the patristic view of creation.
*Gascoigne, Fr. Serafim [http://orthodoxnorth.net/evolution_new_fundamentalism_pt_1.htm "Evolution" A New Fundamentalism"] from OrthodoxNorth.net
*[[Seraphim Rose|Rose, Fr. Seraphim]], [http://www.creatio.orthodoxy.ru/english/rose_genesis/index.html "Genesis, Creation and Early Man: The Orthodox Christian Vision"]
This page presents several chapters from Fr. Seraphim's book on creation from the patristic perspective. *[[ Seraphim Rose| Rose, Fr. Seraphim]], [http://www. orthodoxinfo. com/ phronema/evolution_frseraphim_kalomiros.aspx "Genesis and Early Man : The Orthodox patristic understanding" ]
* [[Byzantine Creation Era]]
www. creatio.orthodoxy.ru/ english.html Creatio]. Shestodnev Orthodox Mission Center in Russia dedicated to defending Patristic creationism against evolution.
* Pontifical Gregorian University. [http://www.evolution-rome2009.net/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=50&Itemid=54&lang=en International Conference on "Biological Evolution: Facts and Theories": A critical appraisal 150 years after "The Origin of Species"]. Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, 3-7 March 2009.
conservapedia. com/Evolution Evolution] at Conservapedia * [http://www.creationwiki.org /Theory_of_evolution Theory of evolution] at CreationWiki.