[[Archimandrite]] '''Pallady (Kafarov) of Beijing''' was the leader of the [[Russian Orthodox Mission in China|Russian Orthodox Mission]] in Beijing, China on two occasions during the middle of the nineteenth century, the thirteenth and fifteenth missions. Spending thirty three years at the mission, his scholarly studies of China and the Chinese culture as well as his development of a phonetic translation system brought him distinction as one of the fathers of Sinology.
Arch. Pallady’s work at the mission followed in the footsteps of his predecessors, chiefly Arch. [[Iakinf (Bichurin) of Beijing|Iakinf (Bichurin)]]. He studied Buddhism and Chinese history and produced a number of writings on these subjects. These works have been collected into ''The Works of the Members of the Orthodox Mission'', Vol. I-IV and in ''Elucidations of Marco Polo’s Travels in North China'' (Journal of the North China Branch of the R. A. S. Vol. X (1876)). His translations of the [[Holy Scriptures|Scriptures]] into Chinese included the Book of Psalms and the Book of Services.Arch. Pallady was a tireless student of the Chinese language. His major effort was the development of a phonetic system (pinyin) for rendering Mandarin Chinese using the Russian alphabet. His chief work was the development of a Chinese-Russian Phonetic Dictionary that contained explanations of almost 12,000 Chinese characters. The dictionary was published after his death.