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External links with Translations of the Typikon
The '''Typikon''' (Greek: τυπικόν/''typikon'', pl. τυπικα/''typika'', lit. "following the order"; Slavonic: ѹставъ/''ustav'') is the a book of directives and [[rubrics]] that establishes in the Orthodox Christian Church the order of divine services for each day of the year. It assumes the existence of liturgical books that contain the fixed and variable parts of these services. In [[monasterymonastic]] usage, the typikon of the monastery includes both the rule of life of the community and the rule of prayer. There are a number of major typikon traditions, but there are also many local variations, often codified into an official typikon.
==Origin of the Typikon of St. Savas and the Studite Typikon==
The liturgical books presently used by the Orthodox Church have originated either in monasteries or have been greatly influenced by monastic practices. The services of the daily cycle of worship used today in the Orthodox East reflect monastic usages and traditions, especially those of the two monastic centers that produced and developed them, the [[Holy Lavra of St. Savas (Jerusalem)|Holy Lavra of St. Savas of Jerusalem]] and the Monastery of Studion in Constantinople.
The liturgical tradition originating with ''The Typikon of St. Savas'' — produced by the [[Lavra]] in its initial stages — was influenced by the customs and practices of the monastic communities in the Near East, Egypt, Palestine, and Asia Minor. Under St. [[Theodore the Studite|Theodore]], the Studion Monastery in Constantinople became the center of monastic revival and reform in the imperial city. During the times of the iconoclastic controversy , the Palestinian monastic typikon came to the Constantinople monasteries. In the [[Studion Monastery]] , a synthesis occurred as elements of the [[Cathedral Office]] of Constantinople were added to the Palestinian typikon. In time , this Studite synthesis was further modified by Palestinian monks to produce a revised Typikon of St. Savas that remained in general use until the nineteenth century.
==The Typikon of the Great Church==
The difficulty of using a monastic typikon at the [[parish]] level came to a head as the nineteenth century began, and abbreviations and omissions of the services became widespread. ThusAccordingly, the [[Ecumenical Patriarch]] authorized the revision of the typikon for parish use. This revision became known as ''Ecclesiastical Typikon according to the Style of the Great Church of Christ'', and was published in 1838. This revision was further revised by Protopsaltis George Violakes in the ''Typikon of the Great Church of Christ'', published in 1888.<ref>''The Festal Menaion'' (Tr. Mother Mary and Archimandrite [[Kallistos (Ware) of Diokleia|Kallistos Ware]], Faber and Faber, London, 1984), p. 543.</ref>
Bishop Kallistos notes:
He goes on to note, however:
:"In making these and other changes, perhaps Violakes was not innovating but simply giving formal approval to practices which had already become established in parishes. Presumably the Gospel was moved nearer to the end of the service because so few of the [[congregation ]] arrived in time for the earlier parts of Matins!"<ref>''The Festal Menaion'' (Tr. Mother Mary and Archimandrite Kallistos Ware, Faber and Faber, London, 1984), p. 543.</ref>
==Divergence of Slavic and Byzantine Practice==
To meet the needs of the Slavic world , translations for a Slavic typikon originated as soon as missions to the Slavic world began. With the revisions originating in the Mediterranean world coupled with the Mongol invasions , the Slavic typikon lost its conformity to the that standard in the Byzantine world. This was recognized by the [[Church of Russia]] in the seventeenth century. It was this revision effort of the Slavic typikon (&mdash; along with the [[Liturgical books|service books]]) &mdash; that resulted in the [[Old Believers|Old Believer]] controversies under Czar Alexis and Patriarch [[Nikon of Moscow]].
The primary differences between the liturgical practice of the Byzantine and Slavic worlds stem from their origins in the Savaite and Studite typika, respectively, along with subsequent revisions. However, for the most part, the Greek, Romanian, and Slavic Typikons were closely aligned until the publication of the Violakes edition of ''the Typikon of the Great Church'' in 1888.<ref>''The Festal Menaion'' (Tr. Mother Mary and Archimandrite Kallistos Ware, Faber and Faber, London, 1984), p. 542.</ref>
==External links that Discuss the Typikon==
*[ ourfaith8504 The Origins of Pascha and Great Week - Part I]*[ ourfaith8505 The Origins of Pascha and Great Week - Part II]
*[ How to Keep the Church Typicon: The Question of Uniformity in the Church Services Discussed at the Council of Hierarchs of the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad (1951), by St. John (Maximovitch)]
*[ The Late, Great Typikon]
*[ The Typikon] (includes brief history, from an [[Eastern Catholic]] website)
*[ Information on and from the Typikon]
*[ Rubrics and Texts for the Divine Liturgy] (Old Calendar).
*[ Rubrics and Texts for Typika] (Old Calendar).
*[http://www.networks-nowdowama.netorg/litresswraocnode/Typicon_Charts.htm 31 How to put the Services together] (Antiochian).
*[ The Antiochian Liturgical Guide, Online]
*[ Texts for Sunday Matins] (New Calendar / Greek Archdiocese).
*[ Rubrics for Hierarchical Services (Instructions for Clergy and Altar Servers)]
*[ Liturgical Instructions for Non-Hierarchical Services (for Clergy and Altar Servers)]
*[ Online Greek Orthodox Typikon (Subscription Only)]
==External links with Translations of the Typikon==
*[ The Violakis Typikon of the Great Church of Christ of Constantinople in English]
*[ An English Translation of the Slavic Typikon (an ongoing project)]
*[ The Typikon Translation Project]
*[ The Slavonic Typicon (in GIF files)]
*[ The Slavonic Typikon (PDF format)]
*[ A Draft Translation of the Biolakes Typikon]
*[ The Biolakes Typikon in Greek]
*[ Abridged Typikon]

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