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Severus of Antioch

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'''Severusof Antioch''', was one of the ancient dissident bishops in the [[Patriarch Church of Antioch]] (AD 512 - 518Syriac), born approximately 465 in [[Sozopolis, Pisidia|SozopolisChurch of Antioch]] in . He was the most prominent theologian associated with the opposition to [[PisidiaFourth Ecumenical Council|Council of Chalcedon]], was by birth and education played a [[Paganism|pagan]], who was baptized central role in defending the ''phraseology of [[martyriumDioscorus of Alexandria]]preserved by Chalcedon'' of Leontius at Tripolis.<ref>[[Evagrius Scholasticus]], H. E. 3.33s opponents.</ref>
__TOC__== Early Life ==He almost at once openly united himself with the [[Acephali]], repudiating his own baptism and his baptizerSeverus was born around 459 in Sozopolis, and even the Christian church itself as infected with [[Nestorianism]] Pisidia (Labbe, u.s.modern day Turkey). Upon embracing [[Non-Chalcedonian]] doctrinesHis paternal grandfather, he entered a monastery apparently belonging to that sect between [[Gaza]] and its port [[Majuma]]. Here he met [[Peter the Iberian]], who had been ordained bishop of Gaza by Theodosiusalso named Severus, the Non-Chalcedonian monk, during his usurpation of the [[patriarch of Jerusalem]]. About this time Severus apparently joined a Non-Chalcedonian brotherhood near [[Eleutheropolis]] under the archimandrite Mamas. At this time Severus rejected the ''was [[HenoticonMetropolitan]]'' of [[Zeno of the Byzantine Empire|Zeno]], dismissing it as "the annulling edict," Sozopolis and "in that capacity attended the disuniting edict" (Labbe, v. 121), and anathematized [[Pope Peter III of AlexandriaThird Ecumenical Council|Peter Mongus]], the Non-Chalcedonian [[patriarch Council of AlexandriaEphesus]], for accepting it. We next hear of him in an Egyptian monastery, whose abbot Nephalius having been formerly a Non-Chalcedonian, now embraced the [[council of Chalcedon]]. In the resulting disagreement, Nephalius with his monks expelled Severus and his partisans<ref>Evagrius 3.33; see also 3.22431.</ref>
Severus is said to have stirred up a fierce religious war among Following the population death of [[Alexandria]]his father, resulting a senator in bloodshed and conflagrations (LabbeSozopolis, v. 121). To escape punishment Severus left Pisidia for this violenceEgypt, where he fled to [[Constantinople]], supported by a band of two hundred Non-Chalcedonian monks. [[Roman Emperor Anastasius I|Anastasius]], who succeeded Zeno as emperor in 491, was a professed Non-Chalcedonian, studied grammar and received Severus rhetoric together with honor. His presence initiated a period of fighting in Constantinople between rival bands of monks, [[Chalcedonian]] the Greek and [[Non-Chalcedonian|Non]], which ended Latin languages in AD 511 with the humiliation of Anastasius, the temporary triumph of the patriarch [[Patriarch Macedonius II of Constantinople|Macedonius II]], and the reversal of the Non-Chalcedonian cause (Theophanes, pAlexandria. 132). That same year Severus It was in Alexandria that he was eagerly dispatched by Anastasius introduced to occupy the vacant [[patriarch writings of Antioch]] (Labbe, iv. 1414; Theod. Lect. ii. 31, pp. 563, 567; Theophanes pSs. 134), and the very day of his enthronement solemnly pronounced in his church an anathema on Chalcedon, and accepted the ''Henoticon'' he had previously repudiated. He had the name of Peter Mongus inscribed in the diptychs; entered into communion with the Non-Chalcedonian prelates, [[Patriarch Timothy I of Constantinople|TimotheusBasil the Great]] of Constantinople and [[Yoannis II Gregory of Alexandria|John NiciotaNazianzus]] of Alexandria; and received into communion Peter of Iberia and other leading members of the Acephali (Evagr. H. E. iii. 33; Labbe, iv. 1414, v. 121, 762; Theod. Lect. l.c.). Non-Chalcedonianism seemed now triumphant throughout the Christian world. Proud of his patriarchal dignity and strong in the emperor's protection, In 486 Severus despatched letters moved to his brother-prelates, announcing his elevation Beirut to study philosophy and Roman jurisprudence and demanding [[Communion (Christian)|communion]]. In these in 488 he anathematized Chalcedon and all who maintained the two natures. While many rejected them altogether, Non-Chalcedonianism was everywhere in the ascendant baptized in the Eastnearby Tripoli, and Severus having not been previously baptized as it was deservedly regarded as its chief champion (Severus of Ashmunain apud Neale, Patr. Alex. ii. 27). Synodal letters were exchanged between John Niciota and Severus, which are the earliest examples of communication between the [[Oriental Orthodox]] sees of Alexandria and Antioch a custom in Pisidia at that have continued time not to the present daybaptize boys until they had at least come of age.
The triumph of Severus was, however, short. His possession of the patriarchate of Antioch did not survive ==Life as a Monk==After his imperial patron. Anastasius was succeeded in 518 by [[Justin Ibaptism]], who embraced the beliefs of Chalcedon. The Non-Chalcedonian prelates were everywhere replaced by Chalcedonian successors, Severus being one of the first to fall. Irenaeus, the count of the East, was commissioned to arrest him but Severus departed before his approach, setting sail one night in September 518 for Alexandria (Liberat. Brev. l.c.; Theophanes, p. 141; Evagr. H. E. iv. 4). became increasingly [[Paul I of Antiochasceticism|Paul Iascetic]] was ordained in his place. Severus and his doctrines were anathematized in various councilsdaily life, while at Alexandria he was gladly welcomed by the patriarch eventually becoming a [[Timotheos III of Alexandria|Timotheos IIImonk]] and his other fellow doctrinaristsat St. Romanus' Monastery in Maiuma, being generally hailed as the champion of the orthodox faith against the corruptions of NestorianismPalestine. His learning and persuasion established his authority as "os omnium doctorum," and He later retreated into the day of his entrance into Egypt was long celebrated as desert near Eleutheropolis before founding a Coptic/Jacobite festival (Neale, u.s. p. 30). [[Alexandriamonastery]] soon became a refuge of Non-Chalcedonians of every shade of opinion, becoming too numerous for the emperor to molest. But within this group fierce controversies sprang up on various subtle questions of his [[Christologydisciple]], one of which involved s in Maiuma. Severus and his fellow-exile [[Julian lived there until the coming of Halicarnassus]] as Nephalius to Gaza in 508. Nephalius had previously led a faction of the corruptibility of Christ's human body before His resurrection. Julian and his followers were styled Eutychian [[Aphthartodocetaeheresy|heretics]] and "Phantasiastae," Severus and before renouncing his adherents "Phthartolatrae" or "Corrupticolae," heresies and "Ktistolatraeaccepting Chalcedon." The controversy was a heated and protracted one and while no settlement was arrived atSeverus insisted that Dioscorus' terminological rigidity be preserved, refused to acknowledge the later Oriental Orthodox claim the victory for Severus ([[Renaudot]]Cyrilline and Chalcedonian formula, p. 129)and was therefore expelled.
After some years in Egypt spent in continual literary and polemical activity, Following his expulsion from his monastery Severus was unexpectedly summoned to Constantinople by Justin's successor [[Justinian I]], whose consort [[Theodora (6th century)|Theodora]] favored Severus' cause. The emperor was weary of together with 200 monks from the turmoil caused by area around Gaza left for the prolonged theological discussions; Severusimperial capital of Constantinople, he was told, was where they remained for 3 years seeking to obtain the master favor of the Non-Chalcedonian party, and only through his influence could unity only be regained. At this period, AD 535Emperor Anastasius. When Patriarch [[Anthimus I Macedonius II of Constantinople|Anthimus]] had been recently appointed to the [[Patriarch Macedonius of Constantinople]] by Theodora's influence. He was a Non-Chalcedonian, who later joined heartily with Severus and his associates, Peter of Apamea and Zoaras, in their endeavours to get Non-Chalcedonianism recognized as the imperial faith. This introduction of Non-Chalcedonians threw the city into great disorder, and large numbers embraced their beliefs (Labbe, v. 124). Eventually, at the instance of [[Pope Agapetus Ideposition|deposed]], who happened to be present in Constantinople on political business511 he was considered for the patriarchate, the Non-Chalcedonians Anthimus and Timotheus were deposed. but Patriarch [[Mennas of Constantinople|Mennas]]Timothy, who succeeded Anthimus, summoned a [[synod]] in May and June 536 to deal with the also opposed Chalcedon question. Severus and his two companions were cast out "as wolves", was enthroned instead and once again anathematized (Labbe, v. 253-255). The sentence was ratified by Justinian. The writings of Severus were proscribed; any one possessing them who failed to commit them to the flames was able to lose his right hand (Evagr. H. E. iv. 11; Novell. Justinian. No. 42; Matt. Blastar. p. 59). Severus returned return to Egypt, which he seems never again to have left. The date of Palestine with his death is said variously to be 538, 539, or 542.<ref>Gillman, Ian and Hans-Joachim Klimkeit, ''Christians in Asia before 1500'' (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1999), on p. 31 states he died in 538.</ref> According to [[John of Ephesus]], he died in the Egyptian desertdisciples.
== Writing and theology Patriarchate==He When Patriarch Flavian II of Antioch was a very copious writerdeposed in 512, but we possess little more than fragments. An account Severus was elected Patriarch of themAntioch, so far as they can be identified, is given by being [[enthronement|enthroned]] on [[William CaveNovember 6]]<ref> ''Historia Literaria'', vol512. i.pp. 499 ff.</ref> and Following the rise to power of Emperor [[FabriciusJustinian I]]<ref>Bibl. Graec. lib. v. c. 36Severus was summoned to Constantinople, vol. x. pp. 614 ffwhere the emperor attempted to persuade him to accept [[Chalcedon]].When Severus refused the emperor ordered him to be killed, ed. Harless</ref>but he was saved by St. A very large number exist only in [[SyriacTheodora (wife of Justinian)|Theodora]], for which consult the catalogue emperor's wife, who was the daughter of a [[priest]] from Syria and an opponent of Chalcedon. At her urging, Severus fled the Syriac manuscripts capital, after which Emperor Justinian declared him [[deposition|deposed]] and in 518 placed a supporter of Chalcedon on the British Museum by Prof. Wrightpatriarchal throne of Antioch.
Severus was successful fled Constantinople for Egypt, where he met with Pope [[Timothy II Aelurus of Alexandria|Timothy II]] and took refuge in his great aim a number of uniting the Non-Chalcedonians into one compact body with different monasteries disguised as a definitely formulated creedsimple monk. For notwithstanding the numerous subdivisions of the Non-Chalcedonians, he was, Throughout his travels in Dorner's words, "strictly speaking, the scientific leader of the most compact portion of the party," and regarded as such by the NonEgypt Severus preached his anti-Chalcedonians Chalcedonian position and strengthened his followers in their opponentsresistance to the Fourth Ecumenical Synod. He was the chief object of attack in the long and fierce contest with the Chalcedonians, by whom he is always designated as the author also wrote many books and ringleader of Non-Chalcedonianismletters against heresies. Hoping to embrace as many as possible of varying theological color, Although he followed the traditional formulas of the church as closely as he could, while affixing wrote in Greek his own sense upon them.<ref>Dorner, ''Pers. of Christ'', div. ii. vol. i. p. 136, Clark's transwritings have been primarily preserved in Syriac.</ref>
==References==In 535 Severus returned to Constantinople to discuss the reunification of the Church with Emperor Justinian. During his stay in the city he brought Patriarch [[Anthimus I of Constantinople|Anthimus]] of Constantinople to reject Chalcedon, but the [[schism]] as a whole was unable to be healed at that time and in 536 the emperor had Severus formally [[excommunication|excommunicated]].
*In 1904 the ''Sixth Book of the Select Letters of Upon returning to Egypt, Severus'', settled in the Syriac version home of [[Athanasius of Nisibis]]a layman, were edited by [[G. E. W. Brooks]] (London). For a full statement of his opinions see the major work of DornerDorotheus, and in the article "Monophysiten" in Herzog's Encyclopedia.*This article uses text from ''[http://www.ccel.org/w/wace/biodict/htm/TOC.htm A Dictionary city of Christian Biography Sakha and Literature continued to the End of the Sixth Century A.Dteach and purportedly work miracles., with an Account of the Principal Sects and Heresies]'' by He died on [[Henry WaceFebruary 8]].*Pauline Allen and Robert Hayward, ''Severus of Antioch'', Routlege, 2004.*Frédéric Alpi, several recent articles in French devoted to the episcopate of Severus538.
==Notes==
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==External linksLinks and Sources==* [http://www.tertulliancecs.acu.edu.orgau/fathers/severus_coll_0_eintroseverusresearch.htm A Bibliography of Severus: A collection of letters from numerous Syriac manuscriptsAntioch]* [http://www.cecsnewadvent.acu.edu.auorg/cathen/severusresearch10489b.htm A bibliography of Severus of AntiochMonophysites and Monophysitism](Catholic Encyclopedia)* [http://www.orthodoxunitytertullian.org/article02fathers/severus_coll_0_eintro.html The Christology htm A Collection of Letters of Severus of Antioch].* [http://www.orthodox-libraryccel.com A collection org/ccel/pearse/morefathers/files/severus_coll_0_eintro.htm Letters of Patriarch Severus of letters from numerous Syriac manuscriptsAntioch]
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