→Post-Imperial era (1453-1821): link;
==Post-Imperial era (1453-1821)==
*1455 Gutenberg makes first printed [[Bible]].
*1455-56 ''Confession of Faith'' by Patr. Gennadius of Constantinople.
*1456-1587 Byzantine [[w:Pammakaristos Church|Church of Theotokos Pammakaristos]] became the seat of the [[Church of Constantinople|Ecumenical Patriarchate]].
*1461 Death of Jonah, Metropolitan of Moscow; commemoration of the Apparition of the Pillar with the Robe of the Lord under it at Mtskheta in Georgia, [[October 1]].
*1462 Wonderworking icon of [[Mantamados|Archangel Michael of Mantamados]] created.
*1463 Bosnia becomes province of Ottoman Empire, with an estimated 36,000 families voluntarily accepting Islam, followed by a sustained process of assimilation to Islam.
*1478 [[w:Spanish Inquisition|Spanish Inquisition]].
*1480 Meeting of the [[Theotokos of Vladimir]] icon in memory of saving Moscow from the invasion of Khan Ahmed.
*1492 Millennialist movements in Moscow, due to end of church calendar (year 7,000, according to the [[Byzantine Creation Era|Byzantine Date of Creation]]).
*1497 Martyrdom of Macarius, Metropolitan of Kiev, by invading Tatars.
*1503 [[Church of Russia#Non-Possessors|Possessor and Non-Possessor controversy]].
*1512 First Christian church erected in Americas in [[w:Santo Domingo|Santo Domingo]] by Spanish.
*1516 Desiderius Erasmus publishes "[[w:Textus Receptus|Textus Receptus]]" of New Testament on the basis of six late manuscripts of the Byzantine text-type.
*1542 Ethiopians and Portuguese defeat Ahmad ibn Ibrahim Gran of Adal, neutralizing Adal threat to Ethiopia.
*1545-63 [[w:Council of Trent|Council of Trent]] held to answer the Protestant Reformation.
*1551 [[Council of the Hundred Chapters]] in Russia.
*1557 Death of [[Basil the Blessed]].
*1563 Anglican Church's [[w:Thirty-Nine Articles|Thirty-Nine Articles]] of Religion published.
*1564 Jesuits arrive in Poland.
*1568 Pope Pius V recognizes four Great [[w:Doctor of the Church|Doctors]] of the Eastern Church, [[John Chrysostom]], [[Basil the Great]], [[Gregory the Theologian|Gregory of Nazianzus]], and [[Athanasius of Alexandria|Athanasius]].
*1569 Martyrdom of [[Philip of Moscow]], at the hands of Ivan IV Grozny.
*1569 [[w:Union of Lublin|Union of Lublin]] unites Kingdom of Poland and Grand Duchy of Lithuania into a single state, the [[w:Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth|Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth]], placing the [[w:Ruthenians|Ruthenian]] Orthodox lands of Belarus, and modern Ukraine under direct Roman Catholic rule.
*1571 Restoration of [[Church of Cyprus]] to Orthodox rule.
*1573 [[w:Pope Gregory XIII|Pope Gregory XIII]] establishes Congregation for the Greeks, a committee of cardinals who addressed issues relating to the Greeks in southern Italy and Sicily in the hope of resolving tensions between Greeks and Latins.
*1573-81 Correspondence of Patr. [[Jeremias II of Constantinople]] with Lutherans.
*1575 [[Church of Constantinople]] grants [[autonomy]] to [[Church of Sinai]].
*1576 [[w:Pope Gregory XIII|Pope Gregory XIII]] establishes Pontifical Greek College of St. Athanasius (popularly known as the 'Greek College') in Rome, which he charged with educating Italo-Byzantine clerics.
*1579 Death of [[Gerasimus
of Kefalonia]]; discovery of [[Our Lady of Kazan]], holiest Russian icon.*1581 Ostrozhsky Bible printed by Prince Kurbsky and Ivan Fedorov.
*1582 Institution of the [[Gregorian Calendar]] by Pope Gregory XIII; death of [[w:Teresa of Ávila|Teresa of Ávila]], prominent Spanish mystic.
*1583 [[Sigillion of 1583]] issued against [[Gregorian Calendar]] by council convened in Constantinople.
*1587-Present. The relatively modest [[w:Church of St. George, Istanbul|Church of St George]] in the Phanar district of Istanbul becomes the seat of the [[Church of Constantinople|Ecumenical Patriarchate]].
*1589 [[Autocephaly]] and [[canonical territory]] of [[Church of Russia]] recognized, as Patr. Jeremias II of Constantinople raises Metr. Job of Moscow to the rank of [[Patriarch]] of Moscow and of All Russia.
*1596 [[Union of Brest-Litovsk]], several million Ukrainian and Byelorussian Orthodox Christians, living under Polish rule, leave the [[Church of Constantinople]] and recognize the Pope of Rome, without giving up their Byzantine liturgy and customs, creating the [[Uniate]] church.
*ca. 1600-1700 Conversion of Albania to Islam mainly through discriminatory tax system, the ''Djize''.
*1607 Death of Patr. [[Job of Moscow]].
*1609-10 [[w:Douay-Rheims Bible|Douay-Rheims Bible]] printed, first complete English Roman Catholic Bible, translated from [[Vulgate]].
*1611 [[w:Authorized King James Version|Authorized King James Version]] of the Bible printed.
*1612 Martyrdom of Patr. [[Hermogenes of Moscow]]; [[Our Lady of Kazan]] icon commemorates the deliverance from Poles.
*1625 ''Confession of Faith'' by Metrophanes Kritopoulos written.
*1627 Pope [[Cyril Lucaris]] of Alexandria presents [[Codex Alexandrinus]] to King Charles I of England for safe keeping.
*1633 Ethiopian emperor [[w:Fasilides of Ethiopia|Fasilides]] expels Jesuits and other Roman Catholic missionaries from Ethiopia.
*1646 [[w:Union of Uzhhorod|Union of Uzhhorod]] joins 63 Ruthenian Orthodox priests from the Carpathian Mountains to Roman Catholic Church on terms similar to [[Union of Brest]].
*1647 Orthodox church erected in Tunisia.
*1649 Martyrdom of [[Athanasius of Brest-Litovsk]] by the Latins.
*1650-1700 Ottoman [[w:Istanbul|Constantinople]] is [[w:List of largest cities throughout history|largest city in the world]] by population.
*1652 School and hospital established in Old Cairo by Patr. Joannikios.
*1656 [[Voskresensky Monastery]] founded by Patr. [[Nikon of Moscow|Nikon]] at Istra near Moscow, intended to represent the Heavenly Jerusalem.
*1665 Greek Jewish kabbalist [[w:Sabbatai Zevi|Sabbatai Sevi]] hailed by Jews of Palestine as the [[Jesus Christ|Messiah]], but then converts to Islam before the Ottoman Sultan to save his life.
*1667 Annexation of most of [[Kievan Rus']] by Tsar of Muscovite Kingdom.
*1669 Greek island of Crete taken by Ottoman Empire from Venetians.
*1672 [[w:Synod of Jerusalem|Synod of Jerusalem]] convened by Patr. [[
Dositheos II of Jerusalem|Dositheos Notaras]], refuting article by article the Calvinistic confession of [[Cyril Lucaris]], defining Orthodoxy relative to Roman Catholicism and Protestantism, and defining the Orthodox Biblical canon; acts of this council are later signed by all five patriarchates (including Russia).
*1675 Appearance of icon of [[Theotokos of Pochaiv]].
*1682 The ''Sabaite [[Typikon]]'' was published in its final form in Russia; from 1682 to 1888 the Greek and Russian Churches shared this common [[Typikon]].
*1683 Second Ottoman [[w:Battle of Vienna|Siege of Vienna]], capital of the Holy Roman Empire.
*1685 Orthodoxy introduced in Beijing by [[Church of Russia]].
*1688 Appearance of [[Mother of God Joy of All Who Sorrow|Joy of All Who Sorrow]] icon.
*1689 [[w:Great Serb Migrations|Great Serb Migrations]] of hundreds of thousands of Serbian refugees from Kosovo and Serbia proper, leaving a vacuum filled by flood of Albanian immigrants.
*1700-02 Submission of the dioceses of Lemberg (Lviv) and Luzk (Lutsk) in the [[w:Galicia (Central Europe)|Galician]] area of Ukraine to Roman Catholic Church completes [[Union of Brest-Litovsk]], so that two-thirds of the Orthodox in western Ukraine had become Greek Catholic.
*1707-20 Grabbe's edition of the [[Septuagint]] published at Oxford, reproducing (imperfectly) the ''Codex Alexandrinus'' of London.
*1715 Metr. [[Arsenios of Thebaid]] sent to England by Pope [[Samuel of Alexandria]] to negotiate with [[Non-Jurors|Non-Juror]] Anglican bishops.
*1715-1956 [[Russian Orthodox Mission in China|Russian Ecclesiastical Mission in China]].
*1716-25 Correspondence of Ecumenical Patriarch and Russian Czar with English Non-Jurors.
*1721 Czar [[Peter I of Russia]] replaces Russian patriarchate with a ruling [[holy synod]].
*1723 Schism in the [[Roman Catholic Church]], as the [[w:Old Catholic Church of the Netherlands|Church of Holland]], (or [[w:Old Catholic Church of the Netherlands|Church of Utrecht]]) broke with Rome under its own archbishop and hierarchy, becoming the mother church of the [[w:Old Catholic Church|Old Catholic Churches]].
Melkite Greek Catholic Church|Melkite]] schism, in which many faithful from the [[Church of Antioch]] become [[Uniate]]s.
*1728 The [[Church of Constantinople|Ecumenical Patriarchate]] formally replaced the ''[[Byzantine Creation Era|Creation Era]]'' (AM) calendar with the [[w:Anno Domini|Christian Era]] (AD).
*1731 Death of [[Innocent of Irkutsk]].
*1754 Hesychast Renaissance begins with the [[Kollyvades Movement]]. *1755 Synod of Constantinople declares Roman Catholic baptism invalid and ordered baptism of converts from Roman Catholicism. *1756 ''[[Sigillion of 1756]]'' issued against the [[Gregorian Calendar]] by Patr. [[Cyril V of Constantinople]].
*1760 [[Holy Trinity St. Seraphim-Diveyevo Convent]] founded in Russia.
*1767 Community of Orthodox Greeks establishes itself in New Smyrna, Florida; Ottoman Empire legally divides [[Church of the Holy Sepulchre (Jerusalem)|Church of the Holy Sepulchre]] among claimants.
*1767-1815 [[w:Suppression of the Society of Jesus|Suppression of the Jesuits]] in Roman Catholic countries, subsequently finding refuge in Orthodox nations, particularly in Russia.
*1779 Death of [[Kosmas Aitolos]].
*1782 First publication of ''[[Philokalia]]''; [[autonomy]] of [[Church of Sinai]] confirmed by [[Church of Constantinople]].
*1793-95 Over 2,300 Uniate churches became Orthodox under Tsarina Catherine the Great.
*1794 Missionaries, including [[Herman of Alaska]], arrive at Kodiak Island, bringing Orthodoxy to Russian Alaska; death of [[Paisius Velichkovsky]] of Moldova and Mt. Athos.
*1796 [[Nicodemus of the Holy Mountain|Nicodemus the Hagiorite]] publishes ''[[Unseen Warfare]]'' in Venice.
*1798 Patriarch [[
Anthimios of Jerusalem]] contended that the [[w:Ottoman Empire|Ottoman Empire]] was part of the [[w:Divine Providence|Divine Dispensation]] granted by [[God]] to protect [[Orthodoxy]] from the taint of [[Roman Catholic Church|Roman Catholicism]] and of Western [[w:Secularism|secularism]] and [[w:Irreligion by country|irreligion]].
*1800 ''[[The Rudder]]'' published and printed in Athens.
*1803 Death of [[Xenia of St. Petersburg]].
*1804 [[w:British and Foreign Bible Society|British and Foreign Bible Society]] founded.
*1805 Death of [[Makarios of Corinth]], a central figure in the Kollyvades movement.
*1808 Death of Hieromartyr Nikita the Slav, of Mount Athos.
*1809-10 Rotunda and edicule exterior of [[Church of the Holy Sepulchre (Jerusalem)|Church of the Holy Sepulchre]] rebuilt after fire in Ottoman Baroque style.
*1815 [[Peter the Aleut]] tortured and martyred in San Francisco, California.
*1816 [[w:American Bible Society|American Bible Society]] founded; martyrdom of Acacius of Athos.
*1819 Council at Constantinople endorses views of Kollyvades fathers.
* [[Alexander Schmemann|Schmemann, Alexander]]. ''The Historical Road of Eastern Orthodoxy''.
* [[Kallistos (Ware) of Diokleia|Ware, Timothy]]. ''The Orthodox Church: New Edition''. (ISBN 0140146563)
'''From a [[Heterodox]] perspective'''
* Jones, Timothy P. ''Christian History Made Easy''. (ISBN 1890947105)
* Noll, Mark A. ''Turning Points: Decisive Moments in the History of Christianity''. (ISBN 080106211X)
* [[Jaroslav Pelikan|Pelikan, Jaroslav]]. ''The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine, Volume 1: The Emergence of the Catholic Tradition (100-600)''. (ISBN 0226653714) * Pelikan, Jaroslav. ''The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine, Volume 2: The Spirit of Eastern Christendom (600-1700)''. (ISBN 0226653730) * Pelikan, Jaroslav. ''The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine, Volume 3: The Growth of Medieval Theology (600-1300)''. (ISBN 0226653749)
* Pelikan, Jaroslav. ''The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine, Volume 4: Reformation of Church and Dogma (1300-1700)''. (ISBN 0226653773)
* Pelikan, Jaroslav. ''The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine, Volume 5: Christian Doctrine and Modern Culture (since 1700)''. (ISBN 0226653803)
Schaff, Philip. '' History of the Christian Church''. (ISBN 156563196X) * Wace, Henry; Piercy, William C. , ed. ''A Dictionary of Christian Biography: Literature to the End of the Sixth Century A. D. With an Account of the Principal Sects and Heresies''. (ISBN 1565630572) * Walton, Robert C. '' Chronological and Background Charts of Church History''. (ISBN 0310362814)