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Justinian

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Perhaps the most noteworthy event occurred in 529 when the Academy in Athens (famous for being founded centuries earlier by Plato) was placed under state control by order of Justinian, effectively strangling this training school for Hellenism. [[Paganism]] was actively suppressed. The worship of Ammon at Augila in the Libyan desert was abolished, and so were the remnants of the worship of Isis on the island of Philae, in Egypt, and unrepentant Manicheans were executed in Constantinople. Justinian frequently sent out [[missionary|missionaries]] and [[convert]]ed numerous tribes. In Asia Minor alone, John, [[Bishop]] of Ephesus, converted 70,000 pagans.
Justinian also took a very firm stance in his support of Orthodoxy; he fought different [[heresy|heresies]] throughout his rule. At the beginning of his reign, he promulgated by law belief in the [[Holy Trinity]] and the [[Incarnation]], and subsequently declared that he would deprive all disturbers of orthodoxy due process of law. He made the [[Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed]] the sole symbol of the Church and accorded legal force to the canons of the four [[Ecumenical Councils]]. At the command of the sovereign, the [[Fifth Ecumenical Council]] was convened in the year 553, censuring the teachings of Origen and affirming the definitions of the [[Fourth Ecumenical Council]] at Chalcedon. He also attempted to secure religious unity within the Empire through his (unsuccessful) dialogues with the non-Chalcedonians. He appointed Theodora, a convert from [[Monophysitism]], as his special envoy to deal with those who rejected [[Chalcedon]]. Besides Monophysitism, other ecclesiastical tensions had begun to emerge between the East and the West; the "Three Chapters" controversy brought all of these to a head (cf. external links).
[[Image:Hagia Sophia BW.jpg|right|thumb|The Hagia Sophia as it was meant, without minarets.]]The Emperor was instrumental in the building of numerous churches. He gave orders to build 90 churches for the newly-converted and generously supported church construction within the Empire. The finest structures of the time are considered to be the [[St. Catherine's Monastery (Sinai)|monastery at Sinai]], and the [[Hagia Sophia (Constantinople)|Hagia Sophia]] in Constantinople. Under St. Justinian many churches were built dedicated to the [[Theotokos]]. Since he had received a broad education, St. Justinian assiduously concerned himself with the education of [[clergy]] and [[monk]]s, ordering them to be instructed in rhetoric, philosophy, and theology. He neglected no opportunity for securing the rights of the Church and clergy, for protecting and extending [[monasticism]]: his law codes contain many enactments regarding donations, foundations, and the administration of ecclesiastical property; election and rights of bishops, priests, and abbots; monastic life, residential obligations of the clergy, conduct of divine service, and episcopal jurisdiction.
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