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Timeline of Church History (Post-Imperial Era (1453-1821))

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Post-Imperial era (1453-1821): link;
==Post-Imperial era (1453-1821)==
*1455 Gutenberg makes first printed [[Bible]].
*1455-56 ''Confession of Faith'' by Patr. [[Gennadius Scholarius|Gennadius of Constantinople]].
*1456-1587 Byzantine [[w:Pammakaristos Church|Church of Theotokos Pammakaristos]] became the seat of the [[Church of Constantinople|Ecumenical Patriarchate]].
*1461 Death of Jonah, Metropolitan of Moscow; commemoration of the Apparition of the Pillar with the Robe of the Lord under it at Mtskheta in Georgia, [[October 1]]; the [[w:Empire of Trebizond|Trebizond Empire]], last pocket of the Byzantine Empire, falls to the Ottoman Turks.
*1462 Wonderworking icon of [[Mantamados|Archangel Michael of Mantamados]] created.
*1463 Greek scholar and pro-unionist [[w:Basilios Bessarion|Basilios Bessarion]], formerly an Orthodox Metropolitan, later becoming a Roman Catholic Cardinal, is given the purely ceremonial title of ''Latin Patriarch of Constantinople'' by Pope Pius II; Bosnia becomes province of Ottoman Empire, with an estimated 36,000 families voluntarily accepting Islam, followed by a sustained process of assimilation to Islam. *1472 [[w:Ivan III of Russia|Ivan III]] Grand Duke of Moscow marries [[w:Sophia Palaiologina|Sophia Palaiologina]], niece of the last Byzantine emperor [[Constantine XI Palaiologos]], beginning Russia's claims to be the "[[Third Rome]]"; through [[w:Sophia Palaiologina|Sophia Palaiologina's]] influence the ceremonious etiquette of Constantinople along with the imperial [[Double-headed eagle]] and all that it implied was adopted by the court of Moscow.
*1478 [[w:Spanish Inquisition|Spanish Inquisition]].
*1480 Meeting of the [[Theotokos of Vladimir]] icon in memory of saving Moscow from the invasion of Khan Ahmed. *1484 [[Council of Constantinople (1484)|Synod of Constantinople]] with all four Patriarchs in attendance, calling itself "ecumenical", officially repudiated the union of the Greek and Latin churches discussed at Florence in 1439, and determined that Latin converts to Orthodoxy should be received into the Church by Chrismation.*1486 Emergence of the philosophy of [[w:Christian humanism|Christian Humanism]] in the Renaissance, as Giovanni Pico della Mirandola writes his ''[[w:Oration on the Dignity of Man|Oration on the Dignity of Man]]'', which stressed that Men had the free will to travel up and down a moral scale, with God and angels being at the top, and Satan being at the bottom.
*1492 Millennialist movements in Moscow, due to end of church calendar (year 7,000, according to the [[Byzantine Creation Era|Byzantine Date of Creation]]).
*1497 Martyrdom of Macarius, Metropolitan of Kiev, by invading Tatars.
*ca.1500-1505 the [[w:Eton Choirbook|Eton Choirbook]] is compiled, showing the development of early Renaissance polyphony in England, and being one of the very few collections of Latin liturgical music to survive the Reformation.*1503 [[Church of Russia#Non-Possessors|Possessor and Non-Possessor controversy]]. *1508 Death of Patr. [[Nephon II of Constantinople]].*1510 Russian monk [[w:Philotheus of Pskov|Philotheus of Pskov]] proclaims in a panegyric letter to the Grand Prince of Moscow that ''"Two Romes have fallen, The third stands, And there will be no fourth,"'', identifying the [[Third Rome]] with Russia.
*1512 First Christian church erected in Americas in [[w:Santo Domingo|Santo Domingo]] by Spanish.
*1516 Desiderius Erasmus publishes "[[w:Textus Receptus|Textus Receptus]]" of New Testament on the basis of six late manuscripts of the Byzantine text-type.
*1542 Ethiopians and Portuguese defeat Ahmad ibn Ibrahim Gran of Adal, neutralizing Adal threat to Ethiopia.
*1545-63 [[w:Council of Trent|Council of Trent]] held to answer the Protestant Reformation.
*1551 [[Stoglavy Sobor|Council of the Hundred Chapters]] in Russia. *1555 Abp. Gurian begins mission to Kazan.
*1557 Death of [[Basil the Blessed]].
*1555 Abp. Gurian begins mission to Kazan.
*1563 Anglican Church's [[w:Thirty-Nine Articles|Thirty-Nine Articles]] of Religion published.
*1564 Jesuits arrive in Poland.
*1568 Pope Pius V recognizes four Great [[w:Doctor of the Church|Doctors]] of the Eastern Church, [[John Chrysostom]], [[Basil the Great]], [[Gregory the Theologian|Gregory of Nazianzus]], and [[Athanasius of Alexandria|Athanasius]].
*1569 Martyrdom of [[Philip II of Moscow|Philip of Moscow]], at the hands of Ivan IV Grozny.
*1569 [[w:Union of Lublin|Union of Lublin]] unites Kingdom of Poland and Grand Duchy of Lithuania into a single state, the [[w:Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth|Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth]], placing the [[w:Ruthenians|Ruthenian]] Orthodox lands of Belarus, and modern Ukraine under direct Roman Catholic rule.
*1571 Restoration of [[Church of Cyprus]] to Orthodox rule, as Cyprus is conquered by the Ottoman Empire; Ottomans are defeated at the [[w:Battle of Lepanto (1571)|Battle of Lepanto]], preventing them from advancing further into Europe.
*1573 [[w:Pope Gregory XIII|Pope Gregory XIII]] establishes Congregation for the Greeks, a committee of cardinals who addressed issues relating to the Greeks in southern Italy and Sicily in the hope of resolving tensions between Greeks and Latins.
*1573-81 Correspondence of Patr. [[Jeremias II Tranos of Constantinople|Jeremias II of Constantinople]] with Lutherans.
*1575 [[Church of Constantinople]] grants [[autonomy]] to [[Church of Sinai]].
*1576 [[w:Pope Gregory XIII|Pope Gregory XIII]] establishes Pontifical Greek College of St. Athanasius (popularly known as the 'Greek College') in Rome, which he charged with educating Italo-Byzantine clerics.
*1579 Death of [[Gerasimos of Cephalonia|Gerasimus of Kefalonia]]the New, ascetic of Cephalonia; discovery of [[Our Lady of Kazan]], holiest Russian icon; on [[Holy Saturday]] at the [[Church of the Holy Sepulchre (Jerusalem)|Church of the Holy Sepulchre]] the Armenian patriarch prayed day and night in order to obtain the [[Holy Fire]], but the Fire miraculously struck a column near the entrance of the church, and lit a candle held by the Orthodox patriarch standing nearby.*1581 [[Ostrog Bible|Ostrozhsky Bible ]] printed by Prince Kurbsky and Ivan Fedorov.
*1582 Institution of the [[Gregorian Calendar]] by Pope Gregory XIII; death of [[w:Teresa of Ávila|Teresa of Ávila]], prominent Spanish mystic.
*1583 [[Sigillion of 1583]] issued against [[Gregorian Calendar]] by council convened in Constantinople.
*1587-Present. The relatively modest [[w:Church of St. George, Istanbul|Church of St George]] in the Phanar district of Istanbul becomes the seat of the [[Church of Constantinople|Ecumenical Patriarchate]].
*1589 [[Autocephaly]] and [[canonical territory]] of [[Church of Russia]] recognized, as Patr. [[Jeremias II (Tranos) of Constantinople|Jeremias II of Constantinople ]] raises Metr. [[Job of Moscow ]] to the rank of [[Patriarch]] of Moscow and of All Russia. *1593 [[Council of Constantinople (1593)|Council of Constantinople]] held, where the patriarchs of Antioch, Alexandria, and Jerusalem confirmed the appointment of Patr. [[Job of Moscow]] and the erection of the Russian patriarchate, placing it fifth in the hierarchy of patriarchates.
*1596 [[Union of Brest-Litovsk]], several million Ukrainian and Byelorussian Orthodox Christians, living under Polish rule, leave the [[Church of Constantinople]] and recognize the Pope of Rome, without giving up their Byzantine liturgy and customs, creating the [[Uniate]] church.
*ca. 1600-1700 Conversion of Albania to Islam mainly through discriminatory tax system, the ''Djize''.
*1607 Death of Patr. [[Job of Moscow]].
*1609-10 [[w:Douay-Rheims Bible|Douay-Rheims Bible]] printed, first complete English Roman Catholic Bible, translated from [[Vulgate]].
*1611 [[w:Authorized King James Version|Authorized King James Version]] of the Bible printed; [[w:Gallicanism|Gallican]] French theologian Edmund Richer (1559-1631) held the view that [[w:Conciliarism|ecclesiastical councils]], not the papacy, was the method by which doctrinal truth was established, but his work was censured at the Council of Aix-en-Provence in 1612.
*1612 Martyrdom of Patr. [[Hermogenes of Moscow]]; [[Our Lady of Kazan]] icon commemorates the deliverance from Poles.
*1620 [[Council of Moscow (1620)|Council of Moscow]] presided over by Patr. [[Philaret (Romanov) of Moscow|Philaret of Moscow]] insisted that only Orthodox [[Baptism]] by triple immersion was valid, and that all (Latin) converts had to be rebaptized.*1625 ''Confession of Faith'' by [[‎Metrophanes (Kritopoulos) of Alexandria|Metrophanes Kritopoulos ]] written.
*1627 Pope [[Cyril Lucaris]] of Alexandria presents [[Codex Alexandrinus]] to King Charles I of England for safe keeping.
*1633 Ethiopian emperor [[w:Fasilides of Ethiopia|Fasilides]] expels Jesuits and other Roman Catholic missionaries from Ethiopia.
*1646 [[w:Union of Uzhhorod|Union of Uzhhorod]] joins 63 Ruthenian Orthodox priests from the Carpathian Mountains to Roman Catholic Church on terms similar to [[Union of Brest]].
*1647 Orthodox church erected in Tunisia.
*1649 Martyrdom of [[Athanasius of Bretsk|Athanasius of Brest-Litovsk]] by the Latins.
*1650-1700 Ottoman [[w:Istanbul|Constantinople]] is [[w:List of largest cities throughout history|largest city in the world]] by population.
*1652 School and hospital established in Old Cairo by Patr. Joannikios.
*1656 [[Voskresensky Monastery]] founded by Patr. [[Nikon of Moscow|Nikon]] at Istra near Moscow, intended to represent the Heavenly Jerusalem.
*1665 Greek Jewish kabbalist [[w:Sabbatai Zevi|Sabbatai Sevi]] hailed by Jews of Palestine as the [[Jesus Christ|Messiah]], but then converts to Islam before the Ottoman Sultan to save his life.
*1666-1667 [[Moscow Sobor of 1666–1667|Council of Moscow]].*1667 Annexation of most of [[Christianization of Kievan Rus'|Kievan Rus']] by Tsar of Muscovite Kingdom.
*1669 Greek island of Crete taken by Ottoman Empire from Venetians.
*1672 [[w:Synod of Jerusalem|Synod of Jerusalem]] convened by Patr. [[Dositheos Dositheus II Notarius of Jerusalem|Dositheos Notaras]], refuting article by article the Calvinistic confession of [[Cyril Lucaris]], defining Orthodoxy relative to Roman Catholicism and Protestantism, and defining the Orthodox Biblical canon; acts of this council are later signed by all five patriarchates (including Russia).
*1675 Appearance of icon of [[Theotokos of Pochaiv]].
*1682 The ''Sabaite [[Typikon]]'' was published in its final form in Russia; from 1682 to 1888 the Greek and Russian Churches shared this common [[Typikon]].
*1683 Second Ottoman [[w:Battle of Vienna|Siege of Vienna]], capital of the Holy Roman Empire.
*1685 Orthodoxy introduced in Beijing by [[Church of Russia]].
*1686 The Ottomans, acting on the behalf of the regent of Russia [[w:Tsarevna Sophia Alekseyevna of Russia|Sophia Alekseyevna]], pressured the Patr. of Constantinople into transferring the [[Church of Ukraine|Orthodox Church of Kiev and all Rus']] (Church of Ukraine) from the jurisdiction of [[Church of Constantinople|Constantinople]] to the Patr. of [[Church of Russia|Moscow]], established a century prior to that.
*1688 Appearance of [[Mother of God Joy of All Who Sorrow|Joy of All Who Sorrow]] icon.
*1689 [[w:Great Serb Migrations|Great Serb Migrations]] of hundreds of thousands of Serbian refugees from Kosovo and Serbia proper, leaving a vacuum filled by flood of Albanian immigrants.
*1700-02 Submission of the dioceses of Lemberg (Lviv) and Luzk (Lutsk) in the [[w:Galicia (Central Europe)|Galician]] area of Ukraine to Roman Catholic Church completes [[Union of Brest-Litovsk]], so that two-thirds of the Orthodox in western Ukraine had become Greek Catholic.
*1707-20 Grabbe's edition of the [[Septuagint]] published at Oxford, reproducing (imperfectly) the ''Codex Alexandrinus'' of London.
*1709 Death of [[w:Dimitri of Rostov|Dimitri of Rostov]].
*1710 Spectacular miracle occurred at the [[Grabarka|Holy Mount of Grabarka]], the holiest location in Poland for Orthodox Christians, where a deadly outbreak of cholera in the region ended almost instantly.
*1715 Metr. [[Arsenios of Thebaid]] sent to England by Pope [[Samuel of Alexandria]] to negotiate with [[Non-Jurors|Non-Juror]] Anglican bishops.
*1715-1956 [[Russian Orthodox Mission in China|Russian Ecclesiastical Mission in China]].
*1716-25 Correspondence of Ecumenical Patriarch and Russian Czar with English Non-Jurors.
*1721 Czar [[Peter I of Russia]] replaces Russian patriarchate with a ruling [[Apostolic Governing Synod |holy synod]].
*1723 Schism in the [[Roman Catholic Church]], as the [[w:Old Catholic Church of the Netherlands|Church of Holland]], (or [[w:Old Catholic Church of the Netherlands|Church of Utrecht]]) broke with Rome under its own archbishop and hierarchy, becoming the mother church of the [[w:Old Catholic Church|Old Catholic Churches]].
*1724 [[Melkite Greek Catholic Church|Melkite]] schism, in which many faithful from the [[Church of Antioch]] become [[Uniate]]s.
*1728 The [[Church of Constantinople|Ecumenical Patriarchate]] formally replaced the ''[[Byzantine Creation Era|Creation Era]]'' (AM) calendar with the [[w:Anno Domini|Christian Era]] (AD).
*1731 Death of [[Innocent of Irkutsk]]. *1741 Synodal reform initiated, when Metr. Gerasimos of Heraclia obtains a [[Firman]] (decree) from Ottoman officials, regulating and subordinating the election of the Patriarch of Constantinople to the five Metropolitans of Heraclia, Kyzikos, Nicomedia, Nicaea, and Chalcedon, creating the so-called ''[[Gerontism|System of the Elders]]'' (''Γεροντισμος''), established gradually, in place until the late 19th century.*1754 [[Hesychasm|Hesychast ]] Renaissance begins with the [[Kollyvades Movement]]; discovery of the holy [[relics]] of the Four [[Martyr]]s of [[w:Megara|Megara]]: Polyeuctos, George, Adrianos and Platon, the "Newly-Revealed". *1755 [[Synod of Constantinople |Synod of Constantinople (1755)]] declares Roman Catholic baptism invalid and ordered baptism of converts from Roman Catholicism. *1756 ''[[Sigillion of 1756]]'' issued against the [[Gregorian Calendar]] by Patr. [[Cyril V of Constantinople]]; *1756 After Tsar Peter the Great had ordered in 1712 the printed Slavonic text of the Bible to be carefully compared with the Greek of the Septuagint and to be made in every respect conformable to it, the second edition of the Queen "Elizabeth" [[w:Slavic translations of the Bible|Slavonic Bible]] (QEB), ([[Septuagint|LXX]]) is issued in 1756; all later reprints of the Russian Church Bible are based upon this second edition, which is the authorized version of the [[Church of Russia|Russian Orthodox Church]].
*1760 [[Holy Trinity St. Seraphim-Diveyevo Convent]] founded in Russia.
*1763 The [[w:Jansenism|Jansenist]] Provincial Council of Utrecht, seed of the future [[w:Old Catholic Church|Old Catholic]] movements, affirmed every Roman Catholic dogma and pronounced the Orthodox Faith to be schismatic and false, signalling not so much a rapprochement with Orthodoxy, but rather a refusal to drift yet further from her, as much of the Roman fold was doing.
*1767 Community of Orthodox Greeks establishes itself in New Smyrna, Florida; Ottoman Empire legally divides [[Church of the Holy Sepulchre (Jerusalem)|Church of the Holy Sepulchre]] among claimants.
*1767-1815 [[w:Suppression of the Society of Jesus|Suppression of the Jesuits]] in Roman Catholic countries, subsequently finding refuge in Orthodox nations, particularly in Russia.
*1779 Death of [[Kosmas Aitolos]].
*1782 First publication of ''[[Philokalia]]''; [[autonomy]] of [[Church of Sinai]] confirmed by [[Church of Constantinople]].
*1789 The [[w:French Revolution|French Revolution]] of 1789 catapulted [[w:History of atheism|atheistic thought]] into political notability, and opened the way for the 19th century movements of [[w:Rationalism|Rationalism]], [[w:Freethought|Freethought]], and [[w:Liberalism|Liberalism]] in the West.
*1793-95 Over 2,300 Uniate churches became Orthodox under Tsarina Catherine the Great.
*1794 Missionaries, including [[Herman of Alaska]], arrive at Kodiak Island, bringing Orthodoxy to Russian Alaska; death of [[Paisius Velichkovsky]] of Moldova and Mt. Athos.
*1796 [[Nicodemus of the Holy Mountain|Nicodemus the Hagiorite]] publishes ''[[Unseen Warfare]]'' in Venice.
*1798 Patriarch [[Anthimios Anthimus of Jerusalem]] contended that the [[w:Ottoman Empire|Ottoman Empire]] was part of the [[w:Divine Providence|Divine Dispensation]] granted by [[God]] to protect [[Orthodoxy]] from the taint of [[Roman Catholic Church|Roman Catholicism]] and of Western [[w:Secularism|secularism]] and [[w:Irreligion by country|irreligion]].
*1800 ''[[The Rudder]]'' published and printed in Athens.
*1803 Death of [[Xenia of St. Petersburg]].
*1804 [[w:British and Foreign Bible Society|British and Foreign Bible Society]] founded.
*1805 Death of [[Macarius Notaras of Corinth|Makarios of Corinth]], a central figure in the Kollyvades movement.
*1808 Death of Hieromartyr Nikita the Slav, of Mount Athos.
*1809-10 Rotunda and edicule exterior of [[Church of the Holy Sepulchre (Jerusalem)|Church of the Holy Sepulchre]] rebuilt after fire in Ottoman Baroque style.
*1815 [[Peter the Aleut]] tortured and martyred in San Francisco, California.
*1816 [[w:American Bible Society|American Bible Society]] founded; martyrdom of Acacius of Athos.
*1819 [[Council of Constantinople (1819)|Council at Constantinople ]] endorses views of Kollyvades fathers.
* [[Alexander Schmemann|Schmemann, Alexander]]. ''The Historical Road of Eastern Orthodoxy''.
* [[Kallistos (Ware) of Diokleia|Ware, Timothy]]. ''The Orthodox Church: New Edition''. (ISBN 0140146563)
* Dr. Kathryn Tsai. ''A Timeline of Eastern Church History.'' [[St. John of San Francisco Monastery (Manton, California)|Divine Ascent Press]], CA, 2004. ISBN 0971413924
'''From a [[Heterodox]] perspective'''
* Boer, Harry R. ''A Short History of the Early Church''. (ISBN 0802813399) * Cairns, Earle E. ''Christianity Through the Centuries: A History of the Christian Church''. (ISBN 0310208122) * Chadwick, Henry. ''The Early Church''. (ISBN 0140231994) * Collins, Michael, ed.; Price, Matthew Arlen. ''Story of Christianity: A Celebration of 2000 Years of Faith''. (ISBN 0789446057) * Eusebius Pamphilus; Cruse, C.F. (translator). ''Eusebius' Ecclesiastical History''. (ISBN 1565633717) * Gonzalez, Justo L. ''A History of Christian Thought, Volume 1: From the Beginnings to the Council of Chalcedon''. (ISBN 0687171822) * Gonzalez, Justo L. ''A History of Christian Thought, Volume 2: From Augustine to the Eve of the Reformation''. (ISBN 0687171830) * Gonzalez, Justo L. ''A History of Christian Thought, Volume 3: From the Protestant Reformation to the Twentieth Century''. (ISBN 0687171849) * Gonzalez, Justo L. ''The Story of Christianity, Volume 1: The Early Church to the Reformation''. (ISBN 0060633158) * Gonzalez, Justo L. ''The Story of Christianity, Volume 2: Reformation to the Present Day''. (ISBN 0060633166) * Hall, Stuart G. ''Doctrine and Practice in the Early Church''. (ISBN 0802806295) * Hastings, Adrian, ed. ''A World History of Christianity''. (ISBN 0802848753) * Hussey, J. M. ''The Orthodox Church in the Byzantine Empire: Oxford History of the Christian Church''. (ISBN 0198264569)
* Jones, Timothy P. ''Christian History Made Easy''. (ISBN 1890947105)
* Noll, Mark A. ''Turning Points: Decisive Moments in the History of Christianity''. (ISBN 080106211X) * [[Jaroslav Pelikan|Pelikan, Jaroslav]]. ''The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine, Volume 1: The Emergence of the Catholic Tradition (100-600)''. (ISBN 0226653714) * Pelikan, Jaroslav. ''The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine, Volume 2: The Spirit of Eastern Christendom (600-1700)''. (ISBN 0226653730) * Pelikan, Jaroslav. ''The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine, Volume 3: The Growth of Medieval Theology (600-1300)''. (ISBN 0226653749)
* Pelikan, Jaroslav. ''The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine, Volume 4: Reformation of Church and Dogma (1300-1700)''. (ISBN 0226653773)
* Pelikan, Jaroslav. ''The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine, Volume 5: Christian Doctrine and Modern Culture (since 1700)''. (ISBN 0226653803)
* SchaffPeri, PhilipOded (The Hebrew University of Jerusalem). ''History of the Islamic Law and Christian ChurchHoly Sites: Jerusalem and Its Vicinity in Early Ottoman Times.'' '''Islamic Law and Society'''. (ISBN 156563196X) * WaceVol.6, Henry; Piercy, William CNo., ed1. ''A Dictionary of Christian Biography: Literature to the End of the Sixth Century A1999.Dpp. With an Account of the Principal Sects and Heresies''97-111. (ISBN 1565630572) * WaltonSchaff, Robert CPhilip. ''Chronological and Background Charts History of the Christian Church History''. (ISBN 0310362814156563196X)
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