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Severus of Antioch

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{{cleanup'''Severus of Antioch''' was one of the ancient dissident bishops in the [[Church of Antioch (Syriac)|Remove place-name for links unneeded on OrthodoxWikiChurch of Antioch]]. He was the most prominent theologian associated with the opposition to [[Fourth Ecumenical Council|Council of Chalcedon]] and played a central role in defending the phraseology of [[Dioscorus of Alexandria]] preserved by Chalcedon's opponents.}}
'''==Early Life==Severus''', [[Patriarch of Antioch]] (AD 512 - 518), was born approximately 465 around 459 in [[Sozopolis, Pisidia|Sozopolis]] in [[Pisidia]](modern day Turkey). His paternal grandfather, also named Severus, was by birth and education a [[Paganism|paganMetropolitan]], who was baptized of Sozopolis and in that capacity attended the ''[[martyrium]]'' Third Ecumenical Council|Council of Leontius at Tripolis.<ref>[[Evagrius ScholasticusEphesus]], H. E. 3.33in 431.</ref>
__TOC__== Life ==He almost at once openly united himself with Following the [[Acephali]], repudiating his own baptism and death of his baptizerfather, and even the Christian church itself as infected with [[Nestorianism]] (Labbea senator in Sozopolis, u.s.). Upon embracing [[Non-Chalcedonian]] doctrinesSeverus left Pisidia for Egypt, where he entered a monastery apparently belonging to that sect between [[Gaza]] studied grammar and rhetoric together with the Greek and its port [[Majuma]]Latin languages in Alexandria. Here It was in Alexandria that he met [[Peter was introduced to the Iberian]], who had been ordained bishop writings of Gaza by Theodosius, the Non-Chalcedonian monk, during his usurpation of the [[patriarch of Jerusalem]]. About this time Severus apparently joined a Non-Chalcedonian brotherhood near [[Eleutheropolis]] under the archimandrite MamasSs. At this time Severus rejected the ''[[Henoticon]]'' of [[Zeno of Basil the Byzantine Empire|ZenoGreat]], dismissing it as "the annulling edict," and "the disuniting edict" (Labbe, v. 121), and anathematized [[Pope Peter III of Alexandria|Peter Mongus]], the Non-Chalcedonian [[patriarch Gregory of AlexandriaNazianzus]], for accepting it. We next hear of him In 486 Severus moved to Beirut to study philosophy and Roman jurisprudence and in 488 he was baptized in an Egyptian monasterynearby Tripoli, whose abbot Nephalius having not been formerly previously baptized as it was a Non-Chalcedonian, now embraced the [[council custom in Pisidia at that time not to baptize boys until they had at least come of Chalcedon]]. In the resulting disagreement, Nephalius with his monks expelled Severus and his partisans<ref>Evagrius 3.33; see also 3.22age.</ref>
Severus is said to have stirred up ==Life as a fierce religious war among the population of Monk==After his [[Alexandriabaptism]], resulting in bloodshed and conflagrations (Labbe, v. 121). To escape punishment for this violence, he fled to Severus became increasingly [[Constantinopleasceticism|ascetic]]in his daily life, supported by eventually becoming a band of two hundred Non-Chalcedonian monks. [[Roman Emperor Anastasius I|Anastasiusmonk]], who succeeded Zeno as emperor at St. Romanus' Monastery in 491, was a professed Non-ChalcedonianMaiuma, and received Severus with honorPalestine. His presence initiated He later retreated into the desert near Eleutheropolis before founding a period of fighting in Constantinople between rival bands of monks, [[Chalcedonianmonastery]] and for his [[Non-Chalcedonian|Nondisciple]], which ended s in AD 511 with the humiliation of Anastasius, the temporary triumph of the patriarch [[Patriarch Macedonius II of Constantinople|Macedonius II]], and the reversal of the Non-Chalcedonian cause (Theophanes, p. 132)Maiuma. That same year Severus was eagerly dispatched by Anastasius to occupy lived there until the vacant [[patriarch coming of Antioch]] (Labbe, iv. 1414; Theod. Lect. ii. 31, pp. 563, 567; Theophanes pNephalius to Gaza in 508. 134), and the very day of his enthronement solemnly pronounced in his church an anathema on Chalcedon, and accepted the ''Henoticon'' he Nephalius had previously repudiated. He had the name led a faction of Peter Mongus inscribed in the diptychs; entered into communion with the Non-Chalcedonian prelates, Eutychian [[Patriarch Timothy I of Constantinopleheresy|Timotheusheretics]] of Constantinople before renouncing his heresies and [[Yoannis II of Alexandria|John Niciota]] of Alexandria; and received into communion Peter of Iberia and other leading members of the Acephali (Evagraccepting Chalcedon. H. E. iii. 33; Labbe, iv. 1414, v. 121, 762; Theod. Lect. l.c.). Non-Chalcedonianism seemed now triumphant throughout the Christian world. Proud of his patriarchal dignity and strong in the emperorSeverus insisted that Dioscorus's protectionterminological rigidity be preserved, Severus despatched letters refused to his brother-prelates, announcing his elevation acknowledge the later Cyrilline and demanding [[Communion (Christian)|communion]]. In these he anathematized Chalcedon and all who maintained the two natures. While many rejected them altogether, Non-Chalcedonianism was everywhere in the ascendant in the EastChalcedonian formula, and Severus was deservedly regarded as its chief champion (Severus of Ashmunain apud Neale, Patr. Alex. ii. 27). Synodal letters were exchanged between John Niciota and Severus, which are the earliest examples of communication between the [[Oriental Orthodox]] sees of Alexandria and Antioch that have continued to the present daytherefore expelled.
The triumph of Following his expulsion from his monastery Severus was, however, short. His possession of together with 200 monks from the area around Gaza left for the patriarchate of Antioch did not survive his imperial patron. Anastasius was succeeded in 518 by [[Justin I]], who embraced the beliefs capital of Chalcedon. The Non-Chalcedonian prelates were everywhere replaced by Chalcedonian successorsConstantinople, Severus being one of the first where they remained for 3 years seeking to fall. Irenaeus, obtain the count favor of the East, was commissioned to arrest him but Severus departed before his approach, setting sail one night in September 518 for Alexandria (Liberat. Brev. l.c.; Theophanes, p. 141; Evagr. H. E. iv. 4)Emperor Anastasius. When Patriarch [[Paul I Macedonius II of AntiochConstantinople|Paul IMacedonius of Constantinople]] was ordained in his place. Severus and his doctrines were anathematized in various councils, while at Alexandria he was gladly welcomed by the patriarch [[Timotheos III of Alexandriadeposition|Timotheos IIIdeposed]] and his other fellow doctrinarists, being generally hailed as the champion of the orthodox faith against the corruptions of Nestorianism. His learning and persuasion established his authority as "os omnium doctorum," and the day of his entrance into Egypt in 511 he was long celebrated as a Coptic/Jacobite festival (Neale, u.s. p. 30). [[Alexandria]] soon became a refuge of Non-Chalcedonians of every shade of opinion, becoming too numerous considered for the emperor to molest. But within this group fierce controversies sprang up on various subtle questions of [[Christology]]patriarchate, one of which involved Severus and his fellow-exile [[Julian of Halicarnassus]] as to the corruptibility of Christ's human body before His resurrection. Julian and his followers were styled [[Aphthartodocetae]] and "Phantasiastaebut Patriarch Timothy," Severus and his adherents "Phthartolatrae" or "Corrupticolaewho also opposed Chalcedon," and "Ktistolatrae." The controversy was a heated enthroned instead and protracted one and while no settlement Severus was arrived at, the later Oriental Orthodox claim the victory for Severus ([[Renaudot]], p. 129)able to return to Palestine with his disciples.
After some years ==Patriarchate==When Patriarch Flavian II of Antioch was deposed in Egypt spent in continual literary and polemical activity512, Severus was unexpectedly summoned to Constantinople by Justin's successor elected Patriarch of Antioch, being [[Justinian Ienthronement|enthroned]], whose consort on [[Theodora (6th century)|TheodoraNovember 6]] favored Severus' cause, 512. The emperor was weary of Following the turmoil caused by the prolonged theological discussions; Severus, he was told, was the master rise to power of the Non-Chalcedonian party, and only through his influence could unity only be regained. At this period, AD 535. Emperor [[Anthimus Justinian I of Constantinople|Anthimus]] had been recently appointed Severus was summoned to Constantinople, where the emperor attempted to persuade him to accept [[Patriarch of ConstantinopleChalcedon]] by Theodora's influence. He was a Non-Chalcedonian, who later joined heartily with When Severus and his associates, Peter of Apamea and Zoaras, in their endeavours to get Non-Chalcedonianism recognized as refused the imperial faith. This introduction of Non-Chalcedonians threw the city into great disorder, and large numbers embraced their beliefs (Labbe, v. 124). Eventually, at the instance of [[Pope Agapetus I]], who happened emperor ordered him to be present in Constantinople on political businesskilled, the Non-Chalcedonians Anthimus and Timotheus were deposedbut he was saved by St. Patriarch [[Mennas Theodora (wife of ConstantinopleJustinian)|MennasTheodora]], the emperor's wife, who succeeded Anthimus, summoned was the daughter of a [[synodpriest]] in May from Syria and June 536 to deal with the an opponent of Chalcedon question. Severus and his two companions were cast out "as wolves"At her urging, and once again anathematized (Labbe, v. 253-255). The sentence was ratified by Justinian. The writings of Severus were proscribed; any one possessing them who failed to commit them to fled the flames was to lose his right hand (Evagr. H. E. iv. 11; Novell. Justinian. No. 42; Matt. Blastar. p. 59). Severus returned to Egyptcapital, after which he seems never again to have left. The date of his death is said variously to be 538, 539, or 542.<ref>Gillman, Ian and Hans-Joachim Klimkeit, ''Christians in Asia before 1500'' (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1999), on p. 31 states he died in 538.</ref> According to Emperor Justinian declared him [[John of Ephesusdeposition|deposed]], he died and in 518 placed a supporter of Chalcedon on the Egyptian desertpatriarchal throne of Antioch.
== Writing and theology ==He was a very copious writer, but we possess little more than fragments. An account of them, so far as they can be identifiedSeverus fled Constantinople for Egypt, is given by where he met with Pope [[William CaveTimothy II Aelurus of Alexandria|Timothy II]]<ref> ''Historia Literaria'', voland took refuge in a number of different monasteries disguised as a simple monk. iThroughout his travels in Egypt Severus preached his anti-Chalcedonian position and strengthened his followers in their resistance to the Fourth Ecumenical Synod.pp. 499 ff.</ref> He also wrote many books and [[Fabricius]]<ref>Biblletters against heresies. Graec. lib. v. c. 36, vol. x. pp. 614 ff., ed. Harless</ref>. A very large number exist only Although he wrote in Greek his writings have been primarily preserved in [[Syriac]], for which consult the catalogue of the Syriac manuscripts in the British Museum by Prof. Wright.
In 535 Severus was successful in his great aim returned to Constantinople to discuss the reunification of uniting the Non-Chalcedonians into one compact body Church with a definitely formulated creedEmperor Justinian. For notwithstanding During his stay in the numerous subdivisions of the Non-Chalcedonians, city he was, in Dorner's words, "strictly speaking, the scientific leader brought Patriarch [[Anthimus I of the most compact portion Constantinople|Anthimus]] of Constantinople to reject Chalcedon, but the party," and regarded [[schism]] as such by the Non-Chalcedonians a whole was unable to be healed at that time and their opponents. He was the chief object of attack in 536 the long and fierce contest with the Chalcedonians, by whom he is always designated as the author and ringleader of Non-Chalcedonianism. Hoping to embrace as many as possible of varying theological color, he followed the traditional formulas of the church as closely as he could, while affixing his own sense upon them.<ref>Dorner, ''Pers. of Christ'', div. ii. vol. i. p. 136, Clark's transemperor had Severus formally [[excommunication|excommunicated]].</ref>
==References==Upon returning to Egypt, Severus settled in the home of a layman, Dorotheus, in the city of Sakha and continued to teach and purportedly work miracles. He died on [[February 8]], 538.
*In 1904 the ''Sixth Book of the Select Letters of Severus'', in the Syriac version of [[Athanasius of Nisibis]], were edited by [[G. E. W. Brooks]] (London). For a full statement of his opinions see the major work of Dorner, and the article "Monophysiten" in Herzog's Encyclopedia.
*This article uses text from ''[http://www.ccel.org/w/wace/biodict/htm/TOC.htm A Dictionary of Christian Biography and Literature to the End of the Sixth Century A.D., with an Account of the Principal Sects and Heresies]'' by [[Henry Wace]].
*Pauline Allen and Robert Hayward, ''Severus of Antioch'', Routlege, 2004.
*Frédéric Alpi, several recent articles in French devoted to the episcopate of Severus.
==Notes==<references/> ==Source==*[[Wikipedia:Severus_of_Antioch]]  ==External linksLinks and Sources==* [http://www.tertulliancecs.acu.edu.orgau/fathers/severus_coll_0_eintroseverusresearch.htm A Bibliography of Severus: A collection of letters from numerous Syriac manuscriptsAntioch]* [http://www.cecsnewadvent.acu.edu.auorg/cathen/severusresearch10489b.htm A bibliography of Severus of AntiochMonophysites and Monophysitism](Catholic Encyclopedia)* [http://www.orthodoxunitytertullian.org/article02fathers/severus_coll_0_eintro.html The Christology htm A Collection of Letters of Severus of Antioch].* [http://www.orthodox-libraryccel.org/ccel/pearse/morefathers/files/severus_coll_0_eintro.com A collection htm Letters of Patriarch Severus of letters from numerous Syriac manuscriptsAntioch]
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