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Constantine XI Palaiologos

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Saintly Status
[[Image:Constantine XI Palaiologos.jpg|right|thumb| Emperor Constantine XI Palaiologos.]]'''Constantine XI Palaeiologos''', or '''PalaeologosPalaiologos''' (Gr: ''Κωνσταντίνος ΙΑ' Δραγάσης Παλαιολόγος'', also '' '''Dragases''' ''), was the last reigning Byzantine Emperor emperor of the [[Palaiologos Dynasty]], born as well as the last of the Roman Emperors. Born in 1404 AD in [[Mystras]], and he ruled from 1449 until his death in on [[May 29]], 1453, at the [[Fall of Constantinople]]. He is also referred to as '''Dragases'''.
== Brief history ==
Constantine was the son of Emperor Manuel II. He was trained as a soldier and in 1441 conquered the Morea Peninsula of Greece. It had long been under the Frankish principality of 'Achaia' <ref> 'Achaia': A state established by the Crusaders. </ref> Constantine was crowned Emperor [[January 6]], 1449 AD succeeding his brother and a . A little less than five years later in 1453 AD he was killed during the final assaults by the Turkish Sultan, Mehmed II on Constantinople. Constantine, with some 8,000 Greeks, Venetians, and Genoese, had faced 150,000 Turkish besiegers under the Sultan, and after almost two months of heroic defense, directed by the emperor, the city and the empire fell. Constantine died fighting with the last of his men.<ref>[http://www.answers.com/topic/constantine-xi Columbia Encyclopedia: Constantine XI].</ref>. Going back to Augustus and the ancient Roman Empire, he was the 138th and last Roman Emperor.
<gallery>
Image:Constantinos XI Palaiologos.jpg|<small>Constantine XI Palaiologos</small>
Image:CPalaeologos.JPG|<small>Statue of Constantine XI Palaeiologos, Mystra, Greece</small>
Image:CPalaeologos2.JPG|<small>Close up of Statue</small>
Image:Constantinos XI Palaiologos.jpg|<small>Constantine XI Palaiologos</small>
</gallery>
== Saintly Status ==
Eastern Orthodox and Greek-Catholics do not consider Constantine XI a [[saint]], but he has not been officially recognized as such. One of the reasons for this was that in the centuries of Ottoman rulethough there are some who incorrectly, any effort on the part personally consider him so because of the Orthodox Church to officially glorify Constantine XI as a saint would have been seen as an act their love of rebellion, and hence decidedly ill-advised. After the [[Greek War of Independence]] Byzantine (1821-1831Roman)Empire. However, when the Greek Orthodox Church once again had freedom to act, an official act of glorification was thought to be superfluous, on account of longstanding veneration last Emperor has never been recognized as a saint Saint due to his heretical beliefs and martyr, specifically, a national martyr or ethnomartyr, (Greek: Eθνομάρτυρας). However, the erection his compromising of the statue of "''Saint Constantine XI the Ethnomartyr''" Faith in order to gain material aid from Latin lands. When the square Empire was in front of the [[Metropolitan Cathedral of Athens]]need, with he sought Latin military aid by reaffirming the formal blessing heretical statements of the Church authorities, appears to be a semi-official act Council of recognition. His feast falls on [[May 29|29 May]]Florence.<ref>[[whttps:Constantine_XI#Unofficial_saint|Constantine XI: Unofficial Saint]//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constantine_XI_Palaiologos] at Wikipedia.</ref>. The Russian Menologion indicates commemoration days for the Emperor on [[May 29]] and [[May 30]]. The entry under May 30 And it is as follows: ''‘On this day we commemorate said that he defiled the suffering Church of Agia Sophia the right-believing Emperor Constantine under day/night before the ungodly Turkish King, who himself became rulerFall with a blended Divine Liturgy and Latin mass.’'' The entry for May 29 reads simply: ''‘Emperor Constantine, who suffered under the Turks.’''<ref>[httphttps://rumkatkilisegrbs.library.orgduke.edu/article/viewFile/14639/statusconstantineXI.htm A Special Note Concerning the Status of Blessed Constantine XI3803]. Society of St. John Chrysostom of Ayatriada Rum Katoliki Kilise.</ref>In attempting to preserve an earthly Empire, he lost a Heavenly Kingdom. In contrast, there is Tzar [[Lazar of Serbia]], who gave up an earthly Kingdom for the Heavenly. The Faith is always more important than earthly possessions.
== See also ==
* UNESCO World Heritage site of '''[[Mystras]]'''
* St. '''[[Ipomoni]]''', ''Born as'' '''Helen DragasesHelena Dragaš''' ''before <ref>Before becoming a [[nun ]] and assuming the name Ipomoni. She , Helena was the mother of Constantine XI Palaiologos''. She lived a [[monasticism|monastic ]] life for over 25 years, after entering into the habit after the death of her husband. She died 1450AD and is commemorated by the church [[May 29]]. The [[relics ]] of her skull and her icon are found at the Monastery of St. Patapios, Loutraki of Korinthos, Greece.</ref> == Further Reading ==* [[w:Donald Nicol|Donald M. Nicol]]. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=lnSmnmL984YC&pg=PP1&dq=The+Immortal+Emperor#PPP1,M1 The Immortal Emperor: The Life and Legend of Constantine Palaiologos, Last Emperor of the Romans]''. Cambridge University Press, 2002. ISBN 0521894093, 9780521894098 (174 pp)
== Notes ==
== External Links ==
* [[w:Constantine XI|Constantine XI]] at Wikipedia.
* [http://rumkatkilise.org/statusconstantineXI.htm A Special Note Concerning the Status of Blessed Constantine XI]. The Society of St. John Chrysostom of Ayatriada Rum Katoliki Kilise.
* [http://rumkatkilise.org/constantineXI.htm Great Martyr and Emperor Constantine XI]. The Society of St. John Chrysostom of Ayatriada Rum Katoliki Kilise.
* [http://www.economicexpert.com/a/Constantine:XI.htm Constantine XI]. EconomicExpert.com.
*[http://penelopecoins.com/index.php?p=item&cid=3&id=14 Coinage of Constantine XI:]
*[https://grbs.library.duke.edu/article/viewFile/14639/3803]
[[Category:Roman Emperors]]
[[Category:Rulers]]
[[Category:Martyrs]]
[[Category:Saints]]
[[Category:Byzantine Saints]]
[[Category:Greek Saints]]
[[Category:Orthodoxy and Islam]]
[[Category:15th-century saints]]
 
[[ro:Constantin al XI-lea]]
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