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Divine Liturgy

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[[Image:Divine Liturgy, (Damaskinos).jpg|thumb|right|The [[Divine Liturgy]]. [[Michael Damaskinos|Damaskinos]], 1579-1584.]]
The '''Divine Liturgy''' is the primary worship service of the [[Orthodox Church|Church]]. The most commonly celebrated forms of the Divine Liturgy are the [[Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom]], the [[Liturgy of St. Basil]], and the [[Liturgy of the Presanctified Gifts]], but there are others other extant liturgies, such as the [[Liturgy of St. James]]; , the [[Liturgy of St. Mark]]; , the [[Liturgy of St. Gregory the Great]] , and the [[Liturgy of St. Tikhon of Moscow]]. The Divine Liturgy is a [[eucharist]]ic service. It contains two parts: the ''Liturgy of the [[Catechumen]]s'', sometimes called the ''Liturgy of the Word'', at which the [[Holy Scriptures|Scriptures]] are proclaimed and expounded, ; and the ''Liturgy of the Faithful'', sometimes called the ''Liturgy of the [[Eucharist]]'', in which the gifts of bread and wine are offered and consecrated. The Church teaches that the gifts truly become the body and blood of [[Jesus Christ]], but it has never dogmatized a particular formula for describing this transformation. The ''Prothesis'' (or ''[[proskomediaProskomedia]]''), the service of preparing the holy gifts, can be considered a third part which precedes the beginning of the Liturgy proper.
Before the Divine Liturgy begins, the [[priest]] and a [[deacon]], if one is serving, begin by preparing the gifts of bread and wine for use in the service. This preparation is itself a considerable service. More than simply setting aside the bread and wine, a robust ritual has developed with elaborate symbolism. Though the main outline is similar for most Orthodox churches, there may be some differences based on which [[typicon]] a jurisdiction uses.
Five loaves of bread are used, reminiscent of the five loaves in the wilderness, from which the masses were fed. During the prothesisProthesis, the priest cuts out a square called the Lamb from the main loaf of bread ([[prosphora]]). This will be consecrated during the Liturgy of the Faithful to become the holy Body body of Christ. He also removes small particles and places them on the [[diskos]] (or paten) in commemoration of the [[Theotokos]], various saints, and the living and departed faithful. The remainder of the bread is blessed and distributed to parishioners and visitors after the service; this bread is called ''[[antidoron]]''.
During the prothesisProthesis, the priest also blesses wine and water, which are poured into the chalice. Warm water will be added to the chalice after the [[epiclesis]].
Naturally, the gifts are [[incense|censed]] several times during the prothesisProthesis. The conclusion of the prothesis Prothesis leads directly into the beginning of the Divine Liturgy.
{{services}}== Liturgy of the Catechumens==
== Liturgy of the Word==
(Liturgy of the Catechumens)
=== Rites of Entrance ===
After a more or less quiet exchange between the priest and deacon, if one is serving, the Divine Liturgy begins with the memorable exclamation from the priest, "Blessed is the kingdom of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, now and ever and unto ages of ages." The assembled faithful respond, "Amen."
The deacon (or priest, if no deacon is serving) continues with the [[Great Litany]], so called because it is longer than most litanies and its petitions touch on the needs of the world: peace and salvation, the Church, her bishops, her faithful, captives and their health and salvation, deliverance from anger and need. It is concluded, as with most litanies, by calling to the remembrance of the faithful the witness of the [[Theotokos]] and the saints. In light of that powerful witness, the faithful are charged to commend one's life their lives to Our Lord [[Jesus Christ]]. A closing prayer is exclaimed by the priest.
There follow three [[antiphons]] which vary by day and [[:Category:Jurisdictions|jurisdiction]]. The first two anitphons are followed by a shorter litany and a prayer. The third is followed by the [[Little Entrance]], at which is sung, "O Come, let us worship God, our King! Save us, and fall down before Christ. O Son of God, ... save us who sing to youThee: Alleluia! Alleluia." "Son of God" is normally followed by an insertion, such as "risen from the dead," or "wondrous in your thy saints," or "through the prayers of the Theotokos," depending on the day."
[[Troparion|Troparia]] and [[kontakion|kontakia]] prescribed for the day, season, and temple follow next.
Having fully entered the church liturgically and gathered together around the Word, the gathered body chants the [[Trisagion|Thrice-Holy Hymn]] to the holy Trinity: "Holy God, holy mighty, holy immortal: have mercy on us."
=== Rites of Proclamation ===
The proclamation of [[Scripture]] is announced with the [[prokeimenon]], a [[Psalter|psalm ]] or canticle refrain sung in responsorial fashion. Then, a [[reader]] proclaims the apostolic reading from an [[epistle]] or from the [[Acts of the Apostles]]. This reading is usually chanted, but a spoken reading may be allowed out of economy for local situations. (In some traditions, the reader starts the chant in a very low voice, and steps up to end of the reading with a high voice. This is a reminder of how the Young Early Church rose up from the [[catacombs]].)
A triple [[alleluia]] is sung, also with verses as at the prokeimenon. This alleluia announces the Gospel reading. Following the alleluia, there is a short exchange between the priest and the people, after which he or a deacon [[chant|chants]] the Gospel.
Following the Gospel, the priest will often give a [[homily]], a short or medium-length excursus on the Scripture, the season, or the present festival or commemoration, roughly equivalent to the Protestant sermon. The homily may also be given after the communion or even after the dismissal.
The service continues with the [[Litany of Fervent Supplication]], which is marked by an insistent triple repitition repetition of "Lord, have mercy." On certain days this Litany litany is followed by the [[Litany for the Departed]]. The ''Liturgy of the Catechumens'' is concluded by a litany praying for the continued growth of the catechumens in faith, leading up to the day of their baptism. Though many churches do not have catechumens in attendance, this litany remains in the liturgy and serves as a constant reminder of the [[Great Commission]], the foundation of the Church as [[mission]] to the world.
The ''== Liturgy of the Word'' is concluded by a litany praying for the continued growth of the [[catechumen]]s in faith, leading up to the day of their baptism. Though many churches do not have catechumens in attendance, this litany remains in the liturgy and serves as a constant reminder of the [[Great Commission]], the foundation of the Church as [[mission]] to the world.Faithful==
== Liturgy of the Eucharist==
(Liturgy of the Faithful)
=== The Great Entrance ===
As the assembly begins chanting the [[Cherubic Hymn]], the celebrants go to the ''[[Table of oblation|prothesis]]'' or table of preparation. The priest presents the [[diskos]] to the deacon and takes the [[chalice]] himself. The deacon leads the priest through the north door of the icon screen. The clergy bring the gifts in procession to the holy doors, the central doors of the icon screen, while the deacon calls the faithful to attention, asking that the Lord will remember all people in his kingdom. As the holy gifts are carried solemnly through the holy doors, the assembled faithful conclude the Cherubic Hymn. ''(Note: if a deacon is not present, the priest makes this entrance with the diskos and chalice alone.)''
After the priest blesses the faithful , the deacon exclaims, "The doors! The doors!" This famous exclamation once marked the point in the service at which the doors to the temple were locked, with only faithful Christians remaining. Over the centuries, visitors have been allowed to stay, though the solemnity of what follows is still recalled with this phrase.
Then, the Church professes its common faith by reciting the [[Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed|Creed]]. The liturgical name for this creed is the ''Symbol of Faith'', indicating its importance to early Christians in determining the Orthodoxy of persons claiming to be of the [[Orthodox Church|Church]].
=== The Eucharistic Prayer ===
Following the Creed, the priest begins the ''[[anaphora]]'', the great eucharistic prayer over the gifts, so called because of the initial phrase: "Let us lift up our hearts." The two principal anaphoras in use in the Orthodox Church are those of St. [[John Chrysostom]] and St. [[Basil the Great]].
After remembering the history of our fall and redemption and the institution of the eucharistic meal, the priest invokes the Holy Spirit, asking that he be sent down on the gifts. It is sometimes noted that this invocation, the ''[[epiclesis]]'', is the moment climax of transformation the change of the gifts of bread and wine into the body and blood of Christ, but there is not total agreement among Orthodox scholars whether the transformation change can actually be pinpointed to a single moment in the service. It is certainly true that the prayers of the service treat the gifts as consecrated and transformed changed after this point.
Having invoked the Holy Spirit and consecrated the gifts, the priest commemorates the saints, beginning with the [[Theotokos]]. At this point, the assembled faithful chant the ancient hymn in honor honour of the Virgin, "It is truly meet to bless you, O [[Theotokos]], ever -blessed and most pure, and the Mother of our God. More honorable than the [[cherubim]], beyond compare more glorious than the [[seraphim]], without corruption you gave birth to God, the Word. True [[Theotokos]], we magnify you."
The priest prays with that the bishop, in whose name he is celebrating the Liturgy, will be kept in the Orthodox Faith and preserved in health and years.
=== The Communion and Dismissal ===
After consecrating the gifts, commemorating the saints , and praying for the local bishop, the priest lifts up the consecrated gifts, exclaiming, "The holy things are for the holy!" To which the faithful respond, "One is holy, one is Lord, Jesus Christ, to the glory of God the Father, amen." This phrase unfortunately loses something in English, since we have two words for ''holy'' and ''saint''. In most other languages, this dialogue has a connotation of, "The holy things are for the saints! / Only one is a saint! Only one is Lord: Jesus Christ...." This is a rather prominent reminder that our holiness finds its source in God alone, and particularly in our participation in this communion.
The faithful communicate in Orthodox tradition by receiving in both kinds (bread intincted in the wine) from a spoon, a tradition which dates to the fourth century. Having received the body and blood of the Savior, they take a small piece of bread, ''[[antidoron]]'', which is a part of the same loaf from which the Lamb was taken. ''Antidoron'' is not consecrated to be the Eucharist, but it is blessed and so it is treated with reverence. In Russian tradition, a small cup of wine is also offered.
After a [[dismissal]] common to the services of the Church, the faithful come forward to venerate the [[Blessing cross|cross]] and leave the church. Renewed by the eucharistic meal, they are sent forth as witnesses to Christ in the world.
==See also==
* [[Blood in the Bible]]
* [[Eucharist]]
* [[Western Rite]]
== Bibliographical Resources ==
*HatzidakisBp. [[Augustinos (Kantiotes) of Florina|Augustinos N. Kantiotes]] (Bp. of Florina, Fr. EmmanuelGreece). ''On The Heavenly Banquet: Understanding the Divine Liturgy: Orthodox Homilies'' . 2 Volumes. Transl. and forward by Asterios Gerostergios. (Columbia, MOMassachusetts: [http: Orthodox Witness// Institute for Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies], 20081986) . Complete set ISBN 978-0-9778970914744-171-82.:Originally appeared in the Greek under the title: ''' ''Εις την Θειαν Λειτουργιαν, Πατρικαι Ομιλιαι'' ''', published by the Orthodox Missionary Brotherhood, "Ο Σταυρος" ("The Divine Liturgy explained. 420pCross"), Athens, hardbound1977.*Bradshaw, Paul, ed. ''Essays on Early Eastern Eucharistic Prayers'' (Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press, 1997) ISBN 081466153X .
:Essays on eucharistic prayers (''[[anaphora]]s'') from various periods and locales.
*Cuming, Geoffrey J. and R. C. D. Jasper. ''Prayers of the Eucharist: Early and Reformed'' (Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press, 1987) ISBN 0814660851 .
:Includes the texts of eucharistic prayers no longer extant as well as early redactions of the [[anaphora]]s of St. James, St. Basil the Great, and St. John Chrysostom.
*[[Emmanuel Hatzikidis|Hatzidakis, Fr. Emmanuel]]. ''The Heavenly Banquet: Understanding the Divine Liturgy'' (2nd ed., Chicago, IL: Orthodox Witness, 2010) ISBN 978-0-9778970-3-2.:The Divine Liturgy explained. 420p, hardbound.*[[Kallistos (Ware) of Diokleia]]. ''“The Meaning of the Divine Liturgy for the Byzantine Worshipper.”'' In: Rosemary Morris (ed.), '''Church and People in Byzantium''', Twentieth Spring Symposium of Byzantine Studies. Manchester, 1986 (Birmingham: Center for Byzantine, Ottoman, and Modern Greek Studies, University of Birmingham, 1990), 7-28. ISBN 0704411008. *[[Alexander Schmemann|Schmemann, Alexander]]. ''The Eucharist'' (Crestwood, NY: SVS Press, 1987) ISBN 0881410187 .
:A classic reflection on the meaning of the Divine Liturgy from one of the pioneers of [[liturgical theology]].
*Taft, RobertF., SJ. ''Divine Liturgies — Human Problems in Byzantium, Armenia, Syria and Palestine'' (Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2001) ISBN 0860788679.*Taft, RobertF., SJ. ''A History of the Liturgy of St. John Chysostom'' (Rome: Pontifical Oriental Institute)
:This is a multi-volume work in progress.
:*Volume II: ''The Great Entrance'' (4th ed., 2004) ISBN 978-8872100994.:*Volume IV: ''The Diptychs'' (1991) ISBN 978-8872102855. :*Volume V: ''The Precommunion Rites'' (2000) ISBN 978-8872102855.*Taft, Robert F., SJ. ''Through Their Own Eyes: Liturgy as the Byzantines Saw It'' (2006). ISBN 978-1932401066.
== External links ==
*[ The Divine Liturgies Music Project] Thousands of pages of Byzantine music in English and Greek in Western and Byzantine notation
*[ Orthodox Tradition and the Liturgy] An introduction to Orthodox liturgical practice with lots of photos
*[ Priest's Service Book] with links to the [[Prothesis]] ([[Proskomedia]]), the [[Divine Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom]], the [[Prayers of Thanksgiving]], and the [[Divine Liturgy of St. Basil the Great]]. Translation by His Eminence, [[Dmitri (Royster) of Dallas|Dmitri (Royster)]], Archbishop of Dallas and the South ([[OCA]]).*[ Divine Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom], according to the use of the [[Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of North America]]
*[ Sluzhebniks for the Liturgy]
*[ Text of the Liturgy for the Choir]
*[ SYNAXIS] is dedicated to providing resources for those who are liturgists
*[ The Evolution of the Byzantine ''Divine Liturgy''] Robert Taft S. J.
*[ The Liturgies of S. Mark, S. James, S. Clement, S. Chrysostom, and the Church of Malabar; translated, with introduction and appendices]. Rev. John Mason Neale. London: T. Hayes, 1859.
* [ Byzantine Divine Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom] (Ruthenian Recension - with footnotes & Scriptural references)
* [ Byzantine Divine Liturgy of St. Basil the Great] (Ruthenian Recension - with footnotes & Scriptural references)
[[el:Θεία Λειτουργία]]
[[fr:Divine Liturgie]]
[[it:Divina Liturgia]]
[[ro:Sfânta Liturghie]]

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